This study investigated the impact entrepreneurial skills acquisition on Home Economics students’ performance in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study set out to: find out the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state; ascertain the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of urban and rural students of home economics in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state; and examine the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of male and female home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state.Three (3) corresponding research questions and three (3) hypotheses were formulated for the study. The research used quasi – experimental design, the single group method. The population of the study consisted 14,830 students studying home economics in junior secondary schools in Kaduna and Rigachikun Education zones. The instrument tagged “Home Economics Entrepreneurial Skills Performance Test (HEESPAT)” was used to obtain data for the study, which was pilot-tested and a reliability coefficient of 0.83 was obtained. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics to answer the research questions while inferential statistics ANCOVA was used to test hypothesis one. Independent sample t-test was used to test hypotheses two and three. Findings from the study revealed that entrepreneurial skills acquisition had positive impact on the performance of home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state; skills acquisition had impact on the performance of urban and rural home economics students in junior secondary schools of Kaduna state. It was recommended among others that: there should be school based enterprises where both rural and urban home economics students identify potential business plans, create and operate small businesses using the school as mini-incubators.
3.6.1 Treatment Plan 59 3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 61
1.1 Background to the Study
The driving force behind all human development and in fact civilization is education. This form of education must be anchored to a solid foundation and should be capable of bailing man from poverty, intellectual and technological backwardness. These radical approaches should also be such that products of such a system are reasonably empowered to exert some form of control over the events that affect them. The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) states that education in Nigeria is an instrument per excellence for effecting national development. Globally, vocational and technical skills are recognized as powerful instruments for national development. It is in realization of this that Nigeria had to adjust the educational system and diversify the curriculum to integrate academic knowledge with technical and vocational skills so as to empower the graduates with relevant knowledge and skills. The aim is to make them self reliant and useful members of the society in which they live (FRN, 2004). Education is a vital instrument for human capital development. The synergy between education and society is such that the needs of the society are reflected in the national philosophy and objectives of education.
One of the strategies increasingly adopted by many countries in the world for the development of a productive and dynamic society is through the use of vocational subjects. Home economics is one of the compulsory pre-vocational subjects taught at junior secondary education level in Nigerian education system. It is highly needed in Nigerian secondary schools to equip learners with the entrepreneurial skills needed for sustained nation building. The aim of Home Economics in schools curriculum is to
teach learners how to strategically plan and use available resources in their environment to improve their homes, families and society life. For it to achieve this aim, it requires effective curriculum delivery by use of hands on methods of instruction. Entrepreneurial skills in home economics include food and nutrition skills, home management skills and clothing and textile skills. Igbo (2008) noted that the acquisition of these skills has the capability to augment and inspire productivity, and to further income generating life endeavours among people. By teaching entrepreneurial skills, home economics education program enables an individual to learn, explore and prepare for a job or trade. Thus, Home Economics could play a significant role in achieving the goals of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). These goals include wealth creation, employment generation and reduction of poverty, elimination of corruption and the general reorientation of values (NEEDS, 2005) cited in Benson (2007). The entrepreneur is commonly seen as an innovator – a designer of new ideas and business processes. Management skills and strong team building abilities are often perceived as essential leadership attributes for successful entrepreneurs. Political economist Robert Reich considers leadership, management ability, and team-building to be essential qualities of an entrepreneur. The ability of entrepreneurs to innovate relates to innate traits, including extroversion and a proclivity for risk-taking. According to Johnson Craig (2012) the capabilities of innovating, introducing new technologies, increasing efficiency and productivity, or generating new products or services, are characteristic qualities of entrepreneurs. Also, many scholars maintain that entrepreneurship is a matter of genes, and that it is not everyone who can be an entrepreneur.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Home economics being a vocational subject cannot be delivered by rote- learning or mere chalk and talk method which is teacher based. Skills of home economics can only be effectively communicated practically with the use of relevant materials. The lack of standard and well equipped home economics laboratories in most of our schools and the non availability of qualified home economics teachers have been identified as a major cause of the poor performance of home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state. In the face of increasing problem of unemployment in Nigeria, there is a need to empower students to acquire skills and ideas for developing their business dreams during the period of formal education. Possessing requisite skills is well known to be of great advantage to the students in responding to future challenges. The literatures available have shown that the Nigeria‟s education lacks entrepreneurial skills which have rendered our graduates unemployable. The study therefore tries to use demonstration through practical application of instructional materials to teach food and Nutrition skills to assess the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on home economics students‟ performance in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study assess the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquired through home economics education on students‟ performance in junior secondary school in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. assess the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State;
2. ascertain the impact of skills acquisition on the performance of urban and rural home economics students in junior secondary schools of Kaduna State; and
3. examine impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of male and female home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
1. What the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of home economics students in junior secondary school students in Kaduna state?
2. What is the impact of skills acquisition on the performance of urban and rural home economics students in junior secondary schools of Kaduna state?
3. What is the impact of skills acquisition on the performance of male and female home economic students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
1.5 Research Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance: H01: Entrepreneurial skills acquisition has no significant impact on the performances of Home Economics students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. H02: There is no significant difference in the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performance of urban and rural Home Economics students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State is not significantly different. H03: There is no significant difference in the impact of entrepreneurial skills acquisition on the performances of male and female Home Economics students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, is not significantly different.
1.6 Basic Assumptions The study was based on the assumptions that:
1. entrepreneurial skills acquisition is capable of making home economic students self-sufficient.
2. entrepreneurial skills acquisition by home economic students in urban and rural junior secondary schools in Kaduna State impact on their performance.
3. entrepreneurial skills acquisition impacts on male and female home economics students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings from this study could be beneficial to curriculum planners and policy makers, teachers, students, government and the society at large. It is hoped that the outcome of this study would serve as a guide to curriculum planners and policy makers in identifying the extent the stated objectives for junior secondary school home economics teaching as regards to entrepreneurial skills acquisitions on the students‟ performance is achieved. This would enable them take decisions on quality of text, materials and equipment with the method of instruction used in home economics teaching in our junior secondary schools. It would also help them in identifying the need for curriculum monitoring at the classroom level.
The importance of this study to government stems from the fact that when students acquire the requisite skills in home economics and become self employed the government‟s quest for vocational and technological education advancement would have been realized. Thus, contributing to the growth of Nigerian economy and enhancing the society‟s standard of living. The self-employed individual contributes to the economy of the nation and relieves government of pressures of unemployment. Such individuals when successful become employers of labour.
Finally, the society will benefit from this study too because when the students realize meaningful means of sustaining livelihood by being self employed and employers of labor, the rate of crimes and poverty in the society will be reduced.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The focus of this study is the skills of production in Food and Nutrition which is one aspect of the various skills embedded in home economics as a subject with emphasis on pastry products and local Nigeria beverages. The study was concerned with all junior secondary school students, male and female who offered home economics in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State; however, the JSSII class constitute the target population because they had studied the subject to some extent and they were the class that are completely stable in school compared to the JSSI students that were just starting, while the JSSIII were preparing to leave. The variables of the study were Home economics, entrepreneurial skills acquisition and students‟ performance.