The study is aimed at investigating the Impact of teaching materials in teaching and learning in primary school in Akure South Local Government Area.  The  study examined whether , availability of  teaching materials and uses of  teaching materials have effect on the teaching and learning in primary schools, also the study determine  the problems hindering effective use of  teaching materials during teaching and learning.  In view of these, five  research questions were formulated. This study was a descriptive research design. The sample size of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents was used for this study, simple random sampling technique was used to select five primary schools for the study. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using percentage. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that there is need for schools to make instructional material available for teaching and learning. The study shows that the available  teaching materials were frequently being used by teachers. Based on the result the study recommended that  government should provide  teaching materials in Primary   schools to enhance effective teaching and learning. Enough time should be allotted in the school time table for effective use of  teaching materials in teaching,  also seminar, workshop on the use of the  teaching materials should be organized for teachers.





Background to the Study

The primary school is foundation of the child’s formal educational development. The quality of teaching at this stage will not only influence the child’s rate of learning, but will to a very large extent determine the quality and direction of his academic achievements and career later in life. This underscores the need to make teaching and learning very interesting, stimulating and meaningful to the child. One of the ways of achieving this is through the proper utilization or assessment of instructional materials.

Agugbem E.O. (2008) view  teaching materials as the equipment, devices, objects, and formation materials which the teacher uses to facilitate learning process. In other words, they are the specific things used by the teacher in the classroom to make the pupils learn easily and quickly.

Learning process is an expensive article on the part of the pupils but what make it attractive and acceptable is the nature of  teaching materials through which the topic is presented by the teacher.   

 teaching materials are important to the teaching-learning process, but often teachers do neglect them during their lesson when  teaching materials are used effectively, they help to simplify what is being taught, motivate the learners and make the lesson meaningful. The idea of make teaching and learning meaningful, functional and purposeful is to enable the pupils see what they are to learn clearly and also afford them the opportunity of making use of instructional materials. Learning tend to be more effective when individuals activity participate in learning experience in selecting what he/she is to learn and receive feedback or result soon after response is made having made use of specified instructional materials.

Meaningful learning is said to be possible through the active involvement of a learner in the learning situation. It is what the learner sees or does that he/she is likely to learn meaningfully. In a class where  teaching materials are used, the learner is an active participant in the learning process.

One important dimension in teacher education that is getting a lot of attention is related to the use of instructional materials.  teaching materials are those materials used by a teacher to simplify their teaching. They include both visual and audio-visual aids and could either be concrete or non-concrete.

The influence of  teaching materials in promoting students' academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching in Nigerian Primary  schools needs to be properly handled.  teaching materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners Ijaduola (2017).  teaching materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television and computers. If education program is to be planned and if efforts for continued improvement are to be made, it is verynecessary to  have  some  conception the  goal  that  are being  aimed  at the educational objectives become a criteria by which material are selected, content isoutline, instructional procedures are developed.

 In another development, the use of  teaching materials makes differentcontinents to shape their rules and regulations, to accommodate the others. This is done by providing them with the socio-cultural and political ways and accommodate another. An instructional material makes students understand more effective Olardi (2006), has highlighted the impact of  teaching materials that teachers use to improve the students from understanding and perception of the subject as an enhanced aid.

Kay (2008),  teaching materials stimulate the students desire to assist learning process by making assimilation and memorization of materials Also, it helps to hold attention, include greeted acquisition and, as well as objectives which may be in accessible to many students

These  teaching materials bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. The use of  teaching materials in the classroom has the potential to help the teacher explain new concepts clearly, resulting in better student understanding of the concepts being taught. However, they are not ends in themselves but they are means to an end (Kadzera, 2006).

It is held that good teaching resources can never replace the teacher but the teacher uses them to achieve their teaching and learning objectives. Some of the  teaching materials necessary for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies include the chalkboard, models, graphs, charts, maps, pictures, diagrams, cartoons, slides, filmstrips, radio, and television (Kochhar, 2011). The importance of the use of these materials cannot be underscored.

This has been emphasized by a number of scholars. Lockheed (2011) says that  teaching materials are critical ingredients in learning and that the curriculum could not be easily implemented without them.

Kochhar (2011) adds that a teacher who has adequate and relevant teaching facilities is more confident, effective and productive. Similar sentiments are shared by Steel (2013) who asserts that relevant  teaching materials enable the learners to have a clear understanding  of the subject taught.

 teaching materials are essential since they help the teacher and learners avoid overemphasis on recitation and rote learning that can easily dominate a lesson. Resource materials allow learners to have practical experiences which help them to develop skills and concepts and to work in a variety of ways. The work of Sampath (2010) graphically explain that people learn more through the senses of sight and hearing compared to other senses.

At the same time, Walkin (2012) says that  teaching materials have to meet the learning objectives, be validated and their impact be evaluated. But Jarolimek and Parker (2013) are of the view that  teaching materials for Social Studies need to be evaluated carefully before, during and after they have been used. This is because it is the teacher and not the media who produce exciting programmes for children. As such, apart from being available and adequate,  teaching materials should also be used appropriately. No material is entirely self-teaching; they all require a teacher to set the stage for learning to take place because materials of instruction can be no better than the teachers who use them. In summary, Romiszowski (2008); Walkin 2012) and Hills (2012) concur on the fact that if  teaching materials are properly selected and used, the following would occur: Learning would be interesting and meaningful, Knowledge acquired would be retained for a longer time,  Different skills would be acquired by learners,  Students would be actively involved during lessons.

From the above views, it is clear that  teaching materials are essential for effective teaching and learning and should be made adequately available in all schools. To help teachers become better teachers, most schools in developed countries are provided with a variety of  teaching materials and equipment. But the situation in Primary

Statement Of The  Problem.

The important of teaching material in primary schools could not be over emphasis,  teaching materials make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. But inspite of the benefits of  teaching materials to teaching and learning, the scarcity of the  teaching materials has hindered, to some extent, the efficiency of teaching and learning . In view of this difficulties, most teachers still resort to the theoretical method of teaching.

 The question of academic performance  of pupils is usually discussed both in and outside the academic circles. In the last few years, it has been observed in most primart schools that a high percentage ofpupil are performing very poorly due to ill motivated behaviour of the pupils towards the Education, lack of professional teachers, existence of lazy teachers and lack of teaching facilities and equipment (David, 2014). Some of these reports have shown that there are poor academic activities in Primary  schools which obviously leads to rampant failure in external examinations

Purpose Of The Study

          The purpose of this study is to find the Impact of teaching materials in teaching and learning of in Primary  schools in Akure South government area of Ondo State.

Specifically, this study sought to:

1.     Investigate the availability of  teaching materials for the teaching and learning in  Primary   schools in Akure South Government Area of Ondo State.

2.     Determine how often teachers use  teaching materials to teach  the pupils in Primary   schools in Akure South Government Area of Ondo State.

3.      Determine  the problems hindering effective use of  teaching materials during teaching and learning in Akure South Government Area of Ondo State

4.     Investigate the attitude of students towards the use of  teaching materials

5.     To determine the impact of  teaching materials on  pupils academic performance

  Research Questions.

          The following research questions. Were raised to guide the study:

1.     Are  teaching materials available for the teaching and learning in  Ilaje Primary  schools?

2.     How often do teachers use  teaching materials to teach the pupils?

3.     What are the problems hindering effective use of  teaching materials during teaching and learning in Akure South Government Area of Ondo State?

4.     Do  teaching materials have impact on the attitude of Primary  school pupils?

5.     To what extend does the use of instructional material impact on pupils academic performance?

 Scope Of The Study

     The research would be restricted to  one hundred and fifty  pupils in five selected Primary  school in Akure South government area of Ondo State

 Significance Of The Study

     This study would be of immense importance to Primary  school teacher who have long ignored the use of instruction in the classroom teaching. Utilization of instructional material in the classroom teaching. Utilization of instruction material coupled with the effective teaching also brings about efficiency in teaching and leaning thereby revives the falling standard of education.

     If the findings are made available to the appropriate authorities, government and other who are interested in the efficiency of learning will find this research very useful.

     If the findings are made available to the appropriate in the efficiency of learning will find this research very useful.

Operational definition of the Terms

     It is necessary to define the following terms because of their unique use in the study.

     Academic performance: academic performance can be defined as excellence in all academic disciplines in doss as well as extra curricular activities.

      Instructional materials:  teaching materials are learning materials or teaching aids that facilitate teaching and learning.

     Improvisation: improvising in this study refers to a way of producing or providing teaching aids that ate relevant to the teaching 


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