1.1               Introduction and Background to the Study.

Education is one of the sectors that have witnessed the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Africa. The global development in technology has great impact on this sector of economy. In recent times, educational establishments are challenged to dso more with fewer resources as they try to meet the complex and changing demands of the society. The use of ICT in African countries generally and in Nigeria particularly is increasing and dramatically growing. However, while there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICT is being used in developed countries, there is not much information on how ICT is being introduced into schools in developing countries.


 To achieve these challenges, some organizations have taken up the task and are committed to the effective use of information and Communications Technology (ICT) for enhancing teaching, learning and management processes in Nigeria schools. States’ Ministries of Education and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) e-schools programme, Multi-Choice in partnership with schools Net (a non-profit Organization of stakeholders in education) have deployed the use of digital television set and other ICT gadgets as a learning tool in public tools.

Beukes-Amiss and Chiware (2006) opined that, there is generally limited access time per month using ICT by educational administrators, and even less time spent with reliable Internet access. Availability of ICT vis-à-vis access in term of ratio of educational administrators and computers available differs significantly. Despite the new and emerging technologies, there are still challenges in the way education is being managed in secondary schools by educational administrators.


While information communication technology (ICT) is an important area of study in its own right, it is having a major impact across all curriculum areas. Easy worldwide communication provides instant access to vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills (Fowowe, 2006). Rapid communication plus increased access to ICT in the home, at work, and in educational establishments, could mean that learning becomes a truly lifelong activity- an activity in which the pace of technological change forces constant evaluation of teaching process itself.


The term information Technology (IT) was used to mean ICT, the term which was synonymous with computer but as the passage of time, it covered other equipment created to enhance acquisition, storage and dissemination of information materials.(Akpan,2008) Most of these equipments was initially confine to the vicinity of offices. Libraries in the course of time embraced the use of these equipments to carry out their day-to-day activities as usage was adapted to carry out some routine activities. It functions does not end there. The current issue is the use of ICT in the schools by educational administrators. Meanwhile, some studies have been conducted on uses of ICT by educational administrators particularly on the issue of their professional development (Christiana Maki, 2000).


Most of these studies were carried out in developed countries where the use of ICT has come of age, and where there are resources and materials to maintain them. However, the use of ICT by educational administrators in Nigeria is just beginning to gain popularity and researches in this area are just emerging. The use of ICT by educational administrators to manage the schools is highly advantageous. This is because it enables the administrators to demonstrate understanding of the opportunities and implications of the uses for learning and teaching in the curriculum context; plan, implement, and quality management of secondary school environment (UNESCO, 2004). In the light of these therefore more research is needed to showcase further development of ICT use by secondary school administrators (school principals) in Nigeria.


Any society that does not take the use of Information, Communication, Technology (ICT) very seriously is not only self-defeating but cannot progress scientificantly when it comes to the use of technology in this twenty first century (21st C). This is because the impact of ICT has significantly changed the way education is managed; and in the use and distribution of knowledge. There was a time when the principal teaching resources available to educational administrators and institutions were the books in the library, their chalkboard and an occasional map on the classroom wall, but with the advent of ICT, education management is made simpler: teaching resources are made available online, training of educational administrators can be done via the internet and again information management of staff and students in an educational institution are created on a data base for ease accessibility. (Imogie, 2002).


The traditional method of managing distance education and transmitting in knowledge and skills through print materials that were self-instructional is gradually giving way to internet-based materials. We cannot achieve quality in secondary education without sound knowledge of information and communication technology. ICT is viewed as a factor that can promote quality secondary education. Johnson (2007), points out that communication is a fundamental act of the education process. Hence, to enhance quality in secondary school education, proper attention must be given to information and communication technology.


A handful of African countries have already put in place a national ICT policy while some of these policies define goals and implementation strategies for ICT in the education sector, nearly half the countries (Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, and South Africa) have chosen to develop an ICT policy that is specific to the education sector. The new phase of ICT for education in Nigeria is such that it is plagued with internal conflict and political instability, coupled with corruption; that make progress on ICT for education impossible and by extension the ability of educational administrators to effectively and efficiently manage their various institutes using ICT. Information, Communication, Technology remains a channel for tracking, analyzing, modeling and delivering information that share the sentiment of digital polity (The Guardian, 2009).


The Lagos State government has said that the deployment of ICT as an integral tool in governance had resulted in savings of about N200m monthly. The Lagos state commissioner of science and Technology, Kadri Hamzat speaking at the monthly Member Evening and Roundtable Talk, organized by the institution of Directors in Lagos, disclosed that the state use ICT to enable it provide better and more efficient public service in its day to day services. He noted that ICT aided the people in power to know the aspirations of citizens while using the available resources to achieve those ICT objectives.


1.2    Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, studies have revealed that majority of the educational administrators are either ignorant or lack the knowledge of the usage of ICT in the day to day management of the various educational institutions. Informal observation revealed that educational administrators-principals and teachers; have not experienced models of ICT use in their own learning before they can go ahead to implement same in the quality management of schools generally. Thus, educational administrators are neither computer literate nor professionally trained qualified. If this trend continues, many important records will be lost, the avoidable cost of stationeries on the school will be too much to bear and the expected/ global change in education will not be achieved.

It is now a common knowledge today that less than 25% of the educational administrators are trained on the use of ICT in secondary school administration thereby creating a gap that is needed to be filled in no time in order to benefit from the numerous advantages of ICT. Therefore, this study will examine the perception of educational administrators in selected secondary schools in

 Eti-osa local government of Lagos State on the use of ICT to enable the educational administrators to overcome and gain from these challenges in terms of the administrative and instructional tasks and the relationship of the level of computer use by these educational administrators (principals) in Eti-Osa Local Government area of Lagos state, Nigeria. This study will also to explore the relationship between level of computer use by principals and factors that are thought to be influencing it, including perceived computer access; and principals’ attitude toward computers, in order to overcome these challenges as well as implement its use in quality management of secondary schools. The determination of which factors are related to computer use by principals will bring benefits to decision makers in establishing programs and incentives that would promote computer use.


1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study to investigate into

(i)                 The current level of usage of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) by the educational administrators in secondary schools in Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos state.

(ii)               The factors that are thought to be influencing the quality management of   secondary schools by educational administrators in terms of access to computer use.

(iii)             The educational administrators’ level of competence of ICT in relation to the quality management of secondary schools.

(iv)             The extent to which the government has provided and implemented ICT policies in secondary schools. 








1.4       Research Questions

To achieve the set objectives, the following research questions are formulated.

1          What is the current awareness level on the usage of ICT by educational administrators in the public secondary schools in Eti-Osa L.G.A secondary schools of Lagos state?

2          Is there a significant difference in the factors militating against the full integration of ICT in Eti-Osa L.G.A secondary schools of Lagos state?


3.         Are there adequate resources from government for ICT in the public secondary school in Eti-Osa L.G.A secondary schools of Lagos state?


            Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested in the study:

Ho1:            There is no significant relationship between the awareness level of ICT and the usage of ICT among educational administrators in public secondary schools in Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos state.

Ho2:            There is no significant relationship between the factors militating against the full integration of ICT and the quality management of public secondary schools in

                    Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos State.

Ho3:           There is no significant relationship between adequate resources from government for ICT and the role of educational administrators in the management of public secondary schools in Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos State.







1.5       Significance of the Study

The findings of this study carry series of significance: In the first place, educational administrators will be able to create database on staff and students for administrative purposes, and which will in turn enable educational administrators for the quality management of secondary schools. Furthermore, the database on students will be beneficial in the administration process and close monitoring of students’ academic progress.  Also, database on teachers can be useful to the school administrators in assessing students/teacher ratio, the population of students vise-a vise required infrastructure that will accommodate such a population.


Secondly, the database will enable the ministry of Education to adequately make provision in its budget for the schools based on information obtained. It will also assist the ministry of Education in the establishment and improvement of ICT centers in secondary schools.


Thirdly, possibly, this study will aid the government to implement the policies on National policy on ICT and thus, to appreciate the need to train educational administrators via in –service trainings in the use of computers for the quality management of secondary schools in Lagos State.


Fourthly, the researcher hopes that the findings of these investigations will enlighten the public to adopt a much more practical approach of using ICT.








1.6          Limitations of the study

The researcher was limited by time and availability of data for comparing the ten (10) schools. There is constraint on free access to the internet and library for resources, books and equipment and also, funds available is limited.


1.7            Scope of the study

The public secondary schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area which is one of the five Local Education Districts in Lagos State were considered. Also, the study was  restricted to the educational administrators which include the principals, vice principals and ICT teachers  of  these secondary schools namely; Olomu comprehensive secondary school; Sangotedo High school for Girls, Ibeju Lekki High school; Kuramo Secondary school; Comprehensive secondary School, Awoyaya; Victoria Island secondary school; Badore senior Model College, Ajah; Sangotedo Community secondary school; Ogombo High school, Ogombo and Community Secondary school, Langbasa. The school were divided into junior and senior secondary sections with each having a principal and vice principals respectively.

In summary, the study was restricted to 20 principals, 40 vice principals and 40 ICT teachers.












1.8       Operational Definitions of Terms

Avakio: is a computer programme developed in Greece for managing school resources.

CPU: Central Processing Unit

DSL: Digital Subscriber Line

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HTML: Hypertext Markup Language

ICT: Information, Communication and Technology

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network

EFA: Education for All.

ENIAC: Electronic Numerical integrator and calculator

EDVC: Electronic Discrete Variance Computer.

EDSAC: Electronic Delay storage Automatic Computer

EDI: Electronic Data Interchange

Email: Electronic mail

LAN: Local Area Network

TAM: Technology Acceptance Model

TRA: Theory Reasoned Action

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet protocol

WWW: World Wide Web

Information: This is data that have been processed analyzed, interpreted and meaningful to the receiver of a massage. It is needed for problem solving and decision making. Message is an essential element in information and should therefore be “accurate, concise and of superior value” (Johnson, 2007).

Communication: This is the process of transferring information from one source to another or from one person to another or group of persons (audience). Information is therefore closely related to communication.

Technology: It is the process of using information to have meaningful control over nature in order to survive the challenges and changes in our environment so that a civilized life of higher standard of living can be achieved.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has completely revolutionaries the entire world started as Information Technology (IT) which deals with the aspect of managing, and processing information through the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process and transmit and receive information.





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