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This research is carried out to find out the determinant of students attitude towards learning of accounting in secondary schools in Bewkwarra Local Government Council of Cross River State. A well structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the respondents and the questionnaire is subjected to four point Henry Linkert scale. The mean of any factor of 2.5 and above is said to be agreed upon as factor affecting performance of students in Learning of Accounting and therefore acceptable while the mean below 2.5 is unacceptable as factors. The outcome of the study showed that students perceived Learning of Accounting to be difficult, relevant to life situation and that gender of student’s does not affect their attitude toward Learning of Accounting. It was recommended that counselors should be employed to counsel students in order to have positive attitude toward their subject and that secondary schools’ authorities should make provision for the supply of recent textbooks and materials needed for teaching/learning of the subject, it was also recommended that teachers should employ an appropriate and suitable method of teaching to enable students to develop positive attitude towards the learning of the subject and it finally recommended that Government should provide conducive environment for the teaching and learning of the subject.
Background of the Study
Learning of accounting occupies a unique position in the present 6-3-3-4 system of Education in Nigeria. The importance of learning of Accounting in an organization cannot be over looked throughout the age of mankind. The teaching and learning of accounting should be a replica of what is happening in the present business world. Therefore, a course of this nature is one that stimulates the curiosity and imagination of student (such as becoming an accountant in the labour market), thereby encouraging him/her to pursue his own ideas. The curriculum and the classroom practice therefore are expected to provide students with the ability to explore different ideas in such a way that young school leavers can become self-reliant and as well should be able to engage themselves in functional trade/entrepreneurship skills needed for poverty eradication, job creation and wealth generation. With this, the students will be useful to themselves and the society at large.  It is generally accepted that we all live in a world of business. The survival of a nation depends so much on business and technology.
Accounting is the process of recording business transaction in a systematic form so that the financial position of the business can be communicated to the users of such accounting information. Igboke (2003) sees accounting as that which equips individual with knowledge of recording, analyzing, classifying and interpreting financial information as well as the pedagogy required in teaching the skills. Accounting is important to the economic and business financial world.
Attitude can be described as a state of readiness, a tendency to act or react in a certain way. In general, it refers to a learned disposition or tendency on the part of individual to respond positively or negatively to a situation or another person. Oludipe (2005) citing Comb (2009) in Adetayo(2010) stated that attitude is a regulator of all behaviours and one’s behaviour according to Combs, at any given time are not causes but consequences of what is going on within the individual that is feelings and attitudes underlie external behaviours. It follows therefore, that if a student has a negative attitude towards a subject, the individual will have low level of confidence to study and achieve better in the subject. In order to study therefore, the individual needs to have a strong will and determination that he will succeed in it because a positive attitude towards a subject will build the required confidence for success in the individual.
Researchers have shown that there are a lot of factors that determine the attitude of student towards the teaching and learning of accounting. Such determinant could be home-related and school-related factors etc. it could also be positive or negative attitude. Sriffth, (2013) noted that family background is an important determinant of accounting education students’ performance in accounting at all levels, where school characteristics have minimal effects.
According to Pelemo (2014) in Adetayo (2015) study habit determine the attitude of students, study habit is the degree to which a learner identifies with learning activities such as attending to class, doing homework, reading, taking tests or examinations, devoting time for private studies, associating adequately with the teacher and peer groups. Study habits could be referred to as a well planned and deliberate effort towards understanding and acquiring knowledge (Yoloye, 2019) in Adetayo (2010). From the various definitions of study habits, it follows that the way students study will definitely affect his performance and this will invariably, affect his attitude in learning accounting.
 Student’s interest is another determinant of student attitude towards teaching and learning of accounting. For instance, Zhang (2016) finds student’s interest in the subject and ability very important in making choice to study accounting. Other factors like quantitative skills and intellectually challenging also determines students’ attitude. When students see accounting as interesting and enjoyable, they are more likely to choose it but if otherwise they hate it.

Teacher quality is another determinant. The teacher is the pivot on which the educational process rests. Infact, the importance and place of teacher in the education process is highly priced by all nations of the world. However, whatever the influences of the teacher would be on the teaching of accounting can only be determined by the teacher’s quality, teacher’s quantity and teacher’s value. Many student run away from accounting classes simply because of the teacher.
Teaching is not just a matter of teachers talking and students listening, effective teaching involves interactive communication patterns that are skillfully directed. Some Shiundu and Omulando, (2012) quoting holds the view that teachers have a leading role to play in what and how to teach. The role of the teacher is key to curriculum implementation and should not be underscored. It is the teacher who translates the broad general curriculum goals into instructional objectives. It is the teacher who initiates, develops and directs student  learning, a teacher evaluates the student's progress maintains classroom discipline while teaching and works with other staff members. But where the above is not in place the student develop negative attitude.
The incompetence of a teacher to improvise instructional materials has been said to be one of the factors responsible for attitude of students. Teacher’s competency is an underlying characteristic of an individual that is usually related to effective or superior performance. These characteristics include enduring motives, traits, self-concepts, values, knowledge, and skills that can be assessed and differentiated. To be precise, teacher’s competency is an appropriate prior knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities in a given context that adjust and develop with time and needs in order to effectively and efficiently accomplish a task and that are measure against a minimum standard.
A competent teacher selects, modifies and uses a wide range of instructional material (printed, visual and audio-visual) appropriate to the content area and the reading needs and level of each student. Effective teachers are equipped with repertoire of best teaching practices such as strategies, procedures, and approaches in presenting, implementing and assessing classroom instruction in accordance with the objectives set.
Other factors frequently cited as determinants of students’ attitude towards learning of accounting are intrinsic values, financial rewards, job market and the cost-benefit. Some of these factors are long term salary possibilities, prestige of the profession, job security and starting salary. It has been found that students consider stereotype about the different careers when making their decisions .Yayla & Cengiz (2005) find some determinant such as  own choice, family or parents socio-economic factor, environment, interesting profession, earnings expectations and job opportunities.
In view of the above, efforts would be made in this study to investigate the determinant of students attitude towards learning of accounting in secondary schools in Bewkwarra Local Government Council of Cross River State.
Statement of the Problem
The attitudes of students toward every given subject such as learning of Accounting may differ from one person to another. However such attitude may be influenced by several determinant such as teachers, parents, school, government and environment.
Many students lack interest in offering accounting courses. In this regard, they often complained that the subject is too difficult. Even to balance the cash book, trial balance etc is a very big problem. Though, many students prefer to offer commercial subjects without accounting. Hence, accounting requires further professional examinations for one to be designated as an accountant.
It is on this backdrop, this study the examines determinant of students attitude towards learning of accounting in secondary schools in Bewkwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State.

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the determinant of students attitude towards learning of accounting in secondary schools in Bakwarra Local Government Area of Cross River  State.
In specific term, the study sought to find out:
  1. The attitudes of students towards the leaning of accounting in secondary schools.
  2. The underlying factors responsible for the present attitude of students toward the learning of accounting
  3. If the gender of students affect their attitude toward the teaching of accounting.
  4. If parents occupation influence the attitude of the students.
Research Questions
The following research questions were raise to guide the study:
  1. What are the attitudes of students towards the learning of accounting?
  2. What are the underlying factors responsible for the present attitude of students towards the learning of accounting?
  3. Does gender of students affect their attitude towards learning of Accounting in Bekwarra Local Government?
  4. Does parents’ occupation influence the attitude of students in Bekwarra Local Government Secondary Schools towards learning of Accounting?

Significance of the Study
The study is important as it will;
  1. Reveal student’s the determinant of students attitude towards learning of Accounting in Bakwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State
  2. Reveal the various factors influencing students negatively or positively.
  3. It will go a long way to assist the teaching of Accounting and consequently result in the improvement of students’ performance in the subject.
  4. Enable the students to have a change of attitude towards learning and be more dedicated to their studies.
  5. Provides useful information to the parents in respect of their responsibilities in the procurement of recommended textbook and material needed to enhance and improve student’s learning.
  6. Severs as a point to the Government both Federal and State on the need for the recruitment of qualified competent teachers to handled learning of Accounting as well as provides necessary instructional materials.
  7. Lastly, it will serves as a base for further research work in Accounting Education and as well as teaching and learning of learning of Accounting in Senior Secondary School in particular.

Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is centered on the attitude of students toward the learning of Accounting in Senior Secondary school using Bekwarra Local Government as a case study. In the process of carrying out the study, the following areas shall be considered.
  1. The influence of gender (Male or Female) in the formations of attitude.
  2. Factors responsible for the information of attitude.
  3. The influence of parents in the formation of attitude.
  4. Attitude relative to difficulty of a subject
  5. Attitude relative to relevance’s of a subject as regards its application.

Definition of Terms
Learning: Learning is defined as “a consistent pattern of behavior and performance by which an individual approaches educational experiences, it also a ways of perceiving, conceptualizing, and problem-solving. It is also referred way of interacting with and responding to the environment.
Accounting: Accounting is the process of creating financial statements based on the company’s financial information. Also, financial Accounting is used by internal or external business stakeholders for making business or investment decisions.
Attitude: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, attitude is defined as the way one thinks and feels about something or somebody. It also as an organized predisposition to think, feel, perceive and behave toward a referent or cognitive object

Social acceptance appears to put undue pressure on females in Nigeria, because, it seems to define their physiological and psychological self-worth and determine their possible and ideal self as they go through their psycho social development.  In the western world, there is an increasing focus on body image as been perceived by people. Pictures of movie stars and fashion models strongly impact on girls’ body shape and image perception. Such mass media and diverse socio- cultural pressures are seen to cause an increased awareness of being thin as ideal, and to contribute to the misconception of body size: how the body is viewed and evaluated by the individual and others around. Females in Nigeria are confronted with specific pressures towards thinness and their body been attractive, as social environments in universities tend to foster increased awareness of perceived body image and to reinforce adherence to this unrealistic thin ideals. (Low, K.G, Charanasomboon, S., Brown, C., Hiltunen, G, Long K.,  Reinhalter, K. , & Jones , H. (2003).
In days of old, Nigeria culture s beauty contest was determined by the size  of a woman. i.e A woman that is plump with big buttocks, high thigh, big hips or leg was considered beautiful and these physique presupposes that she was from a wealthy family and she is  well taken care of by either the family or husband. (Brink, 1989).  In fact in South Eastern part of Nigeria, (Efik, Enugu, Ebonyi, Anambra, Ibobio , Ngwongo & Ndam)   especially, among the Anang culture, there was a custom called the fattening room. According to brink (1989); the fattening room is used as a retreat prior to a major social change in person’s life. Before a woman is wedded, she will stay in the fattening room for some period of time to eat, in order to gain weight and to become fat or plump and beautiful before the wedding.  The fattening room is where she stays before the major social change occurs. But it seems this concept of plumpness have changed due to the foreign culture and increase literacy rate. (Altabe,1998).  But now, beauty has been redefined, and most plump female students are ashamed for inability to meet up with the societal body image description. Thinness now appears to be the ideal body image. More females want to control their body in order to become thin. Being cut between westernization and Africanize, most plump female students find it difficult characterizing their body image to be ideal. They, most often, see themselves to be overweight. And factors that are seemingly contributing to this perceived body image could be media, peer group, parents and even the socio cultural environment.
According to World Health Organization (WHO) (2013), several individuals make the attempt to change something about their bodies. The attempt to change complexion and facial looks for example is more common among the blacks possibly due to dissatisfaction with their body images. Approximately 77% of Nigerian women have been found to engage in practices to change their complexion due to dissatisfaction with their skin color (WHO, 2013). Body image refers to individuals’ perceptions and attitudes toward their physical appearances. Body image discontent is common in western societies and seemed to be creeping into the African societies possibly due to  how we imbibe foreign cultures and increase literacy rate (Altabe, 1998).
A complex range of factors have been found to influence body image perception. These include socio-demographic factors e.g. gender; age; country), nutrition, and psychosocial factors such as stress, social support and quality of life. (Paquette & Raine, 2004).
Peer groups and the social culture variables also seem to be contributing factors, not only to body image but, to body dissatisfaction. They achieve this by giving negative or positive stroke to females. These socio cultural agents may lay down the life script by stroking the female, that [she is not ok] she looks fat. This makes a lady to become depressed or even have low self -esteem. The consequences would sometimes lead to some somatoform disorder such as hypochrodriasis, or body dimorphic disorder which could co-morbid with several other disorders including personality and substance abuse disorder.
The effects of the media, peer groups, parents and the society on the female body image seem far alarming. Many females in universities in Nigeria do not seem to be satisfied with their body. Body dissatisfaction is becoming the order of the day among females. Body image dissatisfaction is so prevalent among women that it has been termed a normative discontent.(Chuwunonso, 2015) Concern about body weight, dieting, and related behavior seem so prevalent among female students in the Nigeria universities that they are considered to be normative part of the female’s experience [Christine I,celio, joseph Durlak, and Allision Dymnicki, Yamamura  2006].
Social acceptance appears to be one of the main causes of body dissatisfaction among the females. When females enter into tertiary institutions, they compare their body size and that of their friends   and they feel they couldn’t match up with society standard of figure eight or appropriate body size, they become dissatisfy and result to body tuck and some other form of enhancing their body image.  Body dissatisfaction among female students can affect their academic performance and lower their self esteem and self concept. It is also seemingly associated with emotional distress, appearance rumination, unnecessary cosmetics surgery, social anxiety and diminished quality of life [cash, 2004]. Now it appears that severe body dissatisfaction could lead to self objectification.
Self objectification occur when the objectifying gaze turned inward ,such that women view themselves through the perspective of an observer and engage in chronic self –surveillance.  According  to Frederickson and Roberts (1997) state that, because of the nature of the observer’s perspective, internalizing it will result in two consequences for women: a focus on appearance and a lack of focus on agency.
Many studies have investigated body image perception in women (Thompson, 1996), nonetheless, there appears to be a dearth of literature on this subject using Nigerian samples. In relation to age, the association of the age of university students with body image perceptions seems to have not received much attention in the literature, perhaps because of the narrow age bands observed in traditional college student’s population.
Satisfaction with and concerns about body weight are affected by social norms and cultural standards (Szabo,&Allwood, 2006, Jones, Fries, Danish 2007)  where being thin is greatly valued within Western societies(Demarest &Allen,2000). Social judgment of appearance seems partly responsible for the unrealistic weight goals sought by young adults
The term “body image” refers to the image a person holds about her/himself. Hutchinson (2003) defines it as “the image of the body that allows a person to know about emotions, sensations, bodily needs, and appetites, and to negotiate the physical environment. It is the image of the body a person hears about as she [or he] listens to her [or his] inner speech.
Negative body image includes a distorted perception of one’s body, feeling ashamed, self-conscious, and anxious about one’s body; thinking of one’s body size or shape as a sign of a personal failure and feeling uncomfortable or awkward in one’s body. It is defined body image as our perception imagination, emotions and physical sensations of, and about, our bodies. It is not static- but ever changing; sensitive to changes in mood, environment, and physical experience. In other words, it is how you feel others perceive you, what you believe about your physical appearance, how you feel about your body, and how you feel in your body.
Viewed from the socio cultural perspective, Wiseman, Gray ,Mosimann& Ahrens (1992) defined body image as societal standards for beauty that emphasize the desirability for thinness and that this ideal is accepted by most women, although it is impossible for many to achieve . Body image has been further defined in many different ways. Cash &Pruzinsky (1990) defined also body image as a person’s thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about his/her body overall, including appearance, age, race, functions, and sexuality
They discussed body image as being multidimensional, consisting of a cognitive and an emotional dimension. Cognitive body image includes beliefs and self-statements about the body. Emotional body image is comprised of experiences of appearance, whether the experiences are comfortable or uncomfortable and if there is satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the body. Body image is a subjective experience; it depends on how the individual interprets himself or herself. How a person perceives his/her body is how they perceive themselves. Banfield&McCabe (2002) concurred that body image is multidimensional, however they identified three aspects: cognitions and affect regarding body, body importance and dieting behavior, and perceptual body image. The cognitive dimension relates to thoughts and beliefs about body shape and the affective dimension includes the feelings that a person has towards their bodies’ appearance.
Body importance and dieting behavior, can be described as behaviors associated with grooming and dieting. Women who focus more on their body shape tend to engage in more grooming and dieting behaviors than women who do not focus so much on body shape. Perceptual body image can be described as the accuracy an individual has when judging their shape, size and weight. Although researchers agree that body image is multidimensional in construct e.g. they do not agree on the amount or nature of the dimensions.
Body image is not static. It can change over time or in a few moments. Cash &Pruzinsky (1990) found that watching television could change a person’s body image by influencing them to think about their weight, attractiveness, or appearance. Body image is not static and it changes over life span. Grogan (1999) concluded from several studies that body image is influenced by many factors (family, friends, teacher, peer and society) and as a person gets older, the influences on body image change and may become stronger or weaker, thus creating flux in body image over the life –span
Body image is generally defined as how one thinks and feels towards one’s body (Cash &Smolak, 2011). Having healthy body image is an important part of having a good life. For example, many studies show that a negative body image is related to destructive behaviors (Cash &Smolak, 2011). Other studies show that a positive body image is related to better outcomes, such as happiness and life satisfaction (Tylka, 2011). Body image can be broken down into an affective component—or how people feel about their own bodies—and a cognitive component—what people think their body should be or look like (Gendebien& Smith, 1992).
Researches indicate that individuals attribute, such as low self-esteem and depressive mood as well as higher body mass index (BMI) are risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction (e.g., Field et al., 2001; Paxton, Eisenberg, &Neumark-Sztainer, 2006; Presnell, Bearman, &Stice, 2004). In addition, sociocultural pressures, such as exposure to idealized media figures, family and peer dieting, pressures to be thin, and weight teasing have been shown to be risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction (e.g., Field et al., 2001; Groesz, Levine, &Murnen, 2002; Paxton, Eisenberg et al., 2006; Stice&Whitenton, 2002). Recently, attention has turned to examination of cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of body dissatisfaction.More specifically, researchers have investigated cognitive processes that may mediate the relationshipsbetween individual and sociocultural factors and thedevelopment of body dissatisfaction (cash, 2002, Williams, stewart, white, & York- crowe 2002)
Within society, body dissatisfaction is also stereotyped as a “female issue”. There appears to be a social taboo about men speaking out about their image concerns (Pope, Phillips, &Olivardia, 2000). Men who are experiencing dissatisfaction may also avoid talking about or seeking help for body image issues in order to avoid appearing “gay” or “girlie” to their peer (Hargreaves &Tiggeman, 2006). Because males are being forced to remain silent about their body dissatisfaction, it is difficult to convince the public that it is an important issue.
Body dissatisfaction has also been found to be a mediator in the development of muscle dysmorphia, a body image disorder characterized by an extreme desire to gain muscle mass and the fear of becoming smaller (Grieve, 2007). Some controversy has been placed on muscle dysmorphia, in that it is seen as an “attempt to pathologies the sport or hobby of weightlifting or bodybuilding” (Olivardia, 2001). However, these behaviors are viewed as disordered when these desires and fears begin to hinder social and occupational functioning. Examples of such hindrances include missing work to work out, avoiding sexual contact with their partner to save energy for working out, and wearing baggy clothes in order to hide their body due to shame (Pope, Phillips, &Olivardia, 2000).
Behaviors that can result from an individual attempting to reduce their body dissatisfaction can be physically dangerous, even fatal; such as steroid use, extreme dieting, and continuing to exercise even when injured (Olivardia, 2001). This body dissatisfaction is associated with marked emotional distress, appearance rumination, and unnecessary cosmetic surgery (Ohring, Graber, & Brooks-Gunn, 2002; Thompson et al., 1999). Body dissatisfaction also increases the risk for subsequent onset of eating pathology (Attie & Brooks-Gunn, 1989; Killen et al., 1996) and depression among adolescent girls (Rierdan, Koff, &Stubbs, 1989; Stice, Hayward, Cameron, Killen, & Taylor, 2000). Despite the evidence that body dissatisfaction is pervasive and is associated with concurrent and subsequent psychopathology, few studies have investigated the risk factors that predict development of body dissatisfaction.
The putative risk factors for body dissatisfaction that have received the most theoretical attention involve socio cultural pressures. It has been suggested that pressure to be thin from one’s social environment fosters body dissatisfaction because repeated messages that one is not thin enough would be expected to produce discontent with physical appearance (Striegel-Moore, Silberstein, & Rodin, 1986; Thompson et al., 1999). These pressures to be thin can emanate from a variety of sources, such as parents, peers dating partners, and the media. Further, these pressures to be thin can be direct, such as a parent encouraging a daughter to diet, or indirect, such as a peer voicing admiration of ultra-slender models. Scholars have also suggested that weight-related teasing contributes to body image disturbances (Cattarin& Thompson, 1994). For example, overweight children may be given derogatory names that are applied for years. In addition, heightened internalization of the current thin ideal espoused for females and the belief that achieving thinness will result in a plethora of social benefits, such as acceptance and academic success, is also thought to promote body dissatisfaction (Stice&Bearman, 2001). Theoretically, the relentless pursuit of an ultra-slender body that is virtually unattainable promotes dissatisfaction with one ’s physical appearance
Female self objectification can best defined as regular exposure to objectify experiences that socialize girls and women to engage in self objectification, whereby they come to internalize this view of themselves as an object or collection of body parts. Female self objectification has many consequences, including eating disorder, which are associated with depression. According to National Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders [2013], up to 24million people of all ages and genders suffer from eating disorder. Data shows that 47% of girls in the 5th-12th grade report wanting to lose weight because they compare themselves to idealized magazine photographs, and 69%of girls in the 5th-12th grade report that such images influence their idea of a perfect body shape.
A great deal of research has been conducted on the sequelof self objectification (APA, 2007; Moradi&Huang 2008). Harmful psychological effect include identity confusion ,low self esteem,  anxiety , shame ,and depression, hatred of or dissatisfaction with one’s body, self hatred,and attentional difficulties .there are also personal costs such as isolation from ones community , lost time and energy spent trying to physically change the self to conform with the standards of dominant group ,and physical risks from some of the more extreme attempts at body modification(e.g. plastic surgery).
There’s no debate, however that self –objectification results in body shame, self –loathing, depression, and low self esteem.
The body size of women in Nigeria tertiary institutions is steadily becoming smaller from thin to flapper bodies. The plumtous body, big hips and big buttocks as well as the voluminous bodies that define the beauty of Nigerian ladies in schools now seemed to be descending. It appears that Western medias such as television, news papers, fashion magazines, movies, advertisement targeting thin young women as models of beauty and socially desirable appearance are the key factors in enhancing body image dissatisfaction  and self- objectification among female students.
In addition, there appears a weight prejudice not only in the society but noticeably in all over higher institutions of learning in the federation of Nigeria that are reinforced by peer groups and parents. Parents and peer groups seem to promote thinness by giving positive strokes to those females who are slender and thinner. Social acceptance for thinness appears to enhance success and happiness for more ladies in terms of getting good jobs, fulfilled relationships, positive facial image, wealth, as well as praise and favors from significant others. That means that, the pleasurable disposition accredited to thinness or slenderness might send negative stimulus to female students who cannot attain or fail to attain these ideal body image. These could lead female to believe that they failed the society, their parents and loved ones and in fact, they have failed themselves by not meeting up to the objectified norms of physical self- worth that are set up by the society.
It also appears that females, who see themselves of not being beautiful, might not have a socially acceptable sexual life. As victims of self objectification, it is perceived that female who imagined themselves to be ugly might engage themselves in unhealthy sexual behaviors, knowing that, their physical appearances does not attract men. Hence, research has shown that men are stimulated to have sex with a lady who has culturally acceptable physiques (Strong et 2005). Accordingly, sexual acceptance physique includes height, weight, thinness, slim hips, moderate breast, long and pendulous breast, long neck and long face. Since society has objectified these bodily features of females, it is more likely that female who do not meet these bodily standard to have short relationship life span and the consequences of these could lead to social physique anxiety and negative body image as well as body dissatisfaction. Indeed, it could be perceived that body image is an important feature of female psycho-physiological well being. It plays essential roles in female physical development, emotional and cognitive developments. Hence, it appears society has objectified women and being a victim of objectification, females have now become self objectified thereby putting less emphasis on how their body performs and more conscious of how they look. This might not only lead to appearance anxiety disorder but also social physique anxiety disorder. And female who suffer from this disorder pay less attention to their studies and other mental process.
Female students in tertiary institutions seem to think much on how they look or how they appear more than on their studies. Therefore, their values lie in the eyes of others. This seems to justify why more female students buy costly phones like android, blackberry, iphone, etc; even when they cannot afford it. They still go extra mile to purchase it in order to load it with their pictures and have them displayed on face book and other social network.
Body dissatisfaction seems to be by product of body image and it plays critical roles in women eating habit. More females are becoming anorexia and it seemed like those who keep themselves hungry simply because they want to lose some weight, and they sometimes have weak social relations. More significally, female students who engage in skipping meals, caloric restrictions, use of diet pills or disorderly eating are most likely to suffer from menstruation disorder, dry and cracking skin, and general muscular weakness. And one of the main factors that enhance body dissatisfaction is internalization of socio-cultural beliefs of ideal woman emanating from media, parents and other social agents. The researcher perceived that females who internalize this thin body image might spend much of doing body surveillance and when she fails to meet this ideal body image, she might damage her psychological well being, subsequent experiences, and psycho social disturbances such as low self esteem, low self concept and self efficacy.
In spite of many studies done on women body and body dissatisfaction, few studies have considered body image, body dissatisfaction and self objectification, and there have been studies on body image, body dissatisfaction and social acceptance, but none as ever focused on the Nigerian ladies in the Nigeria society. Women from all cultures experience body image, body dissatisfaction and self objectification (mintz and Kashu beck 1995, story French, Resnick and Bluin 1995). As a result, women from Nigeria, especially females in tertiary institutions, who are experiencing development processes, need also to be the focus of research.
In addition, there appears to be paucity of literature with regards to body image, body dissatisfaction and self objectification on social acceptance among young female adult in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This study will seek to fill this literature gap within the discipline of psychology.
The main objective of the current study will be to examine the effect of body image, body dissatisfaction and self-objectification on social acceptance .Specifically, the study is poised:
  • To examine the effect of body image on social acceptance
  • To determine if body dissatisfaction has any effect on social acceptance
  • To find out the possible influence of self –objectification on social acceptance.
  • To ascertain the possible interaction effects of body image, body dissatisfaction and self objectification on social acceptance among female students in Ekiti State University.
Body image is affective, emotional and behavioral as well as cognitive. The construct could have profound consequence on female student’s psycho social functions in the university communities.
A female student who has negative imagination of her body is likely to feel depressed and become sad, socially exclusive and lose interest in any form of the school activities. This might lead to some negative behavior such as eating disorder, negative dieting as well as un-forward exercises or exercise dependent where-in a female student would prioritize physical exercises over cognitive or academic works in school. Therefore, one significance of the study would be to examine, quantitatively, the effects of persistent body surveillance on female students in their overall functions in the university.
Many female students have attached so much social benefits to beauty or physical appearance to the extent that they have associated it with success or intelligence. These subjective thoughts are associated with high price or cost which they have to pay. Such often includes taking of diet pills, buying workout videos and equipments or going for surgery such as tummy tuck. Some women even delay or avoid pregnancy just because of controlling body weight. Therefore, this study will be significant because it will reveal the negative consequences of excessive thinness, an obsessive compulsive disorder, that is growing among female students in the universities. Additionally, many female students think that their body parts are made to please others. They therefore make their body to be an object that they can control, alter and change to fit their own standard or perceived societal norms. Instead of putting much emphasis on how their body performs, they rather put more values on their appearances and attractiveness of their physique. Some of this leads to behavior changes which may occur with students becoming more habitual to body monitoring in the mirror, believing that their value and psychological self worth in the society lie within their outward appearance. Another significance of this study will be to enhance positive self-perception and ideal self in female students, thereby minimizing the levels of depreciation.
There are limited number of studies on body image, body dissatisfaction, and self objectification. In fact, there appears to be no available literature on this topic in the Nigeria context. This study will therefore help to close the literature gap that has existed in Nigeria.


Background to the study
Animal Husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.
Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were being raised on farms.
Agricultural science students need a good understanding of Animal Husbandry and management techniques in choosing it as a Trade Subject. Animal Husbandry requires well trained and experienced teachers. These teachers are saddled with the responsibility of imparting knowledge to students who will like to take up Animal Husbandry asTrade Subject.
They also help in training farmers who have little or no knowledge in animal management. The effect of this is that, most incompetent people are employed or take up animal farming without undergoing training in Animal Husbandry.AkinsorotanAdesiji, Ogunlade, and Opabo (2007) stated that in the developing countries of the World where there is inadequate Trade Subject guidance, the young ones tend to choose the career line of their parents most especially fathers’ occupation. Akinsorotanet al. (2007) further stated that, the educational system of the country stipulated that secondary school to be for children between 12 and 18 years. This is the time when they can be tutored and guided towards choosing a career.
They further stated that one of the major problems facing Nigeria is unemployment of youths due to unfavorable disposition to agriculture as a Trade Subject and all efforts by Government and Non-Governmental Agencies to encourage youths to choose agriculture production as a career have not been effective. Hence, for the young generation participation on agriculture production there should be a positive perception of agriculture production as a progressive and reliable Trade Subject in order to reverse the drifting of youths towards other professions.Ogbazi (2008) observed that Animal Husbandry in recent times has become an enterprise of concern to individual families, and schools. Ogbazi (2008) went further to observe that Animal Husbandry is relatively less capital intensive. This makes it possible for most secondary schools to establish poultry and growing of other animal in their school farms. Ogbazi further pointed out that teachers of agriculture should help agriculture students and other people who are interested in establishing animal farms in schools or in their homes. In order to be able to offer such a help, the agricultural teachers should possess both the technical and professional competencies needed for effective teaching of Animal Husbandry.Onu, (2005) maintained that animal farms in secondary schools when properly established will equipped the students with relevant skills. Onu (2006) went further to assert that Nigeria is a country with shortage of food supply, while the population is increasing rapidly.
In order to combat this problem, Onu (2006) added that many programmes were put in place which brought the teaching of agricultural science in both primary and secondary schools. Agriculture teachers have the responsibility of educating agricultural science students as prospective farmers in the different methods of producing and processing agricultural products. In order to be able to perform this function, the teachers need to be knowledgeable of the most effective methods of teaching vocational or skill oriented subject (Ogbazi, 2008). Onu (2006) indicated that agriculture and economic development of any nation to a large extent depends on the quality of her teachers especially agricultural teachers.
Agidi (2004) in Akinsorotanet al, (2007) stated that, the journey back to the history of agriculture in Nigeria, there is now a trend that is bringing a great concern tothe future of agriculture and food production.
It is necessary to educate and make the young generation to be conversant with agricultural farming in order to encourage them to contribute to food production and distribution in the country. Mayer and Onaze (1996) in Akinsorotanet al. (2007) stressed that Students who were also in the post primary education stage were taught in the classroom about modern methods of agricultural farming with practical training on the school farm. The National Policy on Education (2004), defined Vocational and Technical Education “as the Education designed to prepare individuals to acquire practical skills, basic scientific knowledge and attitude acquired as a craftsman and technician of sub professional level”.
The policy further stated that, the goals of teacher education was to provide teachers with intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and make them adaptable to changing situations. The policy further stated that, the goals ofsecondary and vocational education are for the purpose of:providing technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic training and imparting the necessary skills to individual who shall be self- reliant economically.exposing students to Trade Subject awareness by exploring usable options in the world of work, enabling the students to set up their own business and become self-employed and be able to employ others.

Rao, Reddy and Reddy (1995) in Akinsorotanet al (2007) stated that Agriculture Education and training in higher schools require professional teachers who understandthe psychology, principles, techniques of teaching and learning process for proper and adequate transfer of information to ensure change in knowledge, skills and attitude towards progressive agricultural practices. Okigbo (2012) in Akinsorotanet al (2007) stated that the future of increased food production rested on giving support to the education and training of young generations who are students of agriculture.
Statement of the Problem
Animal farming  in secondary schools are no longer equipped to make today’s modern  farming efficient and effective (Onu, 2004) Institution Animal Husbandry such as secondary schools enhance teaching and learning process and motivate the learners tochoose Animal Husbandry as a Trade Subject. The students should be acquainted with all the skills required in Animal Husbandry and be able to apply such knowledge effectively after graduation. In EkitiState, the researcher observed that, most students performed poorly in the West African School Certificate “Mass failure bleak future on WAEC report” (Kunle, 2010).  It was further observed by the researcher that secondary school students were not adequately exposed to Animal Husbandry practical due to poor teaching methods, unqualified agricultural science teachers and specialists in Animal Husbandry, inadequate modern equipment and facilities among others.  
Teachers are being trained by the government to handle the subject at secondary school levels.  Yet, there are still, some problems, which the teachers face in teaching this subject at a secondary school level.  This study is designed to focus on the problems facing the teachers in the teaching of agricultural science in secondary school.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study is to identify the improvement needs of agricultural science teachers in teaching animal husbandry in secondary school
 Specifically the study shall seek to:
1.     Identify the strategies  needed for improving the teaching and learning of animal husbandry in secondary schools
2.     To find out the factors that affect the teaching and learning of animal husbandry in secondary schools
3.     What are the teaching techniques adopted in the teaching of animal husbandry
4.     Determine ways of solving the problems identified in teaching animal husbandry in secondary schools.
Significance of the study
Agriculture has been made a core subject in the primary school curriculum.  This is the secondary aim of training present and prospective farmers for proficiency in farming.  Also to reverse the lack of interest show by many young ones and their preference for the white collar jobs, which have made agriculture to be left in the hands of the aged people.
Hopefully, the finding of the study will provide information and the data that would assist curriculum planners, decision makers as well as other bodies associated with agricultural programme in schools.  This will help in harmonizing the course content of agriculture in the secondary schools and giving balance attention to both theoretical and practical aspect of agriculture.
Such finding could serve as a spring board for the improvement of agricultural programmes at the secondary school level and in motivating pupils in choosing agriculture as career.
Research Question
          This study has the following research questions:
1)                What are the strategies needed for improving the teaching and learning of animal husbandry in secondary schools?
2)                 What are the factors that affect the teaching and learning of animal husbandry  and effectiveness in secondary schools?
3)                What are the teaching techniques adopted in the teaching of animal husbandry?
4)                What are the ways of solving the identified problems the teachers face in teaching Animal husbandry in secondary school.
Scope of the study
          The study focuses on the improvement needs for effective teaching and learning of animal husbandry in secondary school. The study covers five selected secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State

                         CHAPTER ONE
1.1            Background to the Study
The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, travelling and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a multibillion-dollar industry that depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance and direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resources etc.) Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017.
   Hospitality industry, an aspect of Tourism which cannot be overlooked is defined according to “the prospectors act 1956. section 1 (3) as an establishment held out by the proprietors offering foods and drinks if so required sleeping accommodation without special contract to any traveller presenting himself to be in a fit state of mind to be received and is willing and able to pay for the services rendered to him by the establishment. Its history can be traced to the early civilization of the mind 16th century when the Romans built roads between the main cities and towns of the time along which posting houses known as stabuli were set up to provide holding, food drinks. Thus, Every city/town at this time had ale houses which provides only drink which later advanced to the building of what we now call the hospitality industry (hotel).
Hospitality industry is a major sector in the tourism industry, which, in turn is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the service industry. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), travel and tourism has become the leading economic contributor to the world and national economies in terms of gross output, value added, capital investment, employment and tax contributions. Hospitality industry has brought tremendous growth to the global economy by providing services ranging from accommodation, sightseeing as well as other services related to the tourism industry. It not only provides employment but also plays a vital role in the economic returns of a state. Also the interaction with people from different cultures, thus educating people, is brought about by the hospitality industry. Hence, Hospitality industry plays a major role in the development of economy of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. In principle, it is expected that many people patronize the hospitality industry when the economy is buoyant, thereby signifying a positive correlation between the industry and the economy.
 Globally, it is a money spinning industry with billions of dollars to its credit even though in this part of the world, people are still grappling with putting the industry on the right pedestal so as to wholly benefit like other countries (Chukwudi, 2015) . Just like any other business running in Nigeria, there are areas of concentration - accommodation and restaurants which seemingly, is the ‘honey pot’ for practitioners in Nigeria . 
In recent times, the Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State economy has witnessed tremendous ‘growth’ in the hospitality industry leading to the emergence of hotels, fast food restaurant chains and night clubs. These positive trends in no small measure are clearly helping to re-define the face of the hospitality industry in Ekiti. Information on the street shows that the industry is booming. Nonetheless, it is believes people with adequate funds, are investing into the business with limited knowledge of the expertise required to run such business. Most of them forget that the industry requires investors that are aware of the fact that investment in this area requires long term commitment. Hence, they expect returns as soon as possible at the peril of their poorly remunerated staff.
The hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State is variegated depending on the location. Some of the outfits found in big cities boast of ‘reasonably’ high quality of service while those in the outskirts offer a lower standard. It is therefore not surprising that since the industry has become an ‘all comers affair’, there is in reality, no true classification of restaurants and hotels as obtainable in other countries. Consequently, most hotels have taken a bold step of prescribing their own grading leading to confusion amongst their clientele. It is  on this background this study examines the problems and prospect of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti.
1.2            Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian Hospitality Industry is faced with a myriad of problems ranging from poor energy supply and insecurity to misconstrued internal perception, cynical global perspicacity, flawed hotel classification, poor customer service, little or no standardisation in operations, inconsistent regulatory environment and skilled labour shortages caused by a few entrepreneurs with little knowledge of the workings of the industry who hijack the process to perpetuate plans for their own personal aggrandisement.
The challenges cascades from the ineffective top echelon in government down to the least of employees in the industry. Arguably, the industry has not recorded much progress in terms of achievements from its past precedence. Notwithstanding, more than ever before, it has become more lucrative depending on which side of the divide you find yourself i.e. employer or employee.
Although the hospitality  industry in Ado Ekiti offer different services to all classes of customers yet they suffer from a culture that is alien to supporting good customer service. It is on this backdrop this study examines the problems and prospect of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti.

1.3     Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide this study;
1.     What is the socio-economic contribution of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti community
2.     Does hospitality industry has impact on socio-economic development in Ado Ekiti?
3.     What are the problems facing hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State ?
4.     What are the  possible solution to the  problems facing hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti?
1.4     Research Hypotheses
          The following hypotheses will be tested for the purpose of this study
Ho:    There is no socio-economic contribution of hospitality industry on the host community
Hi:     There is socio-economic contribution of hospitality industry on the host community
Ho:    There is no significant  impact of  hospitality industry on the development of people in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Hi:     There is significant  impact of  hospitality industry on the development of people in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
1.5     Aim and Objectives of the Study
          The aim of the research wok is to examine the problems and prospect of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State . The specific objectives are to:
1.     examine  the socio-economic contribution of hospitality industry on Ado Ekiti community
2.     Examine the impact of hospitality industry has on socio-economic development of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State?
3.     Examine the problems facing hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State,
4.     Investigate the   possible solution to the  problems facing hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State?
1.6     The Study Area
Ekiti was an independent state prior to the British conquest. It was one of the many Yoruba states in what is today Nigeria. The Ekiti people as a nation and districts of Yoruba race trace some of her progeny to Oduduwa, the father and progenitor of Yoruba race even though good reason appear to establish the existence of aboriginal people in Ekiti region prior to influx of royalty from present day Ile Ife as that kingdom grew and abound.
There are two major schools of thought regarding Ekiti History. First was the story that tied the origin of Ekiti to Ife. The story goes that the Olofin, one of the sons of the Oduduwa had 16 children and in the means of searching for the new land to develop, they all journeyed out of Ile-Ife as they walked through the Iwo - Eleru(crave) near Akure and had stop over at a place called Igbo-Aka(forest of termites) closer to Ile-Oluji.
The Olofin, the 16 children and some other beloved people continued with their journey, but when they got to a particular lovely and flat land, the Owa-Obokun (the monarchy of Ijesha land) and Orangun of Ila decided to stay in the present Ijesha and Igomina land of in Osun state. While the remaining 14 children continued with the journey and later settled in the present day Ekiti land. They discovered that there were many hills in the place and they said in their mother's language that this is "Ile olokiti" the land of hills. Therefore, the Okiti later blended to Ekiti. So Ekiti derived her name through hills.
It must however be noted, that this history may describe the history of certain royalty in present-day Ekiti, but not all of Ekiti which is made up of 131 Principal towns, with their own royalty and many land owning communities with no royalty at all.In fact, the invading royalties from the East, went on to colonize and transform the aboriginals, distinguishing the Ekiti dialect upon mix with the Ife/Oyo tongue of the Yorubas according the Samuel Johnson, the renowned historian of early Yoruba States and Affairs
Second school of thought on Ekiti origin is more likely and grounded in actual history. It was said that Oduduwa, the ancestor of the Yoruba traveled to Ife [Ife Ooyelagbo] where he met people who were already settled there. Among the elders he met in the town were Agbonniregun [Stetillu], Obatala, Orelure, Obameri, Elesije, Obamirin, Obalejugbe just to mention a few. It is known that descendants of Agbonniregun [Baba Ifa] settled in Ekiti, examples being the Alara and Ajero who are sons of Ifa. Orunmila [Agbonniregun] himself spent a greater part of his life at Ado. Due to this, we have the saying ‘Ado ni ile Ifa’ [Ado is the home of Ifa]. The Ekiti have ever since settled in their present location.
Nobody can give accurate dates to these events due to the lack of written sources, but people have lived in Ekiti for centuries. It is on record that Ekiti Obas had prosperous reign in the 13th century. An example was the reign of Ewi Ata od Ado in the 1400s.


          The State is mainly an upland zone, rising over 250 meters above sea level. It lies on an area underlain by metamorphic rock. It is generally undulating country with a characteristic landscape that consists of old plains broken by step-sided out-crops that may occur singularly or in groups or ridges. Such rocks out-crops exist mainly at Aramoko, Efon-Alaaye, Ikere-Ekiti,Igbara-odo- ekiti and Okemesi-Ekiti. The State is dotted with rugged hills, notable ones being Ikere-Ekiti Hills in the south, Efon-Alaaye Hills on the western boundary and Ado-Ekiti Hills in the centre.

Climate and vegetation

The State enjoys tropical climate with two distinct seasons. These are the rainy season (April–October) and the dry season (November–March). Temperature ranges between 21° and 28 °C with high humidity. The south westerly wind and the northeast trade winds blow in the rainy and dry (Harmattan) seasons respectively. Tropical forest exists in the south, while savannah occupies the northern peripheriesh

Towns and Administrative Divisions

          The people of Ekiti State live mainly in towns. These towns include: Ado, Ikere Ekiti, Awo Ekiti, Ayegbaju Ekiti, Araromi Oke Ekiti, Efon-Alaaye, Aramoko Ekiti, Temidire-Ikole Local Govt, Igede Ekiti, Are Ekiti, Ikole, Ayede, Isan, Iye Ayede, Ire, Ijero, Ayetoro, Ipoti, Igogo, Ise, Itapa, Otun, Usi Ekiti, Ido, Emure, Iyin, Igede, Ilawe, Ode, Oye, Omuo, Ilupeju, Ikoro,Iloro, Ijurin, Ikun, Iye, Ijesa-Isu, Ayedun, Aisegba, Osin, Okemesi, Iworoko, Ifaki Ekiti, Osan, Erinmope, Asin-Ekiti, Orin, Ilogbo Ekiti, Osi, Igbole, Ora, Aye, Ikogosi Erio, [Igbara-Odo](Ogotun), Erijiyan Ekiti Iludun, Ilemeso, Otun, Itapaji, Ipao Ekiti, Oke Ako Ekiti, Irele Ekiti, Imojo, Ire Ekiti, Eda Oniyo, Gogo Ekiti, Odooro Ekiti, Ijan Ekiti, Epe Ekiti, Usi Ekiti, Ijesa-Isu Ekiti Ilasa-Ekiti, Iropora-Ekiti.
          Ekitis are culturally homogeneous and they speak a dialect of Yoruba language known as Ekiti. The homogeneous nature of Ekiti confers on the state some uniqueness among the states of the federation. Slight differences are noticeable in the Ekiti dialects of the Yoruba language spoken by the border communities to other states. For example, the people of Ado local government area do not speak exactly the same dialect with the people of Ijero Local government area, while the people of Ikole area speak something different from the people of Ikere area.
The communities influenced by their locations include Otun (Moba land) that speaks a dialect close to the one spoken by the Igbominas in Kwara State. The people of Oke-Ako, Irele, Omuo speak a similar dialect to that of  Ijesas of Osun State. However, part of the uniqueness of the Ekitis is that wherever is your own part of the state, you will understand well, when the other Ekiti man/woman speaks, in spite of the dialectal variations. In addition, all towns in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State take a common suffix, “Ekiti,” after their names. The main staple food of the people of Ekiti is pounded yam with Isapa soup or vegetable soup.
          Interestingly, not all parts of Ekiti are today part of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Historical Ekiti includes Akure as documented by Samuel Johnson, and also parts of Ekiti LGA in Kwara State. Indeed, Ijeshaland being part of Ekiti Parapo is also in Osun State.
Natural resources
Ekiti land is naturally endowed with numerous natural resources. The state is potentially rich in mineral deposits. These include granite, kaolin, columbite, channockete, iron ore, baryte, aquamine, gemstone, phosphate, limestone,GOLD among others. They are largely deposited in different towns and villages of Ijero, Ekiti West, Ado - Ekiti, Ikole, Ikere, Ise-Ekiti and other Local Government Areas.
The Land is also blessed with water resources, some of its major rivers are Ero, Osun, Ose, and Ogbese. More so a variety of tourist attractions abound in the state namely, Ikogosi Warm Spring, Ipole - Iloro Water Falls, Olosunta hills, Ikere, Fajuyi Memorial Park Ado - Ekiti and so on. The Ikogosi tourist centre is the most popular and the most developed. The warm spring is a unique natural feature, and supporting facilities are developed in the centre. The spring is at present being processed and packaged into bottled water for commercial purpose by a private company - UAC Nigeria.
Moreover, the land is buoyant in agricultural resources with cocoa as its leading cash crop. It was largely known that Ekiti land constituted well over 40% of the cocoa products of the famous old Western Region. The land is also known for its forest resources, notably timber. Because of the favourable climatic conditions, the land enjoys luxuriant vegetation, thus, it has abundant resources of different species of timber. Food crops such as yam, cassava, and also grains like rice and maize are grown in large qualities. Other notable crops such as kola nut and varieties of fruits are also cultivated in commercial quantities.

1.7.    Significance of the Study
This will enlighten the local populace about the important of hospitality industry on the social economic development in Ado, Ekiti State at large.   It will help to know the resources to be developed, managed and promoted for hospitality and community development.
This development can bring forth the provision of social amenities and infrastructures, construction of modern roads, active cultural institutions, sustainable environment, provision of employment opportunities and many other benefits in the study areas.
Finally, the recommendations that would be given in this report would optimistically provide the necessary information and strategies needed by the students, researchers, government and other sets of people, who are concerned in the development and management of cultural and natural resources to boost the disciplines of archaeology, museum, tourism and other cultural related fields in the community.
1.8     Organization of the Study
The study has five chapters. The first Chapter provides background to the study, where among other things; it presents the problem statement, study objectives, research questions. The second Chapter presents a critical review of literature relevant to the study. A detailed description of the methodology employed, study area and the data used by the present study is provided in Chapter three. The fourth Chapter presents results and discussion. Summary, recommendations and conclusion are provided in Chapter five of this research work.