EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN HAUSA LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This study explores the effect of teaching materials on the performance of Hausa students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was conducted in order to: Determine the effect of instructional material on Hausa students’ performance in senior secondary schools, study the effect of instructional material on the performance of Hausa students among men and women in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State ; and to assess the effective use of teaching materials for the presentation of Hausa students in the rural and urban areas of senior secondary schools in the Kaduna state. A quasi-experimental research project involving pre-testing and post-test was used during the study. The survey population is composed of 15 840 Hausa students. The sample for this study comprised 30 male and 48 female for the experimental group and 53 male and 41 female for the control group. A tool titled “Hausa Language Performance Test (HLAPT)” was used to collect data. The tool was tested pilot and the instrument reliability index was 0.87. The collected data were presented in tabular form and the responses were analyzed using descriptive statistical data as mean and standard deviations to respond to the research questions while the t-test was used to test the three hypotheses at 0.05 level. The findings reveal that there is a significant difference in the effect of teaching materials on the performance of Hausa students in senior secondary schools (p-value 0.003 <0.005). There is a significant difference in the effect of teaching materials on the performance of male and female students (p-value of 0.000 <0.005). Also, the finding shows that there is a significant difference in the effect of teaching materials on the academic achievement of pupils in rural and urban elementary secondary schools in Kaduna State (p-value 0.004 <0.005). Recommendations have been made in the light of the findings of this study, the government and relevant stakeholders need to make quantitative and qualitative learning materials to support the learning of Hausa in schools. Teachers also need to take account of gender differences while planning classroom training.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study- — – – – –
1.2 Statement of the Problems- — – –
1.3 Objectives of the Study- – – – – –
1.4 Research Questions- — – – – – –
1.5 Hypotheses- – – – – – – –
1.6 Basic Assumptions- – – – – – –
1.7 Significance of the Study- — – – – –
1.8 Scope of the Study- – – – – – –
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction- RFFFFFTHH- – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.3.1 The Sensory Theory
2.3.2 Constructivist Theory
2.3.3 Ganes Theory of Instruction
2.3.4 Concept of Hausa Language
2.3.5 Concept of Instructional Materials
2.3.6 Concept of Language Teaching Method
2.3.7 Concept of Language and Communication Skills
2.3.8 Concept of Academic Performance
2.4 Overview of Language and Communication Skills
2.4.1 Listening Skills
2.4.2 Speaking Skills
2.4.3 Reading Skills
2.4.4 Writing Skills
2.5 Instructional Materials for teaching Hausa Language
2.5.1 Needs for Instructional Materials
2.5.2 Types of Instructional Materials
2.5.3 Importance of Instructional Materials
2.5.4 Characteristics of Instructional Materials
2.5.5 Qualities of Instructional Materials
2.6 History of Hausa Language
2.7 Hausa Language Curriculum for Senior Secondary School
2.7.1 The Objective and Content of Senior Secondary Schools
Hausa language Curriculum
2.8 Competence and Performance
2.9 Empirical Studies
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction- – – – — – – –
3.2 Research Design- – – – – – – –
3.3 Population of the Study- – – – – – –
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques- – — – –
3.5 Instrumentation- – – – — – – –
3.5.1 Validity of Instrument
3.5.2 Pilot Study – – – – — – – –
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection – — – – —
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis – – — – –
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.2 Description of Study Variables
4.3 Response to Research Questions
4.4 Hypotheses Testing
4.5 Summary of Major Findings
4.6 Discussions of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 Recommendations 1
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
5.6 Contribution to Knowledge
References – – – — – – –
1.1 Background to the Study
Curriculum is the vehicle for facilitating education. It is a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school center (Mohammed & El-Yakub, 2006). It is the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated and provide under the auspices of the school, for the learner‟s continuous and willful growth in cognitive, affective and psychomotor competence. It is a programme of studies and activities designed so that learners will attain as far as possible, certain educational goals and objectives. Curriculum thus involves all the actions of the schools, which are aimed at getting the child to begin a course and at the end attain educational goal (Abdul-Raheem, 2012). According to Afolalu, (2009), it comprises of the courses or subjects and their contents to be studied by learners at all levels of education. Among such subject is Hausa language.
No discussion of the curriculum is complete without the mention of essential instructional materials or tools needed for effective implementation of the curriculum of any subject. Isola (2010) described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. He further acknowledges that instructional materials are such used by teacher‟s to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching and learning process.
In the teaching and learning of Hausa Language, the use of instructional materials cannot be ruled out. Effective teaching and learning of the subject depend greatly on the adequacy, relevancy and effective use of instructional materials. Since
Hausa language is one of the practice orientated subject; therefore the use of instructional materials in passing instruction to students should be embraced which may make the teaching and learning of the subject more meaningful, practical and real.
Ani (2008), was of the opinion that instructional materials stimulate students desire to learn process by making assimilation and memorization of materials easy and help to hold attention as well as longer retention of information on the impact of instructional materials on teacher‟s performance. Kay (2008), observed that teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning, teachers‟ make use of textbooks, charts, models, graphics, realia as well as improvised materials. Indeed, instructional materials provides concepts and attitude to the students which improved its skills, ability to reason and make him/her informed about what is going on in the global village. The importance of instructional materials are indispensable to the teaching and process of a subject, it is an integral part of a trained teacher in making the abstract become concrete, complex become simple and the unknown become known.
The appropriate use of instructional materials has effect to on teachers and students such as understanding confusion and in achievement of specified objective but proper use of it lead to students understanding, interest in learning process, recognition of facts, teaching enhancement and achievement of instructional objective and educational objective in generally, the effect of instructional material has lots of general benefits that guides a greater impact in teaching and learning process. The teacher level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality education. It also allows the learners to discover themselves and their abilities. Students learn more and retain better what they have been taught, and that it also promotes and sustains student interest. Obanja (2010).
Schools still have problems of non availability of instructional materials, when it comes to the teaching and learning of Hausa language. Hence, the performance of the students in Hausa language in senior Secondary school respectively is not-encouraging. Abdullahi (2014), observed that the poor performance of students in Hausa language examination may not be unconnected with the ineffective use of instructional materials. Many teachers go to classes to teach Hausa language without any material to assist them. Learning is said to be facilitated when the learners make use of the three sense organs namely: seeing, hearing and touching. It is against this background that this study intends to examine the effect of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Hausa language in Senior Secondary School in Kaduna state, Nigeria as a contribution to knowledge.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Instructional materials make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. But inspite of the benefits of instructional materials to teaching and learning, lack of using instructional materials has hindered to some extent the efficiency of teaching and learning of Hausa language. Instructional materials are major determining variables that control the pace of learning, it has to do with the creation of an environment in which student can develop their full potentials and lead a productive lives in accordance with the demand of their interest and need either as individuals or as a group in the society more especially in teaching and learning of language. In Kaduna state there is unsatisfactory use of instructional materials which makes teaching and learning of Hausa language more theoretical, abstract, and ineffective.
Hence, the question of academic performance and student‟s performance in SSCE is therefore usually discussed both in and outside the academic circles. In the last five years, it has been observed in most secondary schools that high percentage of
students are performing very poor in Hausa language in national examinations. For example WAEC and NECO examiners report, in 2014, said ill motivated behaviour of both male and female students towards education, lack of professional teachers, teaching facilities and equipment attributed to students failure in examination (David, 2014). The report, have shown that there are poor academic activities in senior secondary schools which obviously needs to rampant failure in external examination among secondary school students. It is also observed that student‟s performance in Hausa language in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) has continue to be low over the years Abbas (2001), in Abdulmumini (2014), states that there has been general outcry about poor performance in rural and urban senior secondary schools especially in the languages.
Again there‟s non challant attitude and lack of seriousness in providing instructional materials in secondary schools. It has been observed that most government schools are suffering from lack of instructional materials especially for teaching Nigerian languages where such materials even exist they are most outdated and non-functional such as tape recorders and videos which are no longer useful in view of current information technology, where the use of computers, CD‟s and DVD‟s are available. Another problem is that some of the teachers of Nigeria languages are not adequately exposed to modern instructional materials like the use of computer and other equipment‟s such as CD‟s and DVD‟s. Therefore this will affect the effective teaching and learning of Nigerian language among the Senior Secondary School in Kaduna State.
Additionally, most secondary schools do not have language laboratory, not to talk of equipping it with adequate instructional materials like computer, television, radio and earphone. This makes the teaching and learning process difficult since teachers teach without adequate instructional materials. Researchers such as Zaruk (2009), also
indicated that Hausa language teachers are still habituated to the chalk and talk when there are assorted instructional materials like radio, television, audio, video, computers that they supposed to use in order to enrich the language environment. It is based on this that this research is being carried out to find the effect of instructional materials on students performance in Hausa language in Senior Secondary School in Kaduna State with a view of providing information that could facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of Hausa Language.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to:
1. determine the effect of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state;
2. investigate the effect of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Hausa language among male and female in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State; and
3. examine the teacher‟s effective use of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Hausa language in rural and urban areas in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the conduct of this conduct of this study:
1. To what extend does the use of instructional materials affects the performance of students in teaching Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State?
2. What is the effect of instructional materials on students‟ performance among male and female student‟s in Hausa language in senior secondary school in Kaduna State?
3. How does the use of instructional materials by teachers enhance students‟ performance in Hausa Language in rural and urban senior secondary school in Kaduna State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated and tested at P=0.05:
H01 There is no significant difference in the effect of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
H02 There is no significant difference in the effect of instructional materials on the performance of male and female students in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
H03 There is no significant difference in the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in rural and urban senior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The following basic assumptions were formulated to guide the conduct of the study.
1. There is availability of instructional materials in all senior secondary schools for teaching Hausa language in Kaduna state.
2. It has been assumed that the teachers are using the instructional materials in teaching Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
3. The lack of using instructional materials is hindering the development of the cognitive affective and psychomotor domains in Kaduna in particular and Nigeria in general.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Findings from this study will be significant to students, teachers, curriculum planners, ministry of education and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials will enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials. The use of instructional materials will give the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at difference levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility.
The study will enhance teachers‟ teaching effectiveness and productivity. The use of instructional materials provides alternative channels of communication which a teacher can use to compress information and make them more vivid to the learners. It also provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner‟s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. As a result, teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students‟ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.
To the curriculum planners, findings from this study will help them in making proper planning for the place of instructional materials while planning Hausa Language curriculum. However, the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Hausa language is not only the issue, but also the appropriateness of the selected materials by the teacher to the topic at hand which sometimes make the lesson less effective and thereby render the materials useless. Findings from this study shall reveal to the curriculum planners that, Hausa language contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such instructional materials, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that enhances teaching and learning of Hausa language goals and objectives.
This study will recommends the State Ministry of Education through the Universal Basic Education Commission to purchase instructional resources required for effective teaching of Hausa language and make them available in Schools throughout the State. The findings from the study will encourage the Ministry of Education to ensure that these materials are purchased and supplied to Schools. This will go a long way in ensuring that the pupils and students receive quality education. It will also recommend to the Ministry of Education on the need to train and retrain Hausa language teachers through workshops on how to use instructional materials.
The study is also significant to the society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively.
Finally, this research work will contribute to knowledge as a reference material for scholars in the research field.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the effect of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Hausa language in Senior Secondary school in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Also, the study is conducted in zonal education inspectorate division Zaria, Kaduna State because the zone has one of the highest population among other zonal education offices in Kaduna state. Also, the study is limited to public senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. There are five local government areas in this zone namely Zaria, Sabon Gari, Giwa, Makarfi. Also the study is expected to cover four (4) schools. The schools includes; Government Secondary School Kofar Kuyanbana, Government Secondary School Dakace, Government Secondary School Aminu and Government Secondary School Chindit barracks. The fact that subject of the study are all senior secondary schools students of Kaduna state however the study concentrated on SS2 students because they are more matured than SS1 and have experience about the contents while SS3 are preparing their senor secondary school Examination.