Research Guide For final year Student's


Free Research Guide For

Free Research Guide For Student's




How to write a research project topic proposal
to your supervisor for approval



How to Develop Outstanding Research Topics



How to Develop a Good Table of Content



How to Write an Abstract



A Step by Step Guide on Research Project
Writing for Universities, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics in Nigeria



Avoiding Plagiarism: Smart Tips to Apply



Hypothesis for Beginners: A Step By Step Guide
on Applying the Right Hypothesis in a Research Study



Time Management Tips in Research



How to Maintain a Healthy Student- Supervisor



Do's and Don’ts of Project Writing and



Secret Revealed: Discover what your project
supervisor is looking for



Secret Revealed Part 2: The Awesome Literature



Primary and Secondary Data



Comprehensive Guide to Research Methodology



Note! It’s Taro Yamane NOT Yaro Yamane



How to Choose the Right Measurement Instruments



REVIEW: Data Analysis Software's Available For



Five (5) Incredible Sample Size Calculators:
Software's every Researcher Must Have



REF 101: The Nitty-Gritty of Referencing in



Five (5) Seconds Quick Editing Guide For
Microsoft Word



Handling Group Research: Sure Tips for Success



Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for
Project Defense



How to Ace the 25 Most Common Project Defense



Four(4)Ways You can Contribute to the Body of



All You Need to Know About the NUC Thesis Award



The Unwritten Rules of PhD Research



How to Apply for Scholarship in Nigeria and
List of Scholarships Available to Nigerian Students.



 How to write a research
project topic proposal to your supervisor for approval

This chapter for our project guide article for student's is
to help student get on the right track and its a very important phase too, as
some supervisor's will say bring me topic's and let me approve one for you as
some supervisor's will say write me a proposal of your research topic for
approval, as so many student's are having little challenges in this phase, a
sample of such proposal is shown below for your presentation.




XYZ University  

External/Internal System(- Campus)

Department of XYZ

1st of January 2016.



Dear sir,




I .................. with Matric Number
.............................. hereby writes this proposal to you for my
project research topic approval. I will be grateful if you can approve one of
the topics below for me to commence my research as soon as possible;





I will be conducting a full research on the approved topic
and arranging it in five chapters, which are:

1.       Background of the

2.       Literature Review

3.       Research Methodology

4.       Data Presentaion and

5.       Findings,
Recommendation and Conclusion.


Thanks in anticipation of your prompt and favourable




Yours Faithfully


Students Name









How to Develop
Outstanding Research Topics


Just like news headlines, your research project topic is
your first selling point. If media houses do not caption a football match
between Nigeria and Ghana as 'Nigeria and Ghana goes to War again' they may
continue enjoying being broke. In essence, your project topic and the material
you produce should be captivating. It should have the magical power to draw
people’s interest, and achieve good grades for you.


Your ability to come up with an interesting and good
research project topic is your first step in building an 'A' in Research
Methodology. Fantastic research papers in Nigeria do not fall from heaven. They
come about as a result of serious brainstorming mixed with great fun. Anyways
in my little experience as an independent researcher, I do not entirely agree
that developing a project topic should be too tasking. I rather see it as fun.
When you are about to write a research project, the first skill you should have
in order to get the best out of your project is your fun skills-What interest
you? Throughout your stay in lecture rooms from semester one to the end, you
should be able to identify that very topic or course you enjoy so much.


If you are a final year student in Nigeria, and you are
eager to develop an outstanding research topic you should at least follow these
few steps.

1. Think of a research area that is of great interest to

2. Brainstorm on possible subjects, titles and topics that
could come out of the research area.

3. Narrow down the topic to a specific issue.

4. Look for trending issues in Nigeria.

5. Ensure there is adequate material for the study.

6. Take a time out to structure your topic properly.



Get a Research Area

The first step in developing outstanding research topics is
by identifying a research area that interests you. Successful researchers align
their work to their research area or interest. By doing this, you become an
expert in your chosen research area, and your previous research papers become
foundation for future research studies. Final year students in Nigeria should
identify what subjects they love talking about. Good examples of research areas
are Taxation, Employee Performance, Work-Life Balance, Electricity Conductors



Brainstorm for that Outstanding Topic

That unique and outstanding research topic is deep down in
your brains only that you have not yet realized it. After identifying a
suitable research area, pick up a paper or a book and try to formulate as many
research-able topics as possible (the more the topics, the better your chances
of getting a good one). The topics may look weird at first, but you may not
realize how important this process will be to you until you try it. One benefit
I have achieved with brainstorming is that it gives me the freedom to put down
as many whack ideas as possible. The truth is, after some days these ideas
become very useful, as they serve as foundations for formulating better
research topics.



Narrow Down your Research Topic

Since you have been able to identify your research area and
a research topic, you should now avoid broad topics. Broad topics are killer
research topics. They make you stress your self for no good reasons. Your topic
is probably broad if:

1. You find your research topic too confusing.

2. You seem to forget your topic frequently.

3. Your supervisor is not interested in your project work.

4. You seem to find conflicting materials on your topic.

5. You frequently feel dizzy or lazy whenever you see you
research topic.

If all these happen to you then you need help. Breakdown the
topic! If you are writing on the role of management in an organization, then
you are not on point!

Management can still be broken down to other variables,
nouns, and subjects such as financial management, strategic management etc.



Look for Trending issues

One secret about outstanding researchers is that they are always
solving current issues on ground. When new issues such as bank recapitalization
in Nigeria and fuel subsidy arise, research topics and materials on them sell
like pure water. When you present a research topic on a current issue that
needs urgent attention in a country like Nigeria, your supervisor is happy with
you. When defending it, you are assured of a good grade because, you are not
only presenting a unique work, but you are also solving an urgent problem and
building literature for that issue as well.

However, when developing research topics to suite trending
issues in your country, you must be very careful. Writing on very current
issues can get you hanging. Availability of materials to support your
literature review-both theoretical and empirical review becomes a big

Before formulating research topics on trending issues, one
must first make sure there are studies already conducted.

Students wishing to explore into newer research areas or
topics with little or no materials are still encouraged to do so, but it is
best done at a PhD level.



Source for Adequate Materials

Students wishing to get the best out of their research
project are usually encourage to make sure that there is adequate literature
concerning or relating to their study.



Structure your Research Topic

In structuring your research topic, follow the following

1. Make sure your topic is not broad. Structure your topic
to address a specific problem or answer a specific question. Do not write on
every thing as you may get confused.

2. Identify variables in your research topic. Variables must
be present in your topic. After brainstorming, arrange these variables in such
a way your readers can easily understand what your study is all about. For more
info read this article on research variables.

3. Avoid lengthy research topics.











once you decide to write a book, a novel or any type of
essay, you might be met with the popular writer’s block. One of the ways of eliminating
the writer’s block is to create a table of contents for the essay. This is
because the table of contents will now give you guidelines to write your essay.

Do you know that an essential part of your essay writing is
the table of contents? Sure because it's the part that shows the reader the
organization and division of the information in your report. So do you know how
to write it?


Did you answer no? Ok don’t worry. This article will teach
you how to write a table of contents.

You can use a table of contents for your academic works like
a project, thesis, seminar, and also for non-academic works like novels,
eBooks, and others. We are going to discuss how to create a table of contents
for both types of writing work here.


What is a table of Contents?

First off, you need to know what a table of contents is. A
table of content (usually known as the TOC) is a linear part listing the
tidbits of the document you wish to write about. The depth and the detail of
your TOC will depend on the length of the document. That means that if you are
writing a big document of say 120 pages, the table of contents will be much but
if you are writing a smaller document of say 20-30 pages, it will have less
table of contents. A table of contents is organized based on where the parts of
the documents will appear. Most times documents that are fewer than 9 pages do
not require a table of contents, unless of course your teacher requires one.


A TOC is important because it presents the topics of the
essay or project work in a linear orderly form in which the reader of your book
will encounter them. It is a useful summary of what comes after what topic in
your essay, as some readers will use it to get an overview of what your essay
is all about. Therefore it is essential that you have a TOC as it will help
your reader easily find what they are looking for in the book. It is usually
accompanied with the page numbers but the page numbers are added at the end
when you have completed the essay.



Guidelines to Create a Table of Contents

As I said earlier one of the best ways of eliminating
writer’s block is by having a table of contents before you start. The headings
and sub-headings in your TOC will be determined by factors such as the content
of the report, the type of problem being addressed, the purpose of the report
and the audience. This is the guideline I usually use to set down my table of
contents for my ebooks and other essays. I just start listing the topics I want
to treat in that essay and numbering 1,2,3. After that, I start writing based
on those topics and after, I will edit the TOC. For example, say you want to
write about cats as a domestic. Your table of table of contents might look like


Carnivorous animals

•2.1 Cats as an example of carnivores

•2.2 Other examples of carnivore

Etc, etc. I just wrote the above now off the top of my head.
You can do it, just list out the topics you will like to cover in the essay and
start writing.



Formatting a table of contents

This means writing the headings and sub-headings with the
roman figures and decimals beside it, like you can see above. I mean the 2.1,
2.2 etc. you can do this manually or automatically. By manual I mean writing
out the figures yourself. For instance, in the example above, after writing carnivorous
animals, you press enter. The computer write 3, but you delete and write 2.1,
then write the topic and press enter and the computer will continue with that
format until you change it.

But if you want to format a TOC automatically, you can do
that easily with your computer. If you are using Microsoft 2010, open ms word,
then identify the text you want to use as TOC. Now you go into the styles group
within the home tab and click the style that you want, to select the heading
you want to use. Then click on the references tab, at the left corner you will
see table of contents, click automatic table 1 or 2 and it will appear on your
page. As you can see, it has already been formatted. All you need to do is to
change the headings and subheading.



How to write a TOC for your project

If you are writing your final year project, the TOC is a bit
different as it consists of standard five chapters.


The first chapter is the introductory chapter.

This introductory chapter consists of the introduction,
statement of the problem, the research questions, aims and objectives of the
study, significance of the project, scope and limitations of the study and
definition of term.


The second chapter is the literature review.

This is where you review previous works on the project
topic. You search for other works that have been carried out on the topic of
your project and write about it here.


The third chapter is called the research methodology.

This is where you write about how you will carry out the
research work of your project. This chapter includes research design, the
population of study, the sample and sampling techniques you will use,
instruments for data collection and data analysis methods and procedures.


The fourth chapter is where you analyze your experiments and

This chapter is usually called data analysis and
presentation. Depending on your course and the project topic, you will present
the results of the research you have done; either in graphs, charts, drawings,
or statistical tables.


The fifth and final chapter is the concluding part of the
whole essay.

The name is usually summary, conclusion and recommendations.
As the name suggests, here you write the summation of all that you done so far,
the conclusion from your results and the recommendation you want to give. Then
of course don’t forget your references at the end.

I am sure with the above; you can now write a table of
contents for a novel, a report or your final year project.











Due to numerous interaction between me and other student's
concerning difficulties they face when trying to write a good and standard
abstract, I have decided to pick up my pen once again, do some research and
tackle this issue once and for all.

Writing an abstract is an important phase in the research
process; hence in order to make good grades with your research project and
impress your readers, one must be familiar with the techniques of writing a
good, concise and standard abstract.


Before I discuss on how to write a good abstract, let’s talk
a bit about an abstract.

Is it a bird or an insect? Absolutely not a bird or an
insect, an abstract in simple terms is a summary of a research project, thesis.
Dissertation, research journal etc.

abstracts are usually seen at the beginning of research

In-order to write good and standard abstract, students must
first know how abstracts should be structured and things to avoid when writing
one. This article torches on all of these. So enjoy!





Most well written abstracts by outstanding researchers all
over the world are structured as follows:

i. Overview of the study/Background

ii. Methods

iii. Results or Findings

iv Recommendations and Conclusion


Now let us discuss these sections one after the other.



This is usually the first part of an abstract.

It depicts the central focus of the study.

When writing an abstract, students should know the central
idea behind their study.

This section is very important as it tells readers whether
to continue reading or not.

In essence when giving an overview of your study, you should
make it concise and interesting enough to encourage readers to read your whole
work. Students must ensure readers easily get a clue of what the research objectives
are as well as problems motivating the researcher to pick up interest in the



Methodology employed by the researcher constitutes the
second part of an abstract.

With a semi-paragraph or a sentence, state your research methods.
This is where you briefly let readers know your data collection methods,
research instruments employed, sample size and so on. To some extent depending
on your institution’s research project format, you can state how the research
instruments were validated and distributed (i.e. was it face-to-face
distribution? or through email?).



The third section of an abstract is a brief summary of your
key findings or results.

Findings or important results recorded in the study must be
briefly stated in the abstract.



The last section of most abstracts tells readers
recommendations or suggestions made by the researcher. This section is the most
important section in an abstract as it brings out the essence of research which
is solving identified problems, developing better ways of doing things and
adding to the body of knowledge.





In-order to present a good abstract for academic award(s),
the following should be observed by the researcher:


I. Avoid Ambiguous Words and Complex Grammar:

Remember an abstract is like a tip of the iceberg. Complex
and ambiguous words/ sentences may discourage readers from reading the full
content of your research.

Using keywords at the end of an abstract may help in letting
your readers know the central theme or idea of the study.


II. Do not Loose Focus:

When writing an abstract, just go straight to the point. Do
not beat around the bush.

Definition of terms, long stories that are not interesting
may make your abstract too lengthy and boring…..leave all definitions and
stories for your introduction.


III. Avoid Lengthy Abstracts:

Abstracts are meant to be brief and concise.

Avoid writing numerous pages and calling it ‘Abstract’. An
ideal abstract should be on a single page. However, if you wish to write more,
seek the advice of your supervisor first.


IV. Avoid Writing Abstracts When you have not completed your

This particular point one is of great interest to me. I see
students writing abstracts before completing their research studies, and it
gets me wondering a lot. How did they get findings and recommendations before
data analysis and interpretation? Or is there any such thing as pre and post
abstracts? If there is any, please feel free to share your ideas by commenting
below because, this one is killing me. An abstract is meant to be a summary of
your entire work; hence it should be after you have conducted your study.


Below is a perfect example of an abstract:



This study was intended to evaluate the extent to which
strategic planning affects organizational performance. The study was guided by
the following objectives; to identify the various components and phases of
strategic planning used in company ABC, to find out other factors affecting
organizational performance other than strategic planning and to find out the
relationship between strategic planning and organizational performance.

The study employed descriptive and explanatory design,
questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect

Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was
analyzed using statistical package which was presented in frequency tables and
percentage. The respondents under the study were 30 employees of ABC, DEF branch.
The study majorly focused on phases and components of strategic planning and
how they affect the organizational performance.

The study findings revealed that there is lack of
information gathering, where strategic planning does not begin with collection
of the necessary information, there is strong review of the past performance
where by past performance is considered to make the strategic plans. Pearson
correlation coefficient is 0.692 significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed), 0.00
indicates the significance of interaction between two variables an indication
that the significant is under the range of 0.0 and 0.05.

Using the above findings, it implied that there is a strong
relationship between strategic planning and organization performance.

According to the study, strategic planning contributes 69.2%
towards performance in banking services and this implied that other factors
contribute 30.8%. Improvements should be made in the information altering
systems and information should be gathered first before making the strategic

Company ABC should evolve all the employees in decision
making so as to improve on the performance.











Undergraduate research project is an independent effort
required of students in tertiary institutions. The students, though supervised
by an academic staff, are to carry out a pre-determined research within the
constraints of their study.

The supervisor is primarily to receive proposals of the
research interest, approve it, provide guidance and assess the work at the end.
An external supervisor is usual, to provide an external and independent
assessment of their research work.

The proposal for the topic is to include the intended
subject of study, a brief description, justification for the work, aims and
milestones, software and hardware to be employed, assumptions to be made, the
methodologies involved and the references.

There are standards in the research build-up, actual
research, presentation and print submissions. These put the students in shape
for the strict rules they are to face after-school.

In developing the content, there are certain guidelines that
would be beneficial.

The work is usually divided into five chapters (broadly)
before any further divisions.


Hence the typical formats as such:

1. Title page

2. Approval page

3. Dedication

4. Acknowledgement

5. Abstract

6. Table Of Content

7. List Of Tables

8. List Of Figures

9. List Of Symbols/Nomenclature (Where Applicable)

10. Main Work (Chapter One To Five)

11. References

12. Appendices (Where Applicable)



1) Title page:-

Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the
report, the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it
is required that students add that it is 'in partial fulfillment of the course
requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.' Then the date is added.


2) Approval page:-

The name of the institution and department, then a statement
signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and
external supervisor. Space is reserved for signatures of all listed parties as


3) Dedication page:-

This is where the researcher dedicate the research to a
deity, someone, dead or/and alive. This is different from the acknowledgement.


4) Acknowledgement:-

The researcher here writes to appreciate all that
contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the


5) Abstract:-

This is the synopsis of the research work. It is often
written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing
the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and
recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not


6) Table of content:-

The main heading s and sub- headings and page numbers are
listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of
content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the
reflections in the work.


7,8,9) List of tables/figures/symbols:-

The list is to aid the reader in locating
tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects
the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous.
In the main content, the figure/ table should be well-labelled.


10) (The body of the work)

I) Chapter One:- This is usually the introduction.

This describes the background, scope and purpose of
the.research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information
supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding
why the study was carried out. It shouldn't be rushed, a gradual build-up of
the content from bottom to top is ideal. It should be closed with a linking
paragraph that would disclose the objectives, constraints and limitations.

II) Chapter two:- This is usually the literature theoretical

This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on
the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence
the review. It sums up the pros and cons of all past work but due credit should
be given to the various Authors (see the guide on referencing on this website).
The use of quotations should be less in use, more of paraphrasing (reading and
making out meaning in your own words), making comments in the review is great
as well, it just depends on the context.

III) Chapter three:- This is usually the

Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a
sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study.

The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well. The
method used, from all alternatives, should also be justified. The materials and
equipment used is also included.

IV) Chapter four:- This is usually for data presentation and
analysis (results and.discussion).

The results obtained in the.research are.presented here.
Visual aids like graphs, charts and the likes should be well. The
results should be discussed then compared with results of past Authors. The
effects and applications of the results should be detailed as.well.

IV) Chapter five:- This part houses the conclusions and

From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then
suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based
on the whole.happenings.recommendations are proffered.


11) References:-

This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all
sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print.
Plagiarism should be avoided at all costs, all quoted and exact words of
different sources should be properly referenced, in-text and at the references'
list/bibliography. MLA, APA and Chicago style are the commonest referencing
styles. (See a comprehensive guide on blogs)


12) Appendices:-

This is for all extra materials that were not added to the
body of the work. This encapsulates extensive proofs, official data from case
study, list of parameters, et al.

P.S: After writing, the researcher should painstakingly
proofread the whole content for grammatical and spelling errors. This could be
very distracting while reading the material.

The page numbers are easily distorted by changing font size
and type, spacing et al. The final submission very clear, error-free
(to a.large degree) and as standard.











Information is power and excessive use of power with little
control will definitely corrupt or worst still destroy! Every borrowed idea
from books, magazines, research journals and the almighty internet must be
properly acknowledged.

With our busy academic schedules as students coupled with
family responsibilities, one may see research work as too tasking and may not
really have the time to write from scratch. Unfortunately, as technology is
advancing our dear lecturers are getting smarter by the day.

Nigerian students are now interested in producing
un-plagiarized papers as some schools are beginning to use anti-plagiarism
software's to screen term papers, essays and even research projects. However,
no need for fears. Your concerns are our's too. This power packed article will
show you awesome tips that will aid you in avoiding plagiarism and getting
ahead of your supervisor. Even the likes of Turnitin, Viper , and Plagtracker
etc will never see your brake lights. Enjoy!



Know the Meaning of Plagiarism

To excel in your school papers without hitches, you must
first understand what plagiarism is and what it is not. Plagiarism in simple
English involves using other peoples’ ideas, theories, models etc. without
referencing them.

For example: Original Post: ‘’the rise in un-employment rate
in Nigeria has resulted in the establishment of more small and medium scale
enterprises in Nigeria’’ (Nnamoko, 2014: 13).


Plagiarizing: The increase in un-employment rate in Nigeria
has led to the establishment of numerous little and medium scale enterprises in

Not Plagiarizing: The rapid growth of business ventures and
entrepreneurial activities in Nigeria can be attributed to the alarming rate of
un-employment in Nigeria (Nnamoko, 2014:13).


I) Learn How to Properly Rephrase:

From the above example, you can clearly see that both
sentences were rephrased, but one was properly rephrased with adequate
citation, while the former was pure plagiarism. Now in rephrasing, one must not
only change few words to skip plagiarism, but must go ahead to add more meaning
in the sentence while acknowledging the author at the same time. This will work
in the literature review section of a paper. One’s ability to summarize a
research journal or a book in an appropriate manner will help overcome any
plagiarism checkers.


II) Develop Interest in the Subject Matter:

One factor that encourages plagiarism amongst students is
that most students who plagiarize do not have adequate interest for the topic
of their paper. Once there is no interest, originality and creativity dies off.
To avoid plagiarism and its associate problems, one must first understand the topic
or theme of the paper to be written, read extensively on the subject matter and
interact with experts in that field. These processes will aid in making the
topic or theme fun and a wider insight into the subject matter will be gained
by the student.


III) Do not Rely on One Source:

The probability of plagiarizing is higher if you get all
your information from a single source. Do not rely on a single article, book or
journal to get information for your research project. Read extensively as more
references will prove a thorough research and lesser probability for
plagiarizing. With many sources, the writer will gain enough knowledge on the
subject matter and this will help the writer to express his or her thoughts


IV) Improve on Your Writing Habit:

To be an excellent student/researcher, you must inculcate
the habit of writing in your academic life. Always feel free to use a pen and a
paper to summarize articles in your own words, or better still try expressing
your opinions and thoughts on paper.

Improve on your academic writing skills and try a bit of
creative writing .


V) Try Google Translate Tools:

If you have read up to this point and you cannot still
create your own original content, then you can opt for Google Translate. This
tool can help you to apply some ‘surgery’ to an original article to become
yours. Simply visit This fantastic tool
will translate an original article in English to another language of your
choice, then to yet another language and back to English.

The trick here is that by the time you translate an English
article to French, French to Spanish, then Spanish to English again, the
original article will now be in broken English. From there you can edit and add
your own ideas to get your own original content. You may also try some article
spinners such as spinbot and freespinner.


VI) Always Make Use of Anti-Plagiarism Tools:

Before you submit your term paper, essay, research project
etc. to your lecturer or supervisor ensure you make good use of a good
anti-plagiarism checker to ensure you do not fall a victim to plagiarism.
Students can use free anti-plagiarism tools in websites such as
or , These
sites will help tell whether you are safe from plagiarism or not.


VII) Learn How to Properly Cite/Reference:

Finally, this is the most important tip in avoiding
plagiarism. Now that you are fully aware of what plagiarism is and dangers
associated with the act, you must learn to fully reference all borrowed ideas
incorporated in your paper. Use accepted referencing style(s) by your


i. Reputation and respect can be lost if you plagiarize.

ii. Grades can be affected because of plagiarism.

iii. Possible delays and expulsion from school can be caused
by deliberate plagiarism.

iv. Awesome websites such as
do not encourage plagiarism. 


Only use resources you get from the internet as a guide and
do good by contributing to the body of knowledge!












Hypothesis is a testable prediction, a statement of specific
results or a suggested answer to a research problem.or a conjectural statement
of.the relationship between two.or more variable being.investigated or a
deduction from a postulate (Akinade&Owolabi, 2009; Awoniyi,
Aderanti&Tayo, 2011; Cherry, 2014).It can be regarded as the suggested
answer to a research objective and problem. It is an idea or guess regarding how
the researcher thinks the results of a study will look like. Simply put, it is
a tentative assumption, supposition, guess, inference, explanation or
prediction about some phenomenon that can be tested in a reasonable time frame.
It is always put in declarative statement to relate the research variables to
each other generally or specifically.While the hypothesis predicts what the
researchers expect to see, the goal of research is to determine whether this
guess is right or wrong (Cherry, 2014).



Sources of Hypotheses

Hypotheses could be derived from the following
sources.(Akinade&Owolabi, 2009):

I. Directly from research variables

II. Directly from research objectives

III. Directly from research questions

IV. Directly from research designs

V. Directly from findings of other studies

VI. Review of literatures

VII. From personal or practical experience or observation
and analogy

VIII. A haunch from a discrepancy, mismatch or feeling of

IX. Logical reasoning; curiosity

X. From something that needs a solution

XI. Suggestions from students or colleagues or subject

XII. General culture; and

XIII. Disputation of findings in literature.


A testable hypothesis makes a statement about a presumed or
theoretical relation between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1986) – that can
be observed or measured. Thus, a testable hypothesis should state or imply that
the variables are observable and measurable. It should also specify the
relation among the variables, e.g. higher grades are obtained after studying in
the library than studying in the hall of residence.

Non-testable hypotheses may include, “abortion is wrong“,
“stigmatizing ebola patient is bad”, “I seem to study better in the library
than in your room” (Akinade&Owolabi, 2009, p. 19).



Characteristics of Good Hypotheses

According to Awoniyi et al (2011); Akinade and Owolabi
(2009); Cherry (2014), each acceptable hypothesis should have the following

I) It must provide a specific and adequate answer to a
problem that is limited in scope (i.e. give only one answer to a problem at a

II) It must be based on the research topic.

III) It must include independent and dependent variables. It
should be framed in a way that the expected relationship between independent
and dependent variables are clearly stated.

IV) Hypotheses should be testable and measurable.

One of the most common sources of difficulty for the student
who embarks on research project is the selection of hypothesis that is not
really testable.

V) It should be correctly, clearly and precisely stated.

VI) It should state expected relationships between research
variables. Hypotheses should be appropriate as a basis for research.

VII) It should be limited in scope. A common error of the
research student in planning research is to develop hypotheses of global
significance. Students should seek hypotheses that are relatively simple to
test, and yet are highly significant.

VIII) It should be consistent with most facts. Any
hypothesis formulated as a basis of research must be consistent with a
substantial body of established facts.

IX) The hypotheses selected should be amendable to testing
within a reasonable time. Before any research is undertaken, the student should
ask himself practical questions about whether he has the resources and time to
undertake the investigation.

X) Hypotheses must be testable or verifiable by independent
researchers using identical conditions, so as to ascertain its validity.

XI) Hypotheses should be tested without violating ethical

XII) Hypotheses should be operationally defined.


Misconceptions of the Hypotheses

I)Hypotheses must always be stated in a positive mode.

II) Each study must have a number of hypotheses usually five
or more, to be respectable.

III) Hypotheses must be upheld by the research data.

IV) There is usually no need to formulate hypotheses in
historical studies.

V) All the aforementioned misconceptions are fallacies which
must be jettisoned while carrying out a research work.



Testing of Hypotheses

The following steps should be observed when testing any
research hypothesis (Awoniyi et al, 2011):

1) Formulate a null hypothesis (Ho). Hypothesis can either
be accepted or rejected.

2) Set up a suitable level of significance. It means the
level at which to accept or reject null hypothesis. It is conventional among
researchers to accept or reject hypothesis at 0.05 or 0.01 level of
significance. This implies that the researcher is allowed some margin of error
in his research result. For instance 0.05 level of significance implies that
the researcher allows 5% error margin and he is 95% confident of whatever
result or conclusion is drawn from his study while for 0.01 level of
significance the researcher allows only 1% error margin and he is 99% confident
of the result or conclusion drawn from his study.

3) Select appropriate statistical techniques. There are many
techniques from which a researcher can choose the most appropriate to test his
hypothesis such as in the following cases:

4) When hypothesis has to do with a large sample (i.e. more
than 30) and it is testing for a significant difference between two variables,
the z - test implying normal distribution is used and when a sample is small
(less than 30), t – test is employed.

5) When the hypothesis is started to test for relationship
between two variables, the Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient is
used, when there is equal distribution of subjects for non-parametric
variables, the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient is used.

6) When the hypothesis is stated to test differences or
relationship between two or more independent variables and one dependents
variable, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) or analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
could be employed.

7) Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) is used
when there are two or more independent variables against two or more dependent

8) Chi-square test is applied to data derived from normal
scale of measurement, that is, data obtained in form of frequency counts. It is
used for testing hypothesis concerning the difference between sample frequency
observed within certain categories and those expected with the categories and
those expected with the categories. Chi-square can only indicate whether or not
a set of observed frequencies differ significantly from the corresponding set
of expected frequencies.



Akinade, E.O. &Owolabi, T. (2009). Research Methods: A
Pragmatic Approach for Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Education.
Lagos: Connel Publications.

Awoniyi, S.A., Aderanti, R.A. &Tayo, A.S. (2011). Introduction
to Research Methods . Ibadan: Ababa Press.

Cherry, K. (2014). What Exactly Is a Hypothesis? Retrieved
on 22/12/2014.

Kerlinger, F.N. (1986). Behavioural Research: A Conceptual
Approach. New Delhi: Sterling Publisher.











Research work could take the most unexpected twist and turn.
It is a nerve-racking experience. Usually, if approached in a haphazard manner,
valuable time could be lost.

In big research corporations, each researcher has a set of
responsibilities and area of focus, this might help and aid timely completion
of research work. However, in personal or unstructured research work, these
tips on time management is life-saving. Without any bias to any form of
research, these tips are generally applicable.


1. Read up! This is the first thing to do to ensure
completion of research in the quickest possible timeframe. There is no end to
the amount of underground pre-knowledge on any research work to be embarked
upon. This will help guide in decision-making during the research.


2. Quite naturally, the first is to make a plan or strategy
from the onset. This has been rehashed numerous times. But the key to the plan
or strategy working out eventually is doing the right research project that you
have the capacity, innate or available, to complete the research, on time! List
all possible requirements; equipments and expertise, risks involved, financial
commitment, raw materials, ambience et al and have them in place or at least in


3. Define the scope. This cannot be over-emphasized;
researches could expand beyond the ends of the world. Before going further, a
possible scope should be in mind. This should be after the underground work.
The key is sticking to your guns, except in experimental research where the
results could decide the next action.


4. Break actions into smaller units and understand in
details each division. Place value on each division. Placing value would have
to be in consonance with your supervisor's interest and guidance.


5. Prioritise the activities based on their value and
happenings in the course of the research. Off all divisions, some would have a
higher value, so prioritize on that.


6. Have a life cycle for each of the value. Let the tasks be
accomplishable in bits. Each having a time bound. Specifically seek to
accomplish them within specific milestones with reminders of the task schedule.

For example, instead of saying: 'Monday to Wednesday,
project chapter one,' you could divide it in tad bits. Firstly, getting the
underground data or theory; then dividing the chapter into sections; writing
the first draft without editing - uninterrupted, straight from memory; then
editing after writing, paragraph by paragraph; then using plagiarism checker,
grammatical errors checker, spell checker et al before submitting to your
supervisor for possible corrections. If there are, then finish up as required.

The break into phases like this helps you achieve specifics.
If time is used up like this, it is more effective than having a larger task
spread over a certain period; it might take a longer period, then messing up
the initial plan or if shorter, the extra time could be spent less effectively
than achieving the scheduled bit of work.


7. Put in place a support system. It could be a higher
personality you report to or discuss with. This helps your psyche, as you'd
have to meet expectations and/or impress, helping you tap into the deepest part
of your creativity. If you attach huge importance to this, you'd likely want to
sit up more to your responsibilities.


8. Being online for theory could waste time, get what you
think you might need, shut yourself out and just work. When you are deficient
on some part after everything, go back and fill it up. It could be very
distracting to get the required while online at the same time. Social media is
another leech.

It is advisable you have a working period and flexible time.
On your working period, ruthlessly protect your personal time. Don't easily
give in to non-relevant activities. These could distract work and extend the
time to complete any phase of your research work.


9. Plan base on happenings, consider power and all other
infrastructures you might require for your work. For example, as a student
using the laboratory of your school, there would be times when power would be
more stable or when the laboratory would be less in use, plan in that regard to
avoid been stranded or waiting in turn. Optimize available time basically,
depending on the situation at any point in time.


10. Seeking perfection is one of the biggest thief of time.
Editing and fine-tuning on end. After a certain point, its best you declare
victory and move on, especially when you exceed the time bound and  you
close in on the picture in mind.












This is a common issue in the course of researching in an
academic situation. The ideologies of the supervisor and the students might not
always be similar.

This should however be handled with caution as a strained
relationship would affect the tone of the research work, the drive of both
parties, the final grade assigned to the student and the psyche of the student
even. The conflict here is assumed nothing physical but any that might hinder
or slow down the pace of work between both parties.


The possible causes of this conflict are numerous. A few of
them include:


1) Prior knowledge: If the Supervisor has had contact with
the student or heard about the students attitude or grade, this might lead to
pre-formed notions about the student, even before their first appointment.
Especially if the whole students were distributed randomly to different
lecturers in the department for supervision. A minor slip from the student
could elicit into reactions of unimaginable proportions from the supervisor.
This is why students are advised to be of good attitude, as their reputation
precedes them.


2) Very busy supervisor: This is another valid point that is
common in our Nigerian situation.

The supervisor being always in one meeting or the other,
working on one project or the other could also lead the student to developing
certain issues with the supervisor as well. This could affect the student's
dedication to the cause and lead to friction when the supervisor finally
creates time and not deliver or meet up with the student's standard.


3) Student's attitude: This is when the student is
accustomed to disappointing on projects deliverables and not turning in drafts
when agreed. This could provoke the supervisor. A student's manner of speech,
laziness and disobedience to rules is also included.


4) Different ideologies: This is when the supervisor is
thinking in one direction and the student/researcher in another. The supervisor
could be taking the research into a deeper dimension, while the student would
have loved surface work. This becomes evident as the student grumbles and
defies the order of the supervisor. The supervisor could be forced to develop
an indifferent attitude to the plight of the student/researcher and this could
be detrimental when the concerns of the student is now genuine.


5) Plagiarism: This is common with lazy students.

They look for related articles and just copy and paste as
against the industry required of them by the supervisor. This would definitely
take the relationship in a southward direction.


6) Inefficient supervisor: This is when the supervisor
specializes in another sub-division on a department and is required to
supervise a student/researcher in another. This could frustrate the student as
the student would be left to do the bulk of the work on his/her own.

The supervisor would just be relegated to approvals. This
might give room for a little friction.



These are some of the reasons that could result in minor
confrontations, disagreements, and friction of some sort during research work
between students/researchers and their supervisors. It is advised that each
supervisor treats the student differently, relates with them openly with both
parties working hard to achieve the common goal, which should have been
well-defined form the beginning.











Project writing and presentation is a prerequisite of
getting a degree by a student, either for graduate degree or postgraduate
degree. You need to read widely and extensively so you can have a lot of
materials, combined with what your lecturers thought you, to write a very good
project. After the write-up, comes the presentation. To make a good
presentation of your project, there are some rules you need to adhere to. There
are some do’s and don’ts you should stick to, to make sure that your project
presentation goes well. First let’s see the don’ts, the things you should not



Project DOs


1. To start, do prepare in advance of a presentation, don’t
just wing it, as it will show badly.

2. Do write and submit your project on paper.

3. Do put your name, date and if possible the exact time you
are presenting the project.

4. Do show all the information that is displayed in the
sample project.

5. Do strategize your presentation on paper ahead of time,
before you start creating it in PowerPoint. Summarise your story and the key
slides with the key points, their objectives and key messages that you want to

6. Do follow the rules of graphing stated during the
lectures. If your computer program does not produce graphs with these rules, it
is better to draw the graphs by hand.

7. Do send your presentation round to family and friends for
comment/feedback, where appropriate before the day of your presentation. They
may be able to pick up on errors/missing information or add additional
info/insight to your topic. But, be careful of sending out your presentation to
more people than necessary; don’t lose sight of what you are communicating!

8. Do keep your work tidy. Use a ruler and/or graph paper to
draw your charts and graphs. Use a word processor or typewriter to write your
analysis if needed.

9. Do present the sources of all your data giving titles,
publication dates, locations, and dates you obtained the data from the

10. Do organize your project presentation with the analyses
of graphs being near the graphs.

11. Do make sure the descriptions and analyses you write,
are clear and make sense to someone who has not taken your course at a higher
level or probably has forgotten their course work.

12. Do break up your presentation with pertinent images or
graphics. Though it's not everyone that needs them, however many people need to
see imagery or graphical representations to understand as well as just the
words on the screen as most people are better stimulated visually.



Project Presentation DON'Ts

1. First, don’t just dump all your ideas down onto
PowerPoint as a stream of consciousness. Only the main points need to be on the
powerpoint pages.

2. Don’t use covers, folders, notebooks or page covers for
your thesis. If a standard staple won’t hold your project together, then you
are doing something wrong.

3. Don’t use data from a sample project data or a sample
project obtained from the internet.

3. Don’t copy the wording of a sample project word for word.
Try to write what you read from the sample in your own words as your project
topic may have different data and from a different situation, therefore the
wordings of a sample project will most likely not apply in your situation.

4. Don’t mix up different approaches throughout your
presentation, e.g. if you start out using title case in your headings keep this
going throughout.

5. Don’t show your calculations. The supervisor just want to
see your results. If your results look unreasonable, he will check the
calculations himself.

6. Don’t assume that your audience has the same level of
knowledge about your subject matter like you. This is very important when
creating cascade presentations and it is important that you provide sufficient
details in the lowest level of knowledge for your audience.

7. Don’t use 3D histograms or 3D bar charts if your thesis
involves graphs and charts. The 3D style of charts are more difficult to

8. Don’t use computer-generated graphs if they don’t follow
the graphing rules given in your lectures. If essential, you can always draw
the graphs by hand.

9. Don’t create your presentation and then assume that it is
unchangeable. After every presentation you do, you should think about the
questions that came up and improve.









what your project supervisor is looking for


Being a ‘regular customer’ to your project supervisor is
something now common among many Nigerian final year students.

Believe it or leave it! Some students can meet their project
supervisors up to 15 times before they scale through chapter one. If you are
having headache convincing your supervisor to approve your chapter one or
proposal, then this article is for you.


You are welcome to these our great topic of ‘Discover what
your supervisor is looking for in your project work’. This first series will
cover the proposal/introductory sections of your research work. As we all know,
good grades do not just fall from heaven-it takes hard work and favor from God.
Before you submit that seminar paper or research paper with the caption
‘submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of a degree’…. Your work must
be good enough.


The first thing most project supervisors’ need from every
student is their project proposal or a chapter one. This phase of a research
work is the most important if you ask me. Why? Because this is the foundation
in which all research designs, findings, measurement instruments will depend
on. For instance your ability to link the background of the study with your
problem statement will go a long way in helping you to develop good objectives
and research questions to guide the entire study. So you now see why this
research phase is so important?

To improve upon your project proposal or chapter one, I am
going to handle each section one after the other and let you know what is
required of you. Enjoy!



Depending on the school's format, the first section of a
typical proposal or chapter one is introduction. Most universities and
polytechnics will allow students to start with background of the study. For
easy understanding, I will group them together.


The introduction/background of the study section allows
readers to know a bit about the subject matter and the problem in a wider
range. Here students’ ability to effectively bring out the central theme of the
study is highly rewarded. Before embarking on most research work, there is
usually a problem. Your ability to recount the problem in a concise and
detailed manner will earn you your first mark in your introductory chapter.



For easy understanding, if you are writing on ‘the effect of
ASUU strike actions on academic performance of Undergraduates in Nigerian
Universities’ you should be able to recount various ASUU strike actions that
has occurred in Nigeria, and implications on students’ academic performances
thereafter. For the introductory part, you can start by defining ‘strike’ by
one or two authors. After introducing the subject matter or variables/keywords,
you start recounting the background of the problem under study.

The first recorded ASUU strike was on………..(Write more) After
then the problem of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Universities now led to
another disastrous……

Empirical studies recorded by some renowned Nigerian
researchers have indicated that students do not study during this strike due



I. Start with a little introduction on your major keywords
or variables in the study.

II. Give a concise and historical background of the problem
under study.

III. Reference authors and if possible bring in a little
empirical study centering around identified problems for the study in the
background of the study.

IV. Depending on your schools’ format, also take a little
time to write on the background of the organization or area under study.

V. Do not make it too long. Ideally should not exceed two
standard pages.




This is arguably the most important section of the
introductory chapter of every project. Your ability to formulate a good
background of the study will enable you to write a good problem statement. A
problem statement is a summary of the background of the study. While the
background of study talks more about the problem on a wider and detailed
perspective, the problem statement is a brief summary of the problem.

A good statement of the problem must be concise, factual and
relates with the background of the study. It should be brief enough to state
the problem in a single line, then supported by previous research work(s) both
empirical and theoretical .



In simple terms objectives of a study is like the ‘map’ for
the study. Based on the problem(s) being investigated, students should be able
to develop the aims for the study as well as specific objectives to be
achieved. Just like the ‘SMART’ analysis,

your objectives must be specific to addressing your research
problems, it must be measurable (research questions and hypothesis should be
able to be formulated out of it), it must be accurate, realistic and timely.



Just like research objectives, your research questions give
more insight into how the objectives of the study can be achieved.

Students must know that research questions correspond with
research objectives. It must be relevant enough to provide answers to problems
being investigated by the researcher. It must be good enough to achieve the
objectives of the study. Your research questions should be open to answers
other than ‘yes/no’.

Avoid questions beginning with ‘do does’ or ‘Are/is’. For
example, do not ask research questions like ‘Does ASUU strike affects students’
academic performance?



Hypotheses are testament statements about a phenomenon. They
are more like assumptions to be tested and proved.

Hypothesis formulated must be relevant to the problem under
study and it should relate with both research objectives and questions of the



Students must justify the need for the study and how it will
contribute to the society, the body of knowledge if successfully carried out.

To get good marks here, your study should be useful :

I. To Government establishments, organizations-both private
and public, NGOs- How it will help the government and managers of organizations
to address identified problems and be successful.

II. The Economy of your country:-Show how policies developed
from the study can help improve the economy.

III. Students’ researchers-state how your work will serve as
a guide or foundation for future research studies



Ability of the student to delimit the study to a manageable
limit is rewarded here.

Students should explain the boundaries of the study as well
as describe the aspect of the problem covered. For example, using our topic
‘the effect of ASUU strike actions on the academic performance of
Undergraduates’, one can delimit it to a particular university or selected
universities under study.

N/B: Scope could be managed in terms of geographical area,
Time or period, research designs etc.



Ability of students to develop both conceptual and
operational definitions of terms is rewarded. Students should evaluate the
study carefully; define acronyms, keywords and variables in the study.



Additional marks will be added if:

I. The work is neat. Although typed, one may wonder how a
work which is not hand written can be un-tidy.

II. How you arrange diagrams, headings, sub-headings,
upper/lower case contribute to making your work neat.

III. Spellings and grammar are correct.

IV. The work is fully referenced with accepted referencing











welcome to our glamorous topic which is the second series of
our planned for series on the theme ‘Secret Revealed: Discover what your
supervisor is looking for and how your project is graded’. Without a doubt
undoubtedly, the first series which covered the proposal and introductory
chapter of a research project was a great read.

This second series will reveal to you our awesome reader
what supervisors’ look out for in your literature review. So, as usual enjoy!



1. Introduction

2. Theoretical Framework

3. Conceptual Review

4. Empirical Review

5. Summary of Chapter.

N/B: The arrangement may vary considering different formats
of some tertiary institutions.

But for a well written review of related literature, these
components are needed. so keep enjoying the fun.


1) Introduction:-

A brief introduction in your literature review will enable
readers know what the chapter is all about. Not just that, it will also earn
you good points. The introduction in the literature review section should be
concise and it should spell out or highlight items to be discussed.

Ideally, it should not exceed a standard page.


‘’This chapter gives an insight into various studies
conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with
regards to the Challenges of Income Taxation in Ghana.

The chapter also gives a resume of the history and present
status of the problem delineated by a concise review of previous studies into
closely related problems.’’


2) Theoretical Framework:-

This section of literature review is very important and
should be included in order to earn good marks in your research project. To ace
your research project, you must do some research to develop relevant contents

Students are expected to capture theories related to their
study. These theories will later form the basis in which you study is based on.

For easy understanding, if a student is writing on the
effect of motivation on employee productivity; the Abraham Maslow’s Theory of
motivation, Expectancy theory, Herzberg two factor theory etc., should come to


3) Conceptual Framework:-

Another necessary aspect of the Literature Review is the
conceptual framework or review.

The conceptual framework covers all terminologies associated
with the variables in the research. At a higher level (especially at the
Masters and PhD levels), conceptual framework comes in form of a diagram or a
figure showing how various variables interplay in the achievement of the
research objectives or constructed ideas to solve an identified research

As revealed above, a conceptual framework should define each
variable present in the research.

For example, using our topic ‘effects of motivation on
employee productivity: two key- words stand out:

Motivation Independent variable

Employee productivity Dependent variables.

Picking out the independent variable (motivation), a good
conceptual framework will encompass subject in form of sub-headings such as:

I. Types of motivation

II. Forms of motivation

III. Factors of motivation

IV. Problems of Motivating Employees in an organization etc.

Same should follow for the dependent variables.


4) Empirical Review:-

What has others done concerning your study?

What studies already conducted relate to your work?

Ever been asked these questions? Yes!…this is where you
write your answers.

The empirical review section is basically where you bring
into light previous research studies conducted on your field of research or

It could be a related study or exact previous study on your
research area.

Using our topic mentioned earlier, the empirical review will
encompass the findings and recommendations on the effects of motivation on
employee productivity probably in China, Germany, Ikeja, Agege, Uyo, Oshogbo,
Hong Kong etc. Here you bring in a bit of empirical evidence, properly
documenting the researcher (s), year, location, sample size, finding as well as


‘’Recent research has examined the motivational effects of
redesigning jobs to connect employees to their impact on the beneficiaries of
their work-the clients, customers, patients, and other end users who are
affected by their efforts (Grant, 2007).

Organization scholars also used self determination theory to
explain the motivation effects of transformational values leadership to inspire
employees, model important values, and provide and judge (2003) conducted a
field study and a laboratory experiment showing that transformational leaders
encourage employees to set austomous and higher performance.

Interestingly, their field study suggested that
transformational leadership was associated positively with antonymous
motivation but had no relationship with controlled motivation, while their lab
experiment indicated that transformational leadership reduced controlled
motivation more strongly than it increased antonymous motivation.’’


5) Summary of chapter:-

This section showcases your opinion on various related
literatures reviewed in the chapter. This is where you are at liberty to state
gaps identified in the research, your opinion on empirical and theoretical
facts established, as well as where your study fits in the theoretical





1. For conceptual framework, students can get good
information from textbooks; research journals and the Internet (e.g. search
engines like and bing, useful research site like


2. For empirical review and theoretical framework, it is
imperative to read research journals. Published research journal will provide a
solid foundation to source for authentic facts that relates to your study. The
methodology, findings and recommendation section of a research journal will
enable the student to develop empirical facts for his/her study.


Examples of research journal sites are:

I. Management:


III. Accounting: HYPERLINK

IV. Economics : HYPERLINK



Bonus marks

I. Literature reviewed must be related or related to the
variables present in the research.

II. References must not be too old, ideally references
should not be beyond a decade (i.e. beyond 2006)

III. All headings, diagrams and tables should be neatly

IV. Journal, text books, magazines, etc used in developing
contents for the literature review should be related to your study Copy and
paste from the journal published, textbook, internet, etc must be minimized.









Primary data and secondary data are two types of data, each
with pros and cons, each requiring different kinds of skills, resources.

What does each and every research project need to get
results? Data or information – to help answer questions, understand a specific
issue or test a hypothesis.

Researchers in the health and social sciences can obtain
their data by getting it directly from the subjects they’re interested in. This
data they collect is called primary data. Another type of data that may help
researchers is the data that has already been gathered by someone else. This is
called secondary data.

What are the advantages of using these two types of data?
Which tends to take longer to process and which is more expensive? This column
will help to explain the differences between primary and secondary data.



An advantage of using primary data is that researchers are collecting
information for the specific purposes of their study. In essence, the questions
the researchers ask are tailored to elicit the data that will help them with
their study. Researchers collect the data themselves, using surveys, interviews
and direct observations.

In the field of workplace health research, for example,
direct observations may involve a researcher watching people at work. The
researcher could count and code the number of times she sees practices or
behaviors relevant to her interest–e.g. instances of improper lifting posture
or the number of hostile or disrespectful interactions workers engage in with
clients and customers over a period of time.

To take another example, let’s say a research team wants to
find out about workers’ experiences in return to work after a work-related
injury. Part of the research may involve interviewing workers by telephone
about how long they were off work and about their experiences with the
return-to-work process. The workers’ answers–considered primary data–will
provide the researchers with specific information about the return-to-work
process; e.g. they may learn about the frequency of work accommodation offers,
and the reasons some workers refused such offers.



There are several types of secondary data. They can include information from
the national population census and other government information collected by
Statistics Nigeria. One type of secondary data that’s used increasingly is administrative
data. This term refers to data that is collected routinely as part of the
day-to-day operations of an organization, institution or agency.

There are many number of examples: motor vehicle
registrations, hospital intake and discharge records, workers’ compensation
claims records, and more.

Compared to primary data, secondary data tends to be readily
available and inexpensive to obtain. In addition, administrative data tends to
have large samples, because the data collection is comprehensive and routine.
What’s more, administrative data (and many types of secondary data) are
collected over a long period. That allows researchers to detect change over

Going back to the return-to-work study mentioned above, the
researchers could also examine secondary data in addition to the information
provided by their primary data (i.e. survey results). They could look at
workers’ compensation lost- time claims data to determine the amount of time
workers were receiving wage replacement benefits. With a combination of these
two data sources, the researchers may be able to determine which factors
predict a shorter work absence among injured workers.

This information could then help improve return to work for
other injured workers.

The type of data researchers choose can depend on many
things including the research question, their budget, their skills and
available resources. Based on these and other factors, they may choose to use
primary data, secondary data–or both.













Research can simply be described as a diligent and
scientific inquiry or investigation into a subject or problem in order to come
up with the latest discoveries so as to resolve an identified societal problem.
In any field of knowledge, research is very important as it enables the
researcher to discover new ground to cover in meeting human needs and thereby
makes society worth living.


Research is the bedrock of any serious minded scholar which
he/she has to carry out in order to salvage a decaying economy of a nation and
also sustain development for his country. Adeniyi; Oyekanmi and Tijani
(2011:49) posit research as “generally based on scientific inquiry in which
available facts are closely examined or investigated” by a researcher. In
making scientific enquiry and come up with a fact in which to base any
meaningful research, it is pertinent to note that a researcher has to consult
some educational resources and contact some group of people in order to
ascertain the validity of his or research work. That group of individuals or
respondents or elements or observable materials that a researcher has to
contact is known as population of the study. Population in this sense,
according to Adeniyi et al (2011) represents all conceivable elements, subjects
or observations relating to a particular area of interest to the researcher.


However, it is quite not really possible for a researcher to
make use of the entire large population for his study; this could be as a
result of limited financial resources of the researcher, too large area to
cover which may not be easily covered by the researcher or it could be as a
result limited period allocated for such study.

Hence, there is need to draw out some fraction known as
sample size out of the entire population which can be easily managed by the
researcher. Basically, Popoola (2011) posits that the major components of
research methodology especially in Library and Information science or in any
research work include: research design; the population of study; sampling
procedure and sample size; research instrument(s); validity and reliability of
the research instrument(s) and methods of data analysis.


Nevertheless in this morrow, we shall be dealing with how to
choose the best sampling technique and sample size for a study. It shall lay
more emphasis on population of the study, also educate our readers on how to
choose a sample technique and sample size for any study they are presently
undergoing or intend to carry out in future.



Population of study:

Population of study for any research work has been variously
defined by different scholars and their definitions pointed toward the same
direction. Avwokeni (2006:92) refers to population of study as the “ set of all
participants that qualify for a study” while Akinade and Owolabi (2009 :72)
defined population as “ the total set of observations from which a sample is
drawn ”; Adeniyi et al (2011:49) see it as the “total number of large
habitations of people in one geographical area, for example, the population of
a country” ; besides, Popoola (2011:2) defines population as the “totality of
the items or objects under the universe of study. It often connotes all the
members of the target of the study as defined by the aims and objectives of the
study” . We concur with the definitions of the above scholars.


But we conceptualize population to mean the whole body of
items, objects, materials or people that fall within the geographical location
in which a researcher intends to investigate for his study. That is the whole
participants of a study. The constituents of population have certain attributes
in common; the number may be large or small. What should a researcher do if the
population is large or small?

However, as earlier pointed out in this paper, it is quite
impossible for a researcher to study the entire population due to some reasons.
In objecting this view, Popoola (2011:2) points out some reasons under which a
researcher may study the entire population, these include:

I. When the size of the population is small.

II. When there is no time constraint in carrying out the
study. That is if there is enough time for the researcher to carry out his

III. When the resources (human, money and materials)
available for the study are adequate.

IV. When the sole objective of the study is to take census
of the elements in the population.



Types of Population:

According to Akinade and Owolabi (2009:73) and Adedokun
(2003:43-44) population of a study can be classified to include:

1) Listed population:- All the elements or subjects are
known and can be identified by name or number e.g. students who registered for
a particular course or all employees in an organization.

2) Homogeneous population:- Population that consists of
discrete elements that have common property with very little variation such as
same age, sex, level of education and rank in a job, or people of the same skin
colour (black or white).

3) Heterogeneous population:- Here the population consists
of different categories of participants or elements that have uncommon
characteristics e.g. children in all classes in a school or all categories of
workers in an organization (lecturers, accountants, clerks, secretaries,
managers, directors and artisans). This type is further subdivided into:

1. Unlisted population

2. Group population

3. Scattered Population

4. Clustered Population

5. Target population

6. Accessible population



1. Unlisted population: This
is a very large and nebulous type. The elements cannot all be identified by
names or numbers e.g. all the men or women in a country.

2. Group population: This
is a structured and listed population e.g. students offering a course of study
may be classified into male and female; local and foreign; single or combined
honour students; workers (junior, senior) management and supervisory staff.

3. Scattered population: Population
of listed members who are found in different geographical locations e.g.
members of Nigerian Library Association or lecturers of private universities of
a country or lawyers in a country.

4. Clustered population: Population
of unlisted individuals who are known to exist together in different locations
e.g. Nigerian footballers in European and Asian countries.

5. Target population: This
consists of all members of a group of under the investigation to which the
result of the investigation can be applied. They are population of interest
(e.g. university students) but all of whom are not of interest to the

6. Accessible population: This
refers to the members of a target population, which are within the reach of the
researcher, work with and obtain their sample for his study.

Furthermore, it is pertinent to note that characteristics of
a population of scores are called parameters and characteristics of a sample of
scores from a larger population are statistics. The mean of an entire
population of scores is a parameter and the mean of a sample is a statistics
(Akinade & Owolabi, 2009). However, when the population is relatively too
large to be covered within the period allocated for the study and also with the
limited human and material (fund) resources of the researcher, it is necessary
for the researcher to take sample size from the entire population for the



Sample and Sample Size

A sample is a manageable section of a population but
elements of which have common characteristics. Also, it refers to any portion
of a population selected for the study and on whom information needed for the
study is obtained ( Awoniyi; Aderanti & Tayo, 2011; Akinade & Owolabi,
2009; Adedokun, 2003). It is the elements making up the sample that are
actually studied and generalizations or inferences about the population are
made. This generalization of result based on the sample to the population is
the major purpose of sampling and also a major concern in any scientific
investigation. It can be reemphasized here that, to study the entire population
may be cumbersome, time consuming and of course very costly, hence, a sample
takes a fair portion as representative of the entire population. In statistical
analysis, population of the study is being denoted with ‘N ’ while sample size
is denoted with ‘ n’

Sample size is the number of elements that can be selected
for a research. This number varies from one study to another.

In homogenous population (where there is little variation)
requires a small size.

Experimental studies tend to use relatively small sample
size. But for heterogeneous population (where there is a wider variation)
requires a larger sample size.

This is common in survey research as in education and
behavioral sciences (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009).


Types of Samples

The following types of samples are adopted from Akinade
& Owolabi (2009: 74), they include:

Sample and Sample Size

A sample is a manageable section of a population but elements
of which have common characteristics. Also, it refers to any portion of a
population selected for the study and on whom information needed for the study
is obtained ( Awoniyi; Aderanti & Tayo, 2011; Akinade & Owolabi, 2009;
Adedokun, 2003). It is the elements making up the sample that are actually
studied and generalizations or inferences about the population are made. This
generalization of result based on the sample to the population is the major
purpose of sampling and also a major concern in any scientific investigation.
It can be reemphasized here that, to study the entire population may be
cumbersome, time consuming and of course very costly, hence, a sample takes a
fair portion as representative of the entire population. In statistical analysis,
population of the study is being denoted with ‘N ’ while sample size is denoted
with ‘ n’

Sample size is the number of elements that can be selected
for a research. This number varies from one study to another.

In homogenous population (where there is little variation)
requires a small size.

Experimental studies tend to use relatively small sample
size. But for heterogeneous population (where there is a wider variation)
requires a larger sample size.

This is common in survey research as in education and
behavioural sciences (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009).


Types of Samples

The following types of samples are adopted from Akinade
& Owolabi (2009: 74), they include:

1. Random Sample: Is
one in which all the elements have equal chances of being selected for a study.
It is the basis of most of the other types of samples. For example, all the
male students in a classroom.

2. Subjective Sample: This
refers to a subset of an accessible population. It is deliberately or
purposefully chosen. On the basis of researcher’s predetermined intention,
selecting experimental subjects this way is open to bias. For instance, if a
researcher wants to find out the reading habits of students in a university and
uses the students he/she teaches. This sample is not representative of all the
students in the university not to talk of the world. It is a sample that is
neither random nor representative. It is a sample that the researcher has
allowed his/her preferences to influence his choice of items to be selected for
the study. It may not be a captive sample. However, generalization cannot be
made from the results. Captive samples and biased samples are good for quick
collection of data from the respondents.

3. Captive Sample: It
is a sample obtained from a captive population such as students in a classroom
or workers in an industry, patients in a psychiatric hospital ward.

The elements have no population and so one cannot generate
finding from it. It is not used in serious research. It may be useful for pilot
study or where a researcher wants a quick result before commencing the actual



Purpose of Sampling

Basically, sampling is done to ensure that there is no bias
or subjectivity in the selection process. It also helps the researcher to work
with reasonable size of elements since it is difficult to do so with the entire
population. It thus saves time spent on each research and also reduces cost of
research operations (Akinboye & Akinboye, 1998 in Akinade & Owolabi,

However, according to Adeniyi et al (2011: 50) other reasons
for sampling include:

I. In a large population, there could be some similarities
and uniformities along the line of research investigation, drawing up a sample
along these similarities will give a general result for the whole population.

II. It makes the researcher more thorough and affords more
time for better study.

III. Sampling makes data analysis easier and more skillful
with qualitative results.

IV. Since sampling enables us to deal with a part of the
population, it is obviously cheaper to study a sample rather than the entire

V. It enables us to obtain quicker results than covering an
entire population with its attendant problems.

VI. At times, it is practically impossible to take a
complete and comprehensive study of the population because of the nature and
pattern of distribution or dispersion of the population elements.

VII. For research study involving practical enumeration of
subjects, sampling is the only best option to achieve it.

VIII. Sampling helps the researcher to guard against
incomplete and inaccurate instruments such as questionnaires.

IX. Sampling makes it possible to study infinite population.


Nevertheless, limitations of sampling include the following.
Some samples may be too small or heterogeneous to collect a representative
sample. In some cases, the researcher may not be equipped with sufficient
knowledge of diverse or relevant sampling methods in that case there may be
bias (Akinade & Owolabi, 2009: 75).



Sampling Techniques

Sampling techniques can be classified into two main groups,
namely: probability and non-probability sampling.

1) Probability Sampling Technique:-

Here all the items/units in a population have equal chance
of being selected as sample for a study. The advantages of this method of
sampling is that it only when the items have been selected with known
probabilities that one is able to evaluate the precision of the sampling result
(Popoola, 2011; Adeniyi et al, 2011). The examples include:

I. Simple Random sampling

II. Systematic sampling

III. Stratified sampling

IV. Cluster/Area sampling, and Double sampling.

Each of the listed probability sampling techniques shall be
discussed in turn:

I) Simple Random Sampling:-

In simple random sampling, every member of the population
has equal chance of being selected for a study. It is a method that gives each
member of the population non-zero probability of being selected. This type of
sampling technique is used when the population has similar characteristics
(homogeneous population), the sampling frame is available and the population
size is determinate or finite. To ensure a random sample, the selection of
samples may be done through balloting, table of random numbers and computer
simulation. In most cases, the sampling is done without replacement (Popoola,

II) Systematic Sampling:-

This involves the selection of every nth subject or item
from serially listed population subjects or units. Where n is any number
determined from the population. For example, obtaining a systematic sample of
100 from a population of 800. The will be as follows:

I. Number the items serially up to 800.

II. Divide 800 by 100 i.e. N/n = 800/100 = 8

III. Randomly select a starting point, say number ‘8’ of the
population list.

IV. Then select every 8th unit after the first. The list will
include the following: 8th, 16th, 24th, 32nd, 40th, 48th, 56th, 64th, 72nd etc.
on the population list (Adeniyi et al, 2011).

III) Stratified Random Sampling:-

This is a method in which the heterogeneous population is
first stratified by dividing it into a set of mutually exclusive or
non-overlapping sub-populations or strata, and thereafter random samples are
then selected from each stratum for detailed study (Popoola, 2011). It must be
noted that the stratified random sampling may involve stratifying the
respondents into infected and uninfected; males and females; old and young;
residents and non-residents; employed and unemployed; literates and
illiterates; rich and poor. The author reiterates that four basic methods could
be employed to determine the sample size per stratum or total sample size for
all the strata. These include probability proportionate to size (PPS), optimum
allocation, Neyman allocation and equal allocation.

IV) Cluster/Area sampling:-

This type of sampling technique is similar to stratified
random sampling that had been discussed in this paper.

Cluster or area sampling is otherwise known as multistage
sampling in that the population is subdivided into units and a random sampling
of smaller units; that is, it is a population that exists in clusters over a
geographical area. The selection of individual cases in the group may also
employ simple random technique (Awoniyi et al, 2011). This method is used when
the population is very large and covers a large geographical area. For example
a country can be divided into regions or states which constitute sampling units
called clusters.

V) Double sampling:-

A double sampling method is a sampling design in which some
information is gathered from the whole sample and additional information is either
at the same time or later collected from sub- samples of the full sample. With
only one sub-sample, the technique is called two- phase sampling or double
sampling (Popoola, 2011:8).



2) Non-probability Sampling Technique :-

Here the elements or items of the population to be studied
have no equal chance to be selected for the study. Rather, randomness if it
occurs is by mere chance. Examples of this sampling technique include:

I. Quota sampling;

II. Purposive sampling;

III. Accident/Availability sampling;

IV. Convenience sampling;

V. Snowball sampling; and

VI. Event sampling.


Each example of the non-probability sampling techniques
listed above shall be briefly discussed in this write up:


I) Quota sampling:-

Quota sampling method is a subjective method of selecting
samples from a population of study. It is always difficult to determine the
probability of drawing samples from a study population. Also, quota sampling is
the type of sampling scheme in which deliberate control factor is used to draw
samples from a study population on the assumption that the chosen samples have
similar characteristics with the sampling population (Popoola, 2011; Hammed
& Popoola, 2006).

II) Purposive/Judgmental sampling:-

This is otherwise called judgmental sampling. Judgmental
sampling is a non- probability sampling technique where the researcher selects
units to be sampled based on their knowledge and professional judgment. It is a
sampling procedure that is characterized by a deliberate effort to obtain
representative samples from a study population ( , 2009).

Purposive sampling is used in cases where the specialty of
an authority can select a more representative sample that can bring more
accurate results than by using other probability sampling techniques. The
process involves nothing but purposely handpicking individuals from the
population based on the authorities or the researcher's knowledge and judgment.
For example, in a study wherein a researcher wants to know what it takes to
graduate summa cum laude in college, the only people who can give the
researcher first hand advise are the individuals who graduated summa cum laude.
With this very specific and very limited pool of individuals that can be
considered as a subject, the researcher must use judgmental sampling
( , 2009). However, two major drawbacks of this method are that
of reliability and the bias that accompanies the sampling technique.

III) Accident/Availability sampling:-

It is a sampling procedure whereby a researcher selects available
samples without any scientific bases. This type of sampling procedure must be
avoided when conducting a research in any research activity.

IV) Convenience sampling:-

A convenience sample is simply one where the units that are
selected for inclusion in the sample are the easiest to access. This is in
stark contrast to probability sampling techniques, where the selection of units
is made randomly. For example in a population of 10,000 university students;
where the researcher is only interested in achieving a sample size of 100
students who would take part in his research. As such, he would continue to
invite students to take part in the research until his sample size is reached.
Since the aim of convenience sampling is easy access, he may simply choose to
stand at the main entrance to campus of the University where it would be easy
to invite the many students that pass by to take part in the research (Lund
Research, 2012).

Moreover, the merits of convenience sampling method include:
it is very easy to carry out with few rules governing how the sample should be
collected; relative cost and time required to carry out a convenience sample
are small in comparison to probability sampling techniques and the convenience
sample may help the researcher in gathering useful data and information that
would not have been possible using probability sampling techniques, which
require more formal access to lists of populations.

However, the convenience sampling technique has the
following limitations: it often suffers from biases from a number of biases.
This can be seen in the example aforementioned and since the sampling frame is
not know, and the sample is not chosen at random, the inherent bias in
convenience sampling means that the sample is unlikely to be representative of
the population being studied. This undermines researcher’s ability to make
generalizations from his sample to the population he is studying (Lund

V) Snowball sampling:-

This has to do with a situation when a researcher builds up
a sample for his study through information from other people. He starts with
one person who then suggests another people and so on until the researcher gets
enough sample size for his study.

VI) Event sampling:-

According to Awoniyi et al (2011), it involves a situation
when a researcher uses the opportunity presented by a particular event to
gather information (sample) for his study. For example if a researcher is
investigating the perceptions of Nigerian people towards 2014 FIFA world cup
tournament, he can get his sample size from the football fans during the
ongoing world cup event.




Thus far in this paper, we’ve tried to do justice to
population and various types of sampling techniques that can be used in any
research activity. However, researchers are not restricted only to what we’ve
presented, the choice of which sampling technique to use depends solely on the
researcher and the investigation he intends to carry out. Therefore, conducting
a scientific investigation in any human endeavor is a peculiar task globally;
hence, the accepted process must be taken in order to come up with a valid



Adedokun, J.A. (2003). Basics of Research Methodology.
Sagamu: New Hope Publisher.

Adeniyi, A.L.; Oyekanmi, A.O. & Tijani, M.O. (2011). Essentials
of Business Research Methods. Lagos: CSS Bookshops Limited.

Akinade, E.A. & Owolabi, T. (2009). Research Methods: A
Pragmatic Approach for Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Education.
Lagos: Connel Publications.

Avwokeni, J.A. (2006). Research Methods: Process, Evaluation
& Critique. Portharcourt: Unicampus Tutorial Services.

Awoniyi, S.A.; Aderanti, R.A. & Tayo, A.S. (2011).
Introduction to Research Methods. Ibadan: Ababa Press Ltd. (2009). Judgmental Sampling. Retrieved from
on Jun 27, 2014.

Hammed, A. & Popoola, S.O. (2006). Selection of Sample
and Sampling Technique: In G.O. Alegbeleye; I. Mabawonku & M. Fabunmi (ed).
Research in Education. Ibadan: Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan:

Lund Research (2012). Convenience sampling. Retrieved from
on 27/06/14.

Popoola, S.O. (2011, September). Research Methodologies in
Library and Information Science. A paper presented at a training workshop on
building research capacity for Library and Information Science professionals.
Organized by the Nigerian Library Association, Ogun State Chapter, held at
Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria on 18th – 22nd September, 2011.









NOTE! Its Taro Yamane NOT
Yaro Yamane!


Do you ever used a popular formula to determine your sample
size? Ya! thats the dude am talking about.-The great mathematician and
statistician combined. If you have done a research project or currently
conducting one, you will definitely come across this great statistician called
Taro Yamane.

If you are also a good observer, you will observe that his
name is often 'abused' by numerous scholars. I mean i have read numerous
research journals and articles where he is being referenced as 'Yaro Yamane'.
Now let me shock you a bit. Its actually Taro not Yaro. So if you referenced
him as Yaro Yamane in your previous research, then you referenced the wrong
man. If you are currently conducting a research study please take note. It
written at the back of his cover pages of some of his books to fully convince
you. Try use the internet to confirm on his cover book that he wrote.











Measurement instrument refers to various methods through
which a researcher obtains data from respondents for his research work. The term
data refers to all forms of information that researchers obtain from the
participant of the study.

Adedokun (2003:57) asserts that data refers “to any fact,
observation or facts relating to the subject of the study”. There are different
types of measurement instruments that can be used by researchers for their
studies; it depends on the nature of research that is to be carried out. In
this write up, we shall discuss various measurement instruments that can be
used alongside with studies that are suitable for them.

However, the collection of data is an important part of any
research activity.

This is because; the conclusions of the study are based on
what the data reveals.

Hence, no researcher is greater than his data. Basically,
data can be obtained from two major sources; primary and secondary


Primary Data:
It represents the information gathered by the researcher through the use of
questionnaire or personal interview or observation method;


while in Secondary Data: the researcher collects
information that has already been obtained and processed by government
departments or various agencies before it is made available for other
interested users. These are published and unpublished sources e.g. journals,
textbooks, newspapers, magazines, fliers, annual reports, bulletins,
periodicals etc.

As a result, the kind of data to be collected, the method of
collection to be used, and the scoring of the data must be considered when
undertaken any research activity.



Types of Data to be Collected

According to Aina, 2004; Adedokun, 2003; Avwokeni, 2006;
Adeniyi; Oyekanmi and Tijani, 2011. Researchers can collect the following types
of data from respondents:


I.  Demographic information or data e.g. age, sex,
gender, educational background, ethnicity, religion, etc.

II. Test scores.

III. Events.

IV. Responses to researchers questions in an interview or
written replies to a survey question

V. Grade point averages obtainable from school records

VI. Essay written by students e.g. projects, theses and

VII. Anecdotal records kept by teachers or counselors or


In fact, the list of data to be collected is not limited to
the one listed above. For this reason, it is important for every researcher to
decide on what kind(s) of data he intends to collect and by what method to
collect it. Those methods that researchers use in collecting his desired data
are known as research or measurement instrument.


Data Collection Instruments

These are instruments that are used to collect data from
participants of the study.

They are important for collecting data in all types of
research methods. They are mainly used by researchers to collect reliable data
which will later be analyzed (Aina, 2004). They include questionnaire,
interviews, observations, focus group discussion and experiment. Each of the
instruments shall be discussed in turn and also point out their merits and


1) Questionnaire:-

The questionnaire is the commonly used instrument for
collecting research data from the participants of a study. “It basically seeks
the opinions of individuals in a sample or a population on issues directly
related to the objectives of the research study” (Aina, 2004:348). The
questionnaire consists of a set of structured and unstructured questions
designed by researchers to obtain data from the respondents. No research is
better than its questionnaire and a faulty questionnaire means faulty research.

Hence, a questionnaire designed must be valid, reliable and
must not be bogus so that the data collected can validate the research.
Questionnaire has many advantages which include anonymity of the respondents is
guaranteed; it facilitates the collection of large amounts of data in a
relatively short period and it is cheap to administer. The major demerit of the
method is that some confusing and misleading questions cannot be clarified as
the researcher may not be there to explain the questions, and also, sometimes,
the questions may not be easily comprehensible to individuals who are
illiterate, thus, the method is restricted only to educated respondents.


Moreover, the characteristics of a good questionnaire
according to Popoola (2011) consist of:

I. Questions should not be ambiguous:- This implies that it
must be capable of only one interpretation.

II. Questions must be easily understood:- Questions should
be capable of having a precise answer.

III. Questions must not contain words of vague meaning.

IV. Questions should not require rigorous calculations.

V. Questions should not require the respondent to decide
upon classification.

VI. Questions must not be in such a form that the answers
will be biased.

VII. The questionnaire should not be too long.

VIII. It should not be too wordy.

IX. The questionnaire should cover the exact object of the



2) Interview:-

Interview is a measurement instrument otherwise known as
oral questionnaire. It involves a process where a researcher solicits
information from respondents through verbal interaction. A researcher would
have previously prepared a schedule list of structured questions pertinent to
the study before meeting respondents for their opinions on a subject matter.
The researcher poses questions to the respondents and the answers are recorded
by the researcher. Materials that could be used during interview period include
tape recorder, paper and biro. The major advantage of this method is that it
produces high response rate. Besides, it tends to be representative of the
entire population of the study, and personal contact between the researcher and
respondents enables the researcher to explain confusing and ambiguous questions
in detail (Aina, 2004; Popoola, 2011). However, its disadvantages include
interviewer’s bias; inaccessibility to wealthy respondents due to fear of
insecurity and the amount of data that can be collected through this method is
usually limited compare to questionnaire method. Interview can be conducted
personally or through telephone or electronic mailing system.



3) Observation:-

This is an instrument that is employed by a researcher in
which an individual behavior or situation is observed and recorded. There are
two types of observation: participant observation and non-participant
observation. In participant observation, the researcher is a member of the
group to be observed. Here, accurate and timely result would be obtained by the
researcher but it has the problem of biasness. Non-participant observation on
the other hand, the researcher is not a member of the group to be observed.
Here, the result will be viable as it is free from being biased but it has the
problem of inaccuracy and delayed result. Both observation methods enhance
first hand information, flexible and cheaper to carryout, demand less active
cooperation of the observed and their results are reliable for research

However, Akinade & Owolabi (2009) assert that
observation method is popular tool in research especially in behavioral and
social sciences; the authors argue that it requires special skills to make and
assess behavioral observation in research. In carrying out behavioral
observation, first thing to do is to develop behavioral categories (coding
scheme). This involves identifying specific attributes that will give clues to
the problem at hand. The authors further reiterated that researchers may
observe the following guidelines when developing observation method:

I. “Clearly define the goal of the instrument;

II. Carry out preliminary observations of your subjects
under the conditions that will prevail in the course of the study with the aim
of identifying behaviors exhibited by the subjects; III. and Construct a
complete list of the identified behavior. Also, behavioral categories can also
be developed through literature search. These will provide opportunity to
determine whether a similar study had previously been conducted. The result of
such similar study may be adopted or adapted in the present study” (Akinade
& Owolabi, 2009:97).



4) Focus Group Discussion:-

This data collection instrument refers to a process whereby
researchers obtain data from large group of people at the same time. This
method is different from interview method; in an interview method, researcher
focuses on one person at a time but in a focus group discussion method, the
researcher obtains data from large number (group) of people for his research activity.
Focus group discussion method is very popular when carrying out research in the
field of behavioral science, library and information science, archival science,
records and information technology. It could be noted here that a need may
arise for a researcher to use more than 2 or 3 approaches to obtain data for
his research activity. This depends on the supervisor, nature of the research
or problem to be investigated.

However, in focus group discussion; a researcher identifies
key informants that may be contacted to elicit the deserved information on the
variable(s) of interest in a study. It is very important to note that in
evaluator study or when accessing the performance of a system or a project or
when working at a policy and its impact on a particular operation in a society
or organization; focus group discussion method could employed. The approach is
used to generate qualitative data in explaining a phenomenon under study or
investigation. Membership of the focus group discussion should not exceed 10
members at a time. It is like a mini conference where members of a group could
be assembled in a conducive location. Before now, it is needful for the
researcher to have obtained their consent to take part in the study.

 Besides, the researcher must design a focus group
discussion guide. The guide

must contain outlines that capture variables of interest in
the study. For example, in a study like: “Customers’ satisfaction with
information services or products of Babcock university library”. 


The following guidelines may be prepared by the researcher:


I. Nature of the library services;

II. Nature of the products;

III. Level of satisfaction of the users;

IV. Quality of the users, etc.

The following materials are needed for this method of data

I. Research assistants;

II. Video recorder and cassette;

III. Biro and paper;

IV. Tape recorder and cassette, and

V. Light refreshment to entertain the participants.

After the focus group discussion exercise, the researcher
has to transcribe the data into qualitative information e.g. on the nature of
reference services available in the library; in a group where 10 members are
involved, if 7 members affirmed that they are having good reference services in
their library while the rest members’ response are negative. Then it can be
calculated/quantify as: 7/10 *100 = 70%; this is the figure that the researcher
will report in his work. Moreover, the major advantage of this method is that
it added credibility and originality to the research activity while it challenges
include: too cost to carry out, it takes too much of time to conduct and some
of the respondents may not be free to contribute extensively especially if
their boss is invited to such gathering.



5) Experiment:-

This type of data collection instrument takes place in pure
and applied science research. Here the researchers carry out some experiments
in the laboratory setting in order to test some reactions that may take place
in the object of research. The advantages of this method is that it produces
immediate result, its results are viable and error free if it is well carry out
under normal condition/circumstances. While, its problems include: it is too
costly to undertake and those chemicals used may cause permanent damage to the
researcher if they are carelessly handled.


Table1: Classification of Research
Based on Data Collection Instruments...







interview and observation.



focus group discussion, interview, and observation.



interview, focus group discussion and observation.




Questionnaire, research Focus group discussion, and interview.



focus group discussion, and interview.



group discussion, interview and observation.



and observation.



and interview.



observarion, focus group discussion, interview and experiment in case of pure
science research.



observation and interview.

Source: Japheth Yaya, 18th June,




It could be re-emphasized here that researchers are not
restricted only to different methods of data collection instruments and their
classification as presented in this paper but the choice of which method to
apply depends on the researcher, nature or problem to be investigated and
prevailing circumstances at the time of carrying out the study. Thus, researchers
are free to use any method they deem fit for their research.



Adedokun, J.A. (2003). Basics of Research Methodology.
Sagamu: New Hope Publisher.

Adeniyi, A.L.; Oyekanmi, A.O. & Tijani, M.O. (2011).
Essentials of Business Research Methods. Lagos: CSS Bookshops Limited.

Aina, L.O. (2004). Library and Information Science Text for

Ibadan: Third World Services Limited.

Akinade, E.A. & Owolabi, T. (2009).

Research Methods: A Pragmatic Approach for Social Sciences,
Behavioural Sciences and Education. Lagos: Connel Publications.

Avwokeni, J.A. (2006). Research Methods: Process, Evaluation
& Critique.











During or after research, there is usually a need to
analyze; to present the information gotten in a presentable and easily
understood format.

There are numerous packages or softwares that could be used
to achieve this.

The choice of the method to use in the analysis depends on
the function to be achieved.

However, even for the same.function, there are multiple
means of analysing data, hence, certain things should be noted.

The method might be based on the popularity of the option in
your environ. It might be based also on what you were taught with in school. It
might be specially required for the kind of work you are doing. Possible
options are discussed below. All options have their pros and cons.



This is a common medium. part of the Microsoft Office
packages. Aside MS word, it is.easily the most used MS office.package, before

The major advantage is that it is easy to use. It is cheap
to.install and readily available.

You rarely get stuck in its use due to its widespread
popularity. It is used for general analysis: regression, scatter plots, graphs
and various charts, various functions, visual presentation of tables et al.
Wide applications in the business area as well. It is not programming
-oriented, rather it is analytical. However, it is belittled in advanced
research and difficult as well as slow for large data . Seen as elementary.


SPSS and strata

This is common in science. They are specific for analysis
and can do better in that regard. There is a possibility.of merging datasets
together as well. The various sheets in excel can be exported and merged

Statisticians and some social scientists use it as well.
Stata is easier and cheaper to use than SPSS. SPSS would most likely be
preferred of the two. They are both analytical tools, they don't require
programming skills. Excellent for ANOVA analysis, t and chi square analysis,
multiple regression analysis etc.



Full meaning: Matrix laboratory. This is common in
engineering and scientific communities. It has good matrix support but lesser
statistical analysis support. It is expensive and requires programming
capabilities. Great for developing mathematical algorithms.

These are the few i have experience in. There are several
others available.

MatCAD is another powerful tool with lots of engineering



This is another stat tool like SPSS though with very poor
reviews due to its limits and use. Its distinctive quality is its large
dataset. The range is in GB and might not be fitted at once.

The learning curve is pretty high as well. Then there's R,
Scipy, PolyMath and the others.

Whichever option is chosen for analysis, consideration of
the intended function, limits and alternatives is critical as it would save the
researcher a whole of stress in the course of the analysis.











In statistics, determination of sample size to be used for
research has generated a lot of controversy. Sample size and power estimation
is an important concern for researchers undertaking research projects but most
often than not they have been misunderstood or ignored completely.



What is sample size?

According to inferential and descriptive statistics, sample
size of any population is a subset or a smaller unit of the main population on
which a research is to be carried out. For the outcome of any research about a
population to be generalized, the sample size has to be able to explain the
characteristics of the main population under study. In order to enhance the
precision of our survey or research, some software has been developed to assist
researchers at all level in determining the right sample size to be used when
studying any population. Sample size calculation, when done manually can be
achieved but it can be nearly impossible when confronted with large population.

Manually calculating the sample size of a large population
can be hectic and conclusions reached on those sample size calculated manually
cannot be confidently generalized across the population under study. But with
the help of these softwares, researchers can determine the following;

i) The power of the test

ii) The sample size suitable for your experiment/survey.

Within little or no time and the interesting part is that
generalizations reached on these sample size can confidently be generalized
across the population.




These softwares help to determine the following;



As the name implies, the power and sample size
calculator/software is a unique software that helps to calculate the power and
sample size of a research/survey.

Most times, researchers make the mistake of rejecting a true
null hypothesis (Ho). The power of the test needs to be ascertained as a guide
in knowing if the research is making the right decision i.e. rejecting a null
hypothesis that is actually false and accepting its alternative or vice-versa.

This unique software helps in determining if the research is
judge “powerful” by placing it on a probability scale of 0 to 1. A value close
to 1 indicates a very powerful research or a research that rejected the
hypothesis to be rejected and accepts the one that should be accepted. A value
close to 0 indicate a weak research or survey whose generalization
or.recommendations may be false.

For your research/survey to be powerful, then the software
should be called.upon in every research that is being embarked upon.

Also, before every research should be carried out, the exact
sample size should be focused on. Under or over estimating sample size of any
population may yield non-powerful or weak results. This software helps to
ascertain the actual sample size to be used and hence, make the test powerful.

This Software can be gotten at


The steps to complete a sample size or power calculation in
PASS software are as follows;

I) Selected and load a procedure using the PASS home window.
This can be done using the navigation tree or by entering a search keyword.
Check on a procedure button in the main display areas to load the procedure

II) Input the analysis parameters on the procedure window.

III) Click the calculate button on the procedure window to
perform the calculation and view the results in the output window.



The Raosoft sample calculator is basically a software that
primarily calculates or generates the sample size of a research or survey.

Estimating a sample size for a survey, project or research
can be confusing and frustrating, as a result, the Raosoft sample size
calculator offers both sample size confidence interval calculation to minimize
these frustrations encountered during research.

This software takes into account the margin of error, the
confidence level and response distribution. It also offers to show viz-a-viz
what the margin of error would be like with various sample sizes.

This Software can be gotten at



This software is a unique software used to calculate the
power and the sample size of any survey. It is mostly used in domains such as
biology, bio-statistics, the social Sciences, agriculture and medicine.

This software can be used for studies with dichotomous
continues or survival response measures. This is a handle tool meant for
students, professionals and researchers with at least minimal statistical
knowledge. A cardinal advantage of the PS: power and sample size calculator is
that it can be used in various study designs like T-test, regression, design
and analysis of experiment, analysis of variance, correlation and revival test.
Also, this software can generate graphs that make it less stressful to analyze
the relationship between the power of the survey, sample size and the
detectable alternative hypothesis.

This software can be gotten at



This has features which enables a researcher to conduct
sophisticated surveys and produce professional report. The survey system can
record any typed of answer and even records respondent actual voice with the

This software helps to guide respondent through correct
questions, helps to modify questions to generate or yield more accurate data
and equally check the validity of answers given. This software is mostly useful
to researchers involved in field survey or research.

This survey software also helps researchers in creating
unique survey and helps to distribute researchers’ questionnaires adequately
online for adequate data.

This software is the most complete software package
available for working with survey questionnaires.

This software can be gotten at www.surveysystem



The power and precision was created by bio-stat Inc. the
software helps to ascertain the power of a test or it helps researchers in
making decisions i.e. rejecting false null hypothesis. It basically helps to
increase the precision of a research or survey. The more precise the
survey/research is most professional the work will be. Most times, researchers
make the mistake of accepting the false null hypothesis which at the end of the
day can lead to false recommendations. In general, the power precision software
as the name depicts, helps to increase the precision/power of a survey.

This software can be gotten at












I once stumbled upon a sentence that greatly inspired me.
The saying goes thus: Every writer is a thief! Certainly you'd be quick to
dispute that. The thing is, we were born without the knowledge we have now
garnered overtime, it is the work of others that we have digested to become
this informed.

In research, it is usual that there would be an in-depth
digging of past and similar work.

It is required that due credit is given to the author of
what-so-ever sentence, experimental work, or excerpt adapted into your work.
This is to acknowledge their efforts, sponsor hard- work and discourage theft
of any form.

This also helps the readers/reviewers of your work locate
the past work and go over.

Plagiarism - claiming someone else's work as yours is a
terrible offence and a laugh-off of creativity. This is strongly discouraged in
all climes. Hence, the need for this guide.



Referencing styles/methods

There are numerous methods of acknowledging past work in
your writing, but there are three major revered styles (citation guide, 2008).
The key, however, is consistency in application.

APA (American Psychological Association)



Print Sources - Book

In the text, it is required that the author and year of
publication is used. In parenthesis or only the year of publication in
parenthesis, e.g.: (Archibong, 2014) or according to Archibong (2014).

At the citation page/list of references/bibliography, it is
written out in full:

The author(s) surname is written, then a comma and initials.
The year of publication in parenthesis. The title of the work in italics, with
edition and particular pages in parenthesis. Then the publisher's details.

E.g. : Archibong, A. (2014). Referencing basics (2nd ed.)
(Pg. 66). Lagos State: Research clue publishers.

NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same
principles. For more than one author, '&' is used.


Print sources - Journal

Same in-text citation, but in the list of references, the
article title is not italicized.

The journal title is italicized. The journal volume and page
number could be added. E.g.: Archibong, A., & Michael P. (2014).

Referencing basics. Journal of research , Vol 2, 400-403.


Print sources - Magazine, newspaper and encyclopaedia

Same in-text citation, but the publication date is in full.
The newspaper/magazine/ encyclopaedia article title is not italicized, the
newspaper/magazine title and volume is italicized. The page is then added.

E.g.: Archibong, A. (2014, December 1).

Referencing basics. Research clue magazine, Vol 2, 400-403.


Online sources

For articles in Journals, newspapers, encyclopaedias and
magazines, it is referenced as above (exact principles) but the URL and date
retrieved online is added.

E.g. for Journal: Archibong, A., & Michael P. (2014).
Referencing basics. Journal of research, Vol 2, 400-403. Retrieved November 1,


For DVD/CD source

The article title is not italicized but the title of the
referenced work. Then the publisher.

E.g.: Archibong, A. (2014). Referencing basics.

Gambatt project hint compilation (DVD).Lagos:

Gambatt project hint publishers. If there is no Author, the
article title is used first, then the year of publication in parenthesis. Then
the publication title in italics (Journal, magazine, encyclopaedia or online),
before the publication source.

E.g. for Journal online source: Referencing basics. (2014).
Journal of research , Vol 2.


CHICAGO Manual of Style

Similarly, in the text, it is required that the author and
year of publication is used. Page number can be added though. In parenthesis or
only the year of publication in parenthesis, e.g.: (Archibong, 2014, 29) or
according to Archibong (2014), referencing can be difficult (29) ...


Print Sources - Book

At the citation page/list of references/ bibliography, it is
written out in full: The author(s) surname is written, then the first name in
full. The year of publication without parenthesis. The title of the work in
italics, the edition and with particular pages without parenthesis as well.
Then the publication source.

E.g. : Archibong, Austine. 2014. Referencing basics. 2nd ed.
Lagos State: Gambatt Research publishers.

NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same
principles. For more.than one Author, 'and' is used.


Print sources - Journal

Same in-text citation, but in the list of references, the
article title is not italicized.

The journal title is italicized. The journal volume and page
number could be added.

NB: No parenthesis in the dates and page numbers.

E.g.: Archibong, Austine U., and Michael Peter G. 2014.
Referencing basics. Journal of research: 400-403.


Print sources - Magazine

The article title is not italicized, the title and volume is
italicized. The page is then added.

E.g.: Archibong, Austine U. 2014. Referencing basics.
Research clue magazine, Vol 2, 400-403.


Print sources - Newspaper and Encyclopaedia

Newspaper articles are not listed as bibliography, it is
cited as a running part of the text. It is not in parenthesis.

E.g.: In the Research clue Magazine on December 1, 2014,
Archibong put out that ...


Online sources

For articles in Journals and magazines ONLY, it is
referenced as above (exact principles) but the URL and date accessed online is
added (in parenthesis).

E.g. for Journal: Archibong, Austine. 2014.

Referencing basics. Journal of research , Vol 2, 400-403.
http.// (accessed November 1, 2015)
For online encyclopaedias and Newspaper, it is not added to the bibliography.
Referenced as above.


DVD/CD ROM encyclopaedia source

It is not listed in the bibliography, but as a running part
of the text.

E.g.: In the article on Referencing guide by Awe Ayowale in
Gambatt project hint [DVD],....


MLA (Modern Language Association)

In the text, it is required that the author and year of
publication is used. In parenthesis, no comma then page number. e.g.:
(Archibong Pg 12) or according to (Archibong).

NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same
principles. For more than one Author, 'and' is used.


Print Sources - Book

At the citation page/list of references/ bibliography, it is
written out in full: The author(s) surname is written, then the first and
middle name in full. The title of the work is underlined with the edition in
aparenthesis, then the publisher and year of publication without parenthesis.

E.g. : Archibong, Austine Ubong. Referencing basics (2nd
ed.). Lagos State: Research clue publishers, 2014.

NB: For whatever purpose, the rules are sacrosanct. Same
principles. For more than one Author, 'and' is used.


Print sources - Journal

Same in-text citation, but in the list of references, the
article and journal title are not italicized. The article title is put in
quotation mark. The journal volume and page number could be added.

NB: No parenthesis in the dates and page numbers.

E.g.: Archibong, Austine Ubong, and Michael Peter Gabriel.
"Referencing basics." Journal of research, Vol 2 (2014): 400-403.


DVD/CD ROM encyclopaedia source (no author)

E.g.: "Reference guidelines."Gambatt project
hint[DVD]. Lagos: Gambatt project hint publication, 2015.

If there is no Author, it is the article title in quotation.
The publication title is underlined.



Citation guide. (2008). Microsoft Student 2007 [DVD] .
Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.











Most researches would require that you submit a copy of your
findings after your research. The commonest means of doing this is by the use
of Microsoft word. This has been in existence for long and the knowledge of its
use is expected even before admission into most tertiary institutions. Yet, the
submissions from students, and researchers generally, show that they lack this
knowledge; are not enforced strictly to comply with guidelines; are just lazy
or they do not just edit their work at the end, after all the apparent work.
This just screams unprofessionalism and recklessness.

The is a dearth of final editing in even in most final
drafts. Negligence evidently, after doing all the 'hard work.Presented with the
aid of illustrations are quick editing tips for Microsoft word, to make the
presentation of your work after the research professional.



It is quite amazing when you go through a master's thesis
and notice this anomaly as well. The font is responsible for the way the
letters appear.

There are several font types in available in all versions of
Microsoft Word.

For formal use: Times New Roman, Calibri, Verdana, Arial are
commonplace. The most preferred being Times New Roman because of the feel of

Standard font sizes that are most accepted is 10.5 - 12.5.
The best being either font size 11 or 12.


You get to see something like:




The above illustration would require an effort to notice but
what is worth doing, is worth doing.well. The 'on' and 'supported' are not in
the same front as the rest. A hard copy/print-out would have revealed this
better. This is common when the typist copies and pastes directly, without
proper checks for fonts consistency.

SOLUTION: Hold down the CONTROL key and press 'A' + select a
font type and size to put this all in place.











We were assembled. We argued. We were at each other's
throats. Then we settled. We laughed hard. We played, prayed and hoped.

Together We presented. We failed. We were blamed altogether.
Then we pointed accusing fingers at each other. Finally, we accepted our fate
and moved on.

This is a condensed depiction of what happened in a group
research project I was once involved in one. You see in life, at some point we
would all have to be engaged in group work of some sort.

Assuming In a case, we were asked to work on the refining of
castor oil. As chemical engineering students, this was to entail the process
description, materials sizing, process design and simulation, full plant
layout, economical and environmental considerations and what-have- you. It was
to be massive.

You can imagine the tussle, utter confusion and nervousness
that would ensue at first. Group projects? Different shades of experiences,
especially my class which is a basic composition of individuals with sizeable
age difference from various tribes, with different ideologies and religious
beliefs. Sure, different temperaments, the hardworking and the lazy ones, as
well as the smart ones and otherwise.

This is a microcosm of the demography available in most
settings. The crux is now handling this successfully, especially in the
critical area of research!


Firstly, in academic environments most times, the members do
not get to choose their teams.

The instructors divide available students into groups, on
whatever basis they decide to employ.

In such case, each member was supposed to take a part at the
presentation after detailed research work. Some will forgot theirs; some will
be too dazed to speak; some wouldn't answer questions thrown at them by the
panel. Different types of students in tertiaries.

 You will imagine that despite some not showing up at
meetings, they will just present their parts well and added to the morale of
the presentation. Some, despite the hard work, slipped and it will really be
disappointing. Many will not even follow the plan when it got to their turn.
Some, you will feel like taking excuse and slapping sense into them.


Gosh! Some members will even start crying at the
presentation when theirs went bad. You can imagine. After trading blames and
dispersed, you might not be able to eat that night. and you will just keep
asking how a seemingly well-planned work went awry.

Group research projects must just be well - handled to enjoy
maximum satisfaction! There were some things if you do not do at all or if you
approached wrongly you can blame yourself at the end.

The first thing I suggest is for the leader, if available,
to establish calm. If none, any outspoken member should call for a meeting and
one should be selected first. One, that all members would likely listen to. One
with mental stability and emotional intelligence. A leader, not necessarily the
most brilliant or the eldest.

Then meeting period chosen. In these case, we had to
consider the Muslims' prayer period and set that as our mini-break each time.
The schedule of everybody in the team is to be considered but the final time
should be in favor of the majority, in most situations. The venues and other
basics like rules at meetings, kinds of words acceptable at the meetings et al
should be sorted out as well.

Next, the team needs to understand the theme very well. The
entire length and breadth. Then all should be encouraged to read around the
theme so a basic scope of work is drafted out.

The beauty of group research projects is that there are
supposed to be more hands available, more finance, increased knowledge source
and the stress distributed. Even as this is true, the ills can be terrifying.

After the scope of work is defined, the strengths of the
team members should be evaluated.

Some will be bold hence relaxed at presentations; some will
be good at typing and can use the required softwares better; some will be
better at content writing or deep intellectual work while other are proficient
at just editing. This is critical to maximize the gains of team work in

The leader should be wise whilst delegating members to
various tasks. The seemingly 'lazy' members should be paired with seemingly
'hardworking' ones. Each sub-group should brief the general team at meetings
with all members taking note, as in some presentations, a general score is
given to all team members, hence all should be knowledgeable about each part,
to be able to represent the team well.

The entire group should be accommodating of other member's
ignorance and rant, even if it is irrelevant. As a matter of fact, the freedom
of speech rule is usually advised. However, a limit is to be established, so
reasonable time is not expended in irrelevant discussions. Resentments should
be handled with caution by the leader as well, as it would definitely arise due
to different interests in the course of the research. A support system should
be set up by the leader as well. For example, the indigent members who cannot
meet up with financial expectations or the more physically capable assisting
the others, and so forth.

After the presentations, no matter the disappointments and
embarrassments, the team should stay positive. No accusations no matter how the
situation. Lessons should be learnt and the group members urged to move on. The
presentations should be rehearsed before time.

Rules during presentations should be clear and all members
should stick to it. Religiously Group research project is not death sentence.

Many loathe it but if handled like this, the members would
spend less time transferring their spittle in the name of quarreling.









PRESENTATIONS: Useful Tips for Project Defense.


Just imagine a project defense room where you are presenting
your research work in such a fabulous way and your panel members just can’t
stop nodding, gazing at you with their mouths wide open and clapping non stop
for you…It is just an imagination, so wake up! Put more work to it by reading
this article, apply it and pray your panel members do not turn your project
defense to project attack! 


Project defense has come to stay, and the only way to graduate
in Nigerian universities is to at least defend what you have written (or copied
and paste) in a convincing manner. Gone are the days when you could just copy
and paste an article from the internet and dump for your school. Our Nigerian
school system is changing from dumping grounds to speech oriented institutions,
which means that you must be good at presentations in order to scale through.
At times students confuse themselves with content of their work. The truth is
that it is better to be more confident with a poor content, than to be unable
to defend an excellent research work.


In this article, I am going to give out some useful tips and
tricks on how you can have an awesome project defense and presentation. In
order to make reading this article more pleasurable, I am going to give tips on
how what to do before the defense day, on the defense day, and inside the
defense room. So enjoy!





First before your project defense, you must ensure you have
a romantic relationship with your project topic and the whole content. When I
say ‘romantic relationship’, I mean your research topic or research thesis must
be of great interest to you. If your topic is too difficult or it was imposed
on you by your project supervisor, you better start loving the topic or better
still; look for a way to get it changed for you. In my little experience, I
have discovered that students who hate their topics usually have problems
flowing in the defense room, and it can mean bad for you. One trick to choose a
nice research topic is by looking for subjects that you love talking about. If
you’re a car freak, you should be considering topics like ‘the impact of
official cars on employee productivity’. You would be amazed how this simple
trick will go a long way in helping you.


Second, do adequate research on your topic. Before defending
or presenting your project, you should source for similar materials on your
topic. Focus on how the problem was identified and addressed. Do not dream of
having an awesome presentation if you do not know common terminologies
associated with your topic.

Identify your keywords, variables, background of the study,
history of the study and all the variables before your defense date. If you
writing on ‘employee motivation and its impact on productivity, you should be
able to know your two variables-‘employee motivation’ and ‘productivity’.


Third, know your motivation for the study or research. Most
final year students in Nigeria defending their projects do not perform well
because, they fail to identify their motives for the study. The motivation for
your study is probably the first answer to numerous questions you may be asked
in the defense room. Before a research is undertaken, there is usually a
problem to solve. The desire to solve that problem becomes your motivation for
the study.

Please do not use money, or the need to graduate as
motivations for your study. Motivation for the study is best applied in
questions like ;

‘why undertake this study’?

‘Tell us about your work’?


Fourth, know your strength as well as your weaknesses.
Knowing your strengths and weaknesses will help you prepare a backup plan in
case the direction of the defense changed in an unfavorable way.

Fifth, discuss with professionals in your research field and
do group discussions with friends. Make your friends your panel members, and
defend in front of them. Tell them to criticize and ask numerous questions.
With this little training you will be tuning your mind set for what a defense
room will look like. You can also seek professional help.






On the day of defense, a lot of students panic and some may
even forget their project topics. Just apply the following tricks and tips and
you will be just fine!


First, rehearse with friends again. Look for people to
discuss your project with all over again. This will help you remember your key


Second, develop good self esteem and confidence. Before you
enter the defense room, make use of some good self esteem!


Think well about your self, and have in mind that these
professors and senior lecturers you are going to face are human beings that do
not know every thing. So be in control. See yourself as someone going to
lecture a bunch of people that do not know much. Remember 90% of your fears
cannot be seen at first, unless you start showing it.






· Knock first before you enter.

· Greet the panel members with lots of smile

· Wait for your first question

· Answer with great confidence. While answering your questions
look straight into the eyes of your panel members, and never be rude. All is











When I wrote ‘Making Awesome Presentations: Useful Tips for
Project Defense’, I never knew it was going to be a great success story. So
many success stories and commendations from over 100 readers were just enough
to make my yesterday, today and tomorrow and give me more grace to write more
these morrow.

Well, enough of the hyping! That great piece was still
lacking some smaller pieces to make it totally awesome as some ‘Oliver
Twist-Like’ student's still needed more to it.


Questions like, what should we expect on the D-Day? What
type of Questions do the committee members ask? Can you suggest possible
questions and answers that will be asked when defending a dissertation or
thesis paper? These questions fill my message box by the day and since I adore

fellow student's. I have decided to write a sequel to
‘Making Awesome Presentations’. This time around, with the help of some senior
lecturers, friends and my own experience, I have compiled some common questions
you may face on your defense day and suggested answers/approach to these
questions. So as usual, Enjoy!






Below are likely questions you may face in a defense room.
Take note of these questions and suggested answers, do good by researching more
and not limiting yourself to just these questions.


Question 1: In few sentences, can you tell us what your
study is all about?

The question is simple right? Many professors will tell you
that most students get choked on a question like this.

Anyways the question is simple, but a bit technical. To
answer this question, you need to know every detail of your research project
from chapters one to the end. The question needs an answer in form of a summary
of the entire study, therefore, to ace this particular question you need to
know every detail in your abstract. If you wrote a good abstract, this question
will be a cross over for you.


Question 2: What is your motivation for this study?

Now you must be careful here. This question can be very
tricky and it goes a long way in convincing your panel members that your study
is worth their time.

To answer this question, you may decide to elaborate on the
problem investigated in the study. Your zeal to solve this problem becomes your
motivation. Do not state financial reasons or the need to graduate as a
motivation as you may easily go off point.


Question 3: How will this study contribute to the body of

At some point the need for justification will arise and that
is when you will be asked to mention how your study will add to the body of
knowledge if approved.

Here you will need to use your methods, case study or any
unique model or conceptual framework used in the study to defend it.


Question 4: What is the significance of the study?

Just like stating how your study will contribute to the body
of knowledge, you will need to state the importance of your study. To answer
this question, you will need to highlight how your study will aid the
government in policy development and implementation, how it will help other
students who may wish to conduct research studies on the subject matter and how
organizations and the society will benefit from your study.


Question 5: Did you bridge any gap from your study?

Every research study must have a problem.

Your ability to solve this problem and explore into areas
not yet researched on gives you the full marks allocated for answering this
question. You must be able to convince the committee members that your approach
is unique and it has covered areas where much have not been done by other


Question 6: What limitations did you encounter?

This is another simple but tricky question.

Most times the question is not asked to sympathize with you,
rather to get loopholes to criticize your work. To answer this question, you
must be careful with words as you may implicate yourself. Be careful enough not
to sell out yourself. Do not discourse limitations in your methods or data
analysis techniques as this may imply that your study may be biased or not well
researched. Use simple limitations like difficulties encountered in combining
lectures and project instead of limiting your study.


Question 7: What are your findings?

At this point it is expected of you to present your results
or findings from the study in a clear and concise manner.

Always link your findings to your research
objectives/questions. This will make your panel members to easily be carried


Question 8: What Methods or Sampling Technique did you

To answer this question, you must be familiar with your
research methodology.

Your chapter three (in Most Projects) must be at your
fingertips. Your ability to justify your sample size and technique will be
highly rewarded here.


Question 9: Why choose this method?

As discoursed above, you should not only state a particular
method for the study.

You must also be ready and able to justify why you chose the
method in a convincing manner. At this point you are free to quote sources or
similar studies where such methods were adopted.


Question 10: Based on your findings what are your

Recommendations are very vital in every research study and
should not be joked with. In essence you should know your recommendations off


Question 11: Based on your findings what areas will you
suggest for future research?

Questions like this are just there to test your reasoning
and authority in your research area. Based on your findings in a manageable
scope, you should be able to suggest future research areas in line with your
study. For example, if I researched on the challenges of personal income tax
collection in Nigeria, a good area for further study will be in other forms of
taxation such as VAT, Company tax etc.


Question 12: How can your research study be put into

Easy for the computer scientist and engineering students,
but a bit tough for management and social sciences since most management/social
science projects are more of abstract in nature. However, you should try your
best to be realistic here. Relate your study to current trends in your
environment, office, economy, government, schools, church etc. Use of relevant
examples and illustrations will score you good point here.


Question 13: How would you summarize your study to a
practitioner in a few sentence?

Your ability to convey technical information from the study
will score you good points here.


Question 14: What would you change if you were to conduct
the study again?

Hmmm. Be careful! Do not be too jovial.

There is a loophole here! Just like your limitations, this
question can be asked to identify your week points.


Question 15: What is your measurement Instrument?

In simple terms, what data collection method did you employ
for the study?

Here you state if questionnaires were distributed or data
was gotten from secondary sources.


Question 16: What are your research variables?

Here you will need to convince your panel members that you
know what you are talking about. You need to explain your independent and
dependent variable(s) to convince them that you are on point. Your variables
are present in your project topic.

You need to identify these variables and know their
definitions as well to ace your defense.


Question 17: What are your research questions?

Very simple question. It should take about 0.015 seconds to
answer this question if you are fully prepared.


Question 18: What do you plan to do with your research
project after Graduation?

Here you are at liberty to say your mind. If you intend to
publish it, this is the best opportunity to discourse and interact with the
committee members-maybe a professor there can be of help.


Question 19: What source of data was employed for the study?

At this point you have to state the source (s) you got data
from. In general you have to state whether data was gotten from primary or
secondary source or both. You can further convince the committee members by
discoursing on literature reviewed for the study-both theoretical and


Question 20: What theories or theoretical framework is your
study based on?

This is a very technical question but interesting. Before
you step into the defense room, you should know at least two relevant theories
that relate to your study. For example, the “impact of motivation on employee
productivity” will be based on Maslow’s Theory and other theories of
motivation. If you cannot find relevant theories to back up your study, consult
your supervisor for help.


Question 21: How would you relate your findings to existing
theories on the study?

To ace this question, one will have to read extensively. You
should know existing theories on the subject matter as well as empirical
studies too. Your ability to link your findings to previous research studies
(Whether they agree or not) will go a long way in validating your study. You
will score good points here trust me.


Question 22: What recommendations do you have for future

Your problem solving skill is put to test here. You should
be able to identify areas that will need more research.


Question 23: What is the scope of the study?

This one is a cheap or should I say bonus question? Here you
quickly state the delimitation of the study in brief.


Question 24: What question(s) do you have for the committee?

Not a likely question in our Nigerian context, but I have
defended a seminar project where this question was asked and I was shocked to
my marrows. This is an opportunity to interact with your committee members and
ask some constructive questions. Do not ask silly or too difficult questions as
the goal should be to make the committee members feel as the “boss”. It will
also go a long way in showing that you are a brilliant individual.


Question 25: Do you have any closing comments?

This is praising time! Use this opportunity to thank your
committee members for their time and questions. Tell them how much you have
learnt from them and how you intend to correct errors (if any) identified in
your work. This can go a long way in impressing your internal and external
supervisors. All the best!



*When confronted with a difficult question, adopt a strategy
to make them rephrase or repeat the question,   This will give you
more time to think.

*Before your defense day. Practice with? your supervisor or
your friends,  Make them to drill you with likely questions.

*Talk calmly with confidence. Do not talk too fast as this
may pave way for tension and stage freight.

*Read your project thoroughly. Know basic definitions and
terms used in the study.

*Expand the likely questions to 50. 

Then the victory is yours.











The essence of research is to find more knowledge and add to
the existing body of knowledge. How has your study contributed to the Body of

This is one question students especially at the Masters or
PhD level must answer one day. The body of knowledge (BOK) encompasses every
field of study from medicine to soap making and even our regular sports. You
may choose to look at it as a vast library that needs constant updates from
brilliant and creative minds to solve newer issues in the society. If you do
not contribute, posterity may suffer because they cannot rely on old data and
theories to survive and keep up with the pace at which the world is evolving
today coupled with rapid growth in technology.


Just imagine if we were to be using research studies on
Malaria conducted in 1890 to cure Malaria today...imagine how many people that
will die as a.result of no current work to show that nutrition has improved,
life styles have changed, hygiene is getting better, mosquitoes are getting
smarter, newer herbs and chemicals exist- now that is the essence of research!
So do not feel bad when asked if your work will or has added to existing

From my little observations, most Nigerian students develop
negative mind sets that portray their work is not adding to the body of
knowledge... if possible, it may actually be subtracting. It is very funny how
some students feel that every researchable idea or topic on earth has been
tackled by someone.


Some go to the extent of feeling that there are no fresh
research areas anymore, unless you are willing to tackle the 'impossible'. The
most difficult areas where little or nothing has been done on is tagged the


The funny fact is you can still contribute positively
without researching on the 'impossible' or trying to tie yourself down to a new
research area where no one has ever may hang on the way as
material availability may rob you. Various ways you can go ahead with your
normal research and still contribute meaningfully to the body of knowledge are
addressed below, so take a good time out, read them, apply them and contribute
by bringing in your own ideas in the comment box below. Enjoy!





Being smart in the defense room is your number one strength.
Do not allow your panel members to intimidate you with statements like 'this
study has been conducted by plenty people already, I do not see how it can add
to existing knowledge'. Very funny right? You may not know how many Supervisors
have frustrated students with this statement.


You may not know how many recognized and international
Journal websites have refused to publish original work done by students because
it is deemed 'popular' so no addition to knowledge. The first secret in
countering that statement is by using your area or case study as a major
contribution to knowledge. Remember you have got to be smart and logical here.
For the mere fact that you conducted that study in your village is enough
reason for it to be of great significance. A popular topic like 'The Impact of
Motivation on Employee Productivity in New York' may not have the same findings
if conducted in a town in Nigeria say- Oshogbo. The mere fact that we have
researched on the impact of motivation on employees in Oshogbo, (which may be
totally new) is a contribution to the body of Knowledge. Surprised?





Another way students can add great significance to existing
knowledge is by methodology adopted. By reviewing empirical studies on a
subject matter, a student can discover a new method or approach in tackling the
same problem identified in prior research studies. For example, data collection
method, sample size, data analysis can be changed to tackle the same problem in
order to bring out a unique study. If Mr. A and B used questionnaires in their
study, you can also contribute by reviewing secondary data instead or opt for
other measurement instruments such as observations, focus group studies,
interviews etc.


Different Inferential statistics or data analysis methods
can also be adopted here to bring a difference and hence add to the body of
knowledge. If appropriate, deeper analyses such as regressions, ANOVA and the
rest can make you outstanding.





Your ability to solve trending or new issues in the society
is an added advantage to you. This could be used in justifying the study as
well as a way of adding to existing knowledge. Through asking the right
questions and doing a thorough data analysis, one could solve current issues in
his or her environment from the findings of the study as well as good
recommendations listed. These trending issues are still new and enough research
may not have been carried out on the subject matter. So the ability of the
student to boldly tackle this new issue and surviving the problems of new
research areas and building literature for the subject area is highly rewarded,
hence it is a major contribution to knowledge.





Although not easy as it looks, but very possible. One can
actually make meaningful contribution to knowledge by using a different
approach to solving an identified problem. New models, conceptual
frameworks/concepts and hypotheses that are valid and result oriented will
definitely add to existing knowledge on the subject matter.


For Example:

‘The primary aim of the researcher in this study is to
relook at the concept of leadership from a new perspective.

So far most studies on leadership have focused on the
individual and the personal qualities and traits that shape leaders.

In this study the researcher has tried to shift the focus to
the issues rather than the individual glorification and this has lead to the
development of The Global Leadership Model which is based on contemporary

This model or the concept is The
Global Leadership Model which is issue based’.











The enormous achievements in development in most of the
developed countries comes mainly through research. This made former president
Goodluck Jonathan to task the.nation universities in the art of research.
Following this.mandate by the federal government, the regulatory body of all
universities in the nation, the Nigerian Universities Commission (NUC) has been
introducing various commendable schemes and awards to advance the standard of
education in the country as well promote research among university students.

One of such award scheme was the Nigerian Universities
Doctoral Thesis Award Scheme (NUDTAS) which evolved from the Nigerian Universities
Postgraduate Thesis Award Scheme (NUPTAS) also instituted by the NUC (Nigerian
Universities Commission). According to the NUC, the scheme was introduced to
promote best practices among universities, identifying and encouraging best PhD
thesis, encourage academic research among students and to boost postgraduate
scholarship. This can be achieved by the students and their schools investing
their intellect and time in research. This is important as research plays an
important role in nation building.

The low enrollment of.students in the area of.research in
our universities has been attributed to the fact that the role of research in
the nation’s development not been accorded its right of place. Our higher
institutions of learning need to understand that research plays a huge role in
our nation’s desire to be among the best nations of the world in terms of
growth and development. Our postgraduate students and their schools should play
a major part in providing the needed human resources and fields of studies
required for our economy to thrive.

The world economy is driven largely by those who possess
knowledge and the required expertise and for Nigeria to attain her Millennium
Development Goals, she has to posses the required manpower equipped with the right
knowledge. This can be gotten from the research carried out by our postgraduate
students and their schools. Former President Jonathan made this known to the
universities when he charged them to help the nation to realise its goal of
being among the best 20 economies of the world by the year 2020.

Therefore the NUC has to support the universities to build a
culture of academic excellence and intellectual research. The selection process
for the NUDTAS award starts with a selection process where every university
nominate the best thesis they have for the year to a team of experts selected
by the NUC. This selection committee then evaluates, assesses and selects the
best thesis that meet the requirement of the original and most important
contributions to the needed disciplines. They are able to do this effectively
by adhering to the NUC’s guidelines. The needed disciplines include
Environmental sciences, Agricultural Science, Medicine, Administration,
Pharmacy, Education, Science, Engineering, Social Science and Law.

The winners of the best thesis that adequately addresses the
nation’s needs in the areas mentioned above, receive their prizes at the NUDTAS
annual ceremony. The occasion also provides ample opportunity for future and
intending awardees to learn the lesson that hard work pays. An award winning
thesis will among other things show that the student understood the proper
research process, gotten from the teaching by the teacher who gave great value
in the education. There should also be a favourable culture of learning
environment, adequate amount of needed resources and availability of relevant

Due to insufficient funding of research in Nigerian
universities, there has been a slow growth of research in the schools. Since no
meaningful research can be carried out without money there is a need by
government to increase the funds available to Nigerian universities. According
to NUC policy, there is a five percent allocation for research purposes, given
to Nigerian higher institutes of education as recurrent grant which is grossly
inadequate, inaccessible to the schools and most times irregular. To make
matters worse, there is the hope of earning more in other countries which draws
away our seasoned lecturers. They go there to earn more and leave the young
ones they would have tutored.

In Spite of all these challenges, the Nigerian student
thrives on. The NUDTAS awardees are a perfect testimony to the fact that if
given a conducive environment the Nigerian student can soar to great heights.











The highest level of education that exists is the PhD. While
it can be frustrating and tiring, your dissertation, which is your final result
is a very rewarding thing for you and a major achievement in your life. With a
zeal to help PhD students with their thesis, the duo of Dr. Gordon Rugg and Dr.
Marian Petre wrote the book - The Unwritten Rules of PhD Research. This is a
no-holds-barred look about what you as an individual needs to know when it
comes to PhD research. The tone of the book is witty from the start so that you
will smile as you learn the important messages it passes across. In the book,
doctoral thesis is seen as a respected work of art, one that you learned from
your master as an apprentice. This means that when you present your thesis
research, you should present it as someone who has thoroughly learned all about
your subject and done all the necessary research on it.


Carrying out a PhD research is a huge undertaking and it is
not at all like an undergraduate degree where you are only expected to write
some essays and pass some exams. For you to be awarded a PhD, you need to prove
that you are a competent researcher. That is why an area of emphasis in the
book is the on the aspect of reading. In the life of any researcher, reading is
an important part as that will help him assimilate all the information
necessary for his research work. According to the authors, your major working
knowledge as a researcher is about 50-100 pages gotten from the materials you
read obviously.


The book is a complete manual that can help you to be a
truly independent researcher.The authors has a table (table 2) which showed the
transition of a student from the stage of entering to the stage of completing
his work. When the student enters, he surveys, he collects and he reports the
information. From there he is ready to know what isn‘t known and from there
judges the collected information. There are many topics in the book like
supervision, independent research, writing, reading the literature, the viva,
presentation and some topics such as the importance of building an active
contact list for networking.


In the Unwritten rules of phd research, you can find the
various papers that can be written for a PhD research. They are demonstration
of concept papers, data-driven papers, review papers, tutorial papers,
theoretical papers, method-mongering papers and consciousness-raising papers.
There are many information and explanations of each type of research paper in
the book. The writers recognised the flaws or mistakes you can make in your
research which might hurt you later. There are some checklist in the book that
a new researcher can use to avoid making these mistakes.


Dr. Rugg and Dr. Petre laid a lot emphasis on the need to
gather information from people around you. This is due to the big differences
in the researches of different disciplines. They gave a major rule while doing
this, that is to maintain the image of a hard working individual rather than a
lazy fellow. The authors also gave three golden rules of public speaking which
can be very helpful to you when it time to present your thesis. Number one is
don’t lie, two is don’t try to be funny and three is don’t panic and blurt out
the truth. There are detailed explanations about these three rules in the book
and it is worthy of reading. There is also a chapter on writing, with a
bulleted list of great advice for writing your thesis. The same goes for the
other short chapters where there are much tables and lists of things you should
do and those you should not do.


The book is highly recommended for current and intending PhD
students, as it will help you get good advice on reading, writing and
presenting your thesis. After going through the book you will realise that
there are more to research than the usual find a problem, work on it, get a
result and  communicate your findings. This book will open your eyes to
the world of academia and show you what you really should be doing to become a
great researcher.











Many Nigerian students require some form of financial help
to further their studies. Sometimes they may need this money to travel abroad and
complete their studies. This can be obtained through scholarships and grants.
There are many scholarships and grants available to Nigerian students either to
help them complete their education here in the country or to travel abroad for
their schooling. These scholarships are provided by government,
non-governmental organization, international agencies, individuals, educational
institutions and corporations.


The grants and scholarships are meant to give students
financial relief from schooling and education affordable to the winners. To be
able to win these scholarships there are certain guidelines you need to know,
there are methods of applying for scholarship that will get you accepted for
the award. Here are some of the things you need to bear in mind before you
apply for a scholarship so as to increase your chance of being selected.


Need for the Scholarship: You have to know why you are
applying for this scholarship. This is because most of the scholarship are need
based, academic based and courses based. What I mean is that there are some
scholarships and grants that are given to people who need it, others are given
to people who wants to go for their Bachelor's degree, master's degree or
doctoral degree. But the majority is given to people who are ready to study a
specific course or discipline. So you need to know what your need is, so as to
know what type of scholarship to look for.

Are you eligible: You should be sure that you are eligible
for any scholarship you applying for, to avoid being denied. The eligibility
status is usually written on the website or application notice of the
institution offering the scholarship. It comprises of many things which include
having a pass mark in exams like SAT, GMAT and GRE. Sometimes the eligibility
condition may be that you’ll be an indigene of a state, country or region, so
check the eligibility criteria well, to make sure that you are eligible before

Application letter: Applying for a scholarship involves you
writing an application letter to the institution giving the award. A well
written application letter always increases your chances of being accepted by
the deciding board and getting you the award. You should write your letter in a
formal way like you are applying for a job. There are sample scholarship
application letters in the internet that you can check out to see how it's

Proper documentation: You need to have all your documents
ready. There are many documents that will be required of your for your
application to be granted. This totally depends on the type of scholarship you
applying for, but mostly it's your school's results, certificates, transcripts,
birth certificate or sworn affidavit, a form of identification among others. To
increase your chances of success, make sure you have all your certificates and
papers ready before you start applying so you don’t stop along the way and
start looking for them with deadline approaching.

Beat the deadline. All the scholarships opportunities have
deadlines attached to them so make sure that you beat the deadline. To do this
ensure that you start getting all the materials you need for the scholarship on
time. You can start a month ahead and make sure you apply at least one week
before the deadline. It is always to go to be among the first to apply but
don’t rush so that you don’t make mistakes. Again don’t wait till the last day
to apply as you might make mistake in a rush to beat deadline and forget some
things. Therefore check for scholarships on time and start preparing early



So there you have it. There are many opportunities available
to Nigerian students both here on the country and outside for you access
scholarships and grants for education purposes. Whether you are going for
graduate or postgraduate degree in any part of the world, there may be one or
two scholarship available to you. The internet has made such information
available to you so you have no excuse. Also check our article on the list of
scholarship available to Nigerian students so you see if you are qualified for
any and start applying. Goodluck




List of Scholarships available to Nigerian Students

А numbеr оf sсhоlаrshірs fоr Аfrісаn studеnts аrе аwаrdеd
аnnuаllу bу fеdеrаl gоvеrnmеnts, оrgаnіzаtіоns аnd unіvеrsіtіеs іn dіffеrеnt
раrts оf thе wоrld. Gеnеrаllу, Ѕсhоlаrshір аwаrd рrоgrаms аrе аvаіlаblе іn
lаrgе vаrіеtу fоr іntеrnаtіоnаl studеnts, but sоmе оf thеsе іntеrnаtіоnаl
sсhоlаrshірs аrе nоt ореn fоr Nigerian studеnts. Іn suсh саsеs whіlе sеаrсhіng
fоr sсhоlаrshір, аррlісаnts mау hаvе tо соmb thrоugh sеvеrаl sсhоlаrshір раgеs
оnlіnе tо fіnd оnеs thаt ассерts studеnts frоm Nigeria. Іntеrеstіnglу, thеrе
аrе а gооd numbеr оf sсhоlаrshір-аwаrdіng рrоgrаmmеs fоr Nigerian studеnts
аvаіlаblе еvеrу уеаr аnd а lоt оthеr nеwlу іntrоduсеd рrоgrаmmеs.


Рrоsресtіvе studеnts lооkіng fоr sоurсеs оf fіnаnсіаl аwаrd
tо furthеr thеіr еduсаtіоn nееd tо dеvоtе tіmе аnd еffоrt wіth thе аvаіlаblе
rеsоurсеs оnlіnе tо fіnd аnd аррlу fоr sсhоlаrshірs. Вut thіs dоеs nоt gо
wіthоut sауіng thаt уоu nееd tо fulfіll сеrtаіn rеquіrеmеnts tо bе еlіgіblе.
Yоu саn fіnd а numbеr оf sсhоlаrshірs fоr Аfrісаn studеnts оn sсhоlаrshір
wеbsіtеs thаt рrоvіdе frее rеsоurсеs оn nаtіоnаl аnd іntеrnаtіоnаl sсhоlаrshірs
fоr Аfrісаn studеnts. Wіth thе usе оf sеаrсh еngіnеs lіkе Gооglе аnd Yаhоо, уоu
саn tасtісаllу fіnd sсhоlаrshірs thаt suіtе уоur рrеfеrеnсе.


Ѕоmе sсhоlаrshірs аrе mаdе аvаіlаblе fоr аll Аfrісаn
соuntrіеs (іnсludіng оthеr іntеrnаtіоnаl studеnts іn sоmе саsеs), whіlе а lоt
оthеr аrе аvаіlаblе fоr sресіfіс соuntrіеs іn dеvеlоріng соuntrіеs (Nigeria
іnсludеd). Неrе аrе sоmе оf thе mајоr sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаmmеs thаt ассерt
Аfrісаns уеаrlу whісh уоu саn tаkе аdvаntаgе оf.



Аustrаlіаn Dеvеlорmеnt Ѕсhоlаrshір

Тhе Аustrаlіа Dеvеlорmеnt Ѕсhоlаrshір Аwаrds fоr Аfrіса іs
аn іnіtіаtіvе оf thе Аustrаlіаn Gоvеrnmеnt аіmеd tо mахіmіzе thе bеnеfіt оf thе
Аustrаlіаn Gоvеrnmеnt's ехtеnsіvе sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаms, аnd tо suрроrt еndurіng
tіеs bеtwееn Аustrаlіа аnd nеіghbоrіng Аfrісаn Соuntrіеs. Аustrаlіаn
Dеvеlорmеnt Ѕсhоlаrshірs (АDЅ) аrе аvаіlаblе fоr full-tіmе Роstgrаduаtе Dірlоmа
оr Маstеr Dеgrее studіеs аt Аustrаlіаn unіvеrsіtіеs.



Fоrd Fоundаtіоn Іntеrnаtіоnаl Fеllоws Рrоgrаm

Тhе Іntеrnаtіоnаl Fеllоwshірs Рrоgrаm (ІFР) іs а рrоgrаm
suрроrtеd bу thе Fоrd Fоundаtіоn, аnd сооrdіnаtеd іn Wеst Аfrіса bу thе ААU
(Аssосіаtіоn оf Аfrісаn Unіvеrsіtіеs) іn соllаbоrаtіоn wіth Раthfіndеr
іntеrnаtіоnаl іn Νіgеrіа. ІFР рrоvіdеs fеllоwshірs fоr аdvаnсеd studу tо
ехсерtіоnаl іndіvіduаls whо wіll usе thеіr еduсаtіоn tо furthеr dеvеlорmеnt іn
thеіr оwn соuntrіеs аnd grеаtеr sосіаl аnd есоnоmіс јustісе wоrldwіdе. ІFР
fеllоwshірs аrе аwаrdеd tо аррlісаnts thаt lасk sуstеmаtіс ассеss tо hіghеr
еduсаtіоn. Ѕоmе раst fеllоws hаvе rеturnеd tо thеіr рrеvіоus wоrk іn
gоvеrnmеnt, unіvеrsіtіеs, аnd wіth ΝGОs, whіlе оthеrs аrе nоw wоrkіng іn rurаl



Fulbrіght Ѕсhоlаrshір

Тhе Fulbrіght sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаmmе іs оffеrеd thrоugh
Еduсаtіоnаl ехсhаngеs thаt strеngthеn undеrstаndіng аnd соmmunісаtіоn bеtwееn
thе Unіtеd Ѕtаtеs аnd studеnts frоm оvеr 140 соuntrіеs, іnсludіng sеlесtеd
Аfrісаn соuntrіеs. Ѕtudеnts іntеrеstеd іn аррlуіng саn dо sо thrоugh thе
Fulbrіght Рrоgrаm Оffісе іn thеіr hоmе соuntrу.



Rоtаrу Fоundаtіоn Аmbаssаdоrіаl Ѕсhоlаrshір

Тhе Rоtаrу сlub оffеrs sсhоlаrshір tо іntеrnаtіоnаl studеnts
еасh уеаr thrоugh thе Rоtаrу Fоundаtіоn Аmbаssаdоrіаl sсhоlаrshір. Аfrісаn
studеnts whо аrе mеmbеrs оf thе Rоtаrу сlub fоundаtіоn аrе еlіgіblе tо аррlу
thrоugh thеіr lосаl Rоtаrу Сlub.



ОРЕС Fund fоr Ѕсhоlаrshір Аwаrd

Тhе ОРЕС Fund fоr Іntеrnаtіоnаl Dеvеlорmеnt (ОFІD) оffеrs
Ѕсhоlаrshір Аwаrd tо suрроrt роstgrаduаtе studеnts frоm dеvеlоріng соuntrіеs іn
рursuіt оf hіghеr еduсаtіоn. ОFІD аіms tо hеlр hіghlу mоtіvаtеd, hіghlу drіvеn
іndіvіduаls оvеrсоmе thе соst оf аdvаnсеd рrоfеssіоnаl оr grаduаtе trаіnіng.


Аnd thе lіst gоеs оn, but lеt's lеаvе іt аt thеsе fоr
ехаmрlе рurроsе.


Тhеsе аrе fеw оf thе mаnу sсhоlаrshір рrоgrаmmеs fоr Аfrіса
studеnts. Тhеrе аrе lіkеwіsе а lаrgе numbеr оf nоt-sо рорulаr sсhоlаrshірs fоr
Аfrісаn Ѕtudеnts tо tаkе аdvаntаgе оf. Whаt уоu nееd іs dіlіgеnt rеsеаrсh оn
thе іntеrnеt wіth thе rіght оnlіnе rеsоurсеs tо fіnd thеsе рrоgrаmmеs.




Аррlуіng fоr sсhоlаrshір

То mахіmіzе thе роssіbіlіtу оf wіnnіng sсhоlаrshірs,
studеnts shоuld stаrt lооkіng fоr suіtаblе sсhоlаrshірs еаrlу (аt lеаst оnе
уеаr bеfоrе уоu іntеnd tо аррlу fоr аdmіssіоn). Моst studеnts mаkе thе соmmоn
mіstаkе tо stаrt sеаrсhіng fоr sсhоlаrshірs аftеr thеу hаvе gаіnеd аn аdmіssіоn
fоr thеіr undеrgrаduаtе оr роstgrаduаtе studіеs. Ѕtаrtіng еаrlу wіll hеlр уоu
tо саrеfullу sеlесt thrоugh sсhоlаrshірs уоu wіll bе еlіgіblе tо аррlу fоr, аnd
usе іt tо рrіоrіtіzе уоur сhоісе оf соuntrу, unіvеrsіtу оr соursе оf studу.
Yоu'll аlsо bе іnfоrmеd оf thе роssіblе аррlісаtіоn реrіоd еасh уеаr (fоr
аnnuаl рrоgrаmmеs) аnd thеn саrеfullу рrераrе уоur аррlісаtіоn. То іnсrеаsе
уоur сhаnсеs оf wіnnіng а sсhоlаrshір, уоu shоuld fоllоw thrоugh thе рrосеss
rеlіgіоuslу. Fееdbасks frоm sсhоlаrshір аwаrdіng соmmіttее shоws thаt uр tо 90%
оf studеnts thаt аррlу fоr sсhоlаrshір dо nоt fоllоw thrоugh thе rulеs аnd
guіdеlіnеs. Тhіs іs аn аdvаntаgе fоr studеnts thаt рut mоrе tіmе аnd еffоrt
іntо thеіr sсhоlаrshір аррlісаtіоn.




























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