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IMPACT OF ICT ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Decades ago a converging set of global trends has not only created significant economic and social opportunities but also enormous challenges. The pervasiveness of information and communication technologies from cell phone, to low cost video cameras, personal digital assistance and laptops wirelessly connected to the internet has changed the way people live, work, play and learn, new knowledge and the use of new technologies have resulted in the creation of new products, services and jobs, some of which were unimaginable, its entrance into areas of men activity, and it extension in the current century particularly in schools will became the most effective instrument to improve teaching and learning methods and promote educational goals (Ryan, 1991)
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are now of no doubt, being accepted as part of our contemporary world as they perceived as tools for rapid changes in technology, schools, political and global economic transportation. The penetrating influence of ICT is not only limited to these spheres of human endeavor but also to the field of education where it is perceived as a transforming agent in education delivery and educational methodology. As observed by Hoostrurj (2004) perhaps  the greatest achievement of the 20th and 21st centuries was the development and application of the ICT to all facets of human endeavor. According to him, ICT has significantly impacted on the course of human development  because it has positively transferred effectively and efficiently every aspect of human, life such as accountancy, agriculture, aviation, banking commerce, communication, culture, entertainment, education global, security, journalism, library, medicine research, science etc.
According to Olorundare (2006), utilization of ICT in schools curriculum development, implementation and evaluation, has brought a tremendous changes to education sector there is no doubt that ICT has found its, riches in education development in the education sector in both developed and developing countries attest to the fact that ICT has became a central focus of many countries education policies and such its use and integration has become widespread in the various school system. As an agent of change for effective teaching and learning chemistry, the benefit of ICT can be best estimated in terms of its potential as a sources of knowledge, a medium to transmit contacts in chemistry from teacher to the students and also ICT serves as means of interesting potential for providing access and opportunities for networking.olorundare (2006).
Nowadays, schools or learning institutes provides computer and information technology as learning material to gain knowledge and experience. Student now have more understanding during teaching process, internet especially provides many lands of information and also learning tools in school education lines, the objective of the exercise is to prepare them in solving problems one of the method by using multimedia activities, besides learning, the teachers can attract the students interest in learning process and they understand more if they learn by using something that will attract their interest, therefore by implementing ICT in teaching chemistry it can improve the students interest and also creative thinking. ICT plays some important roles which are to assist teacher in the teaching, providing them with tools to illustrate some points or processes as well as to support long distance educational system, the importance of the ICT is to enable them to associate between concrete, tangible facts from the abstract ones, to help promote the students retention and to facilitate the stimulation and recovery phase (Olusanya  O.M & OladeleO.I 2003). Chemistry which is one of the science subjects is concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions and the use of such reactions to form new substance, chemistry education is the study of the teaching and learning of chemistry in all schools colleges and universities, chemistry is basically about becoming aware exploring, understanding and exercising some degree of control over the environment through the senses and personal exploration (Frinosho, 2005).
Statement of the Problem
            Obviously methods have changed from what it used to be during the ancient days compare to this our own time and period, of course greater high can be achieved today with the integration and impact of information and communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching and learning chemistry in Colleges and Universities, one of the most trend is the using of internet facilities such as computer, bulletin boards electronic gadgets, notice board, video conferencing, projector and much more for effective and easy delivery of chemistry education. Therefore, this research project intend to see weather the utilization and implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry education in our higher institution and if it have any noticeable effects on the performance of chemistry delivery in the classroom.
Purpose of the study
            The purpose of the  study investigated the extent of the impact of ICT on teaching and learning of chemistry and found out whether student that were taught chemistry with the use of ICT materials such as computer system, internet facilities, projectile, video player among others. performed better than those taught with textbook only.
            The main purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ICT on students academic performance in College of Education Ikere Ekiti Campus and University of Nigeria, Affiliated to College of Education Ikere Ekiti the study is aim at finding out whether.
ICT has any effect on student performance
ICT as a tool for learning and student academic performance
ICT as a tool for teaching and students academic performance
Research Question
            The following research questions were posed to guide the study.
  1. Is there any relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) and chemistry          
  2. Is there any impact of ICT facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry
  • What is the benefit of ICT to chemistry Education
  1. How does ICT as a tool for learning influence the academic performance of students in chemistry.
  2. What is the level of availability of ICT infrastructure in University of Nigeria, Ikere campus and College of Education,Ikere
Statement of Hypothesis
            In order to carry out the research effectively, the under listed hypotheses were tested.
  1. There is no significant influence of ICT on Chemistry education in University of Nigeria,Ikere Campus and College of Education, Ikere Ekiti.
  2. There is no significant difference in the impact of ICT on Chemistry Education between male and female students
  3. There is no significant difference between the impacts of ICT on chemistry among the groups.

Research Assumptions
            This study is based on the assumption listed below:-
  1. The sample population is a true representative of the study population
  2. The variables under study are measurable
  • The instrument used for data collection is valid and reliable
Significance of the Study
            The outcome of this study aims at determining whether or not the use of ICT has any significant effect on the academic performance of student learning chemistry. Moreover education is the bedrock of any society. Nigeria as a developing nation needs standard university, that has available learning resources, that lecturers and students utilize in learning resources on a regular basis, it could be a guide line for incoming students and be educative to them when writing and studying similar problem in schools.
            This study has made me to explore into topic influence of ICT usage on the academic performance of students.
Delimitation of the Study
            The study was carried out in Ikere Local Government Area of  Ekiti State only, this study intend to study the influence and effect of ICT on academic performance of student in schools.
            Only College of Education and university of Nigeria Nsukka affiliated with College of Education Ikere Ekiti campus in Ikere LGA are studied, with a sample of only chemistry student selected out of all the others, the study is limited to a population of two hundred  (200) students from both N.C.E and Degree level
            The following are the limitation of the study on the impact of ICT on academic performance of NCE and Degree students in chemistry.
  • The findings shall emphasizes on the use of ICT and its impact on all chemistry students.
  • Invention of ICT which shall be catered for so as to improve the former means of dissemination of information
  • Another limitation of available research on the impact of ICT on students overall academic performance.


Definition of Terms
            The following terms were sued in this study: it shows the comparism and relationship between words to show how correlated they are and how important they are to each other.  
ICT:- Information and communication Technology is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing radio, television, cellular, phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite system disseminate, store, manage information, ICT has became integral to the teaching learning interaction and has became a central focus of many educational fields.
CHEMISTRY: The branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances.
PERFORMANCE: An action in which excellence or superiority depend primarily on abstract mental ability. An action requiring the manipulation of abstracts concepts or mental manipulation of any sort.   
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: It is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long term educational goals.
EFFECTIVE: This is to show an independent variable has impact on the dependent variables, it is to show the degree impact felt on a particular variable.
IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: These are supplementary instructional materials used when there is no access to standard instructional materials in order to drive home points by the teacher.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL: These are teaching aids or graphics materials which helps to aid or assist teacher in affecting their teaching methods, it refers to the human and non human materials and facilities that can be used to ease encourage improved and promote teaching and learning activities. They indicate a systematic way of designing, carryout and employing the total process of leaning and communication and employing human and non human resources to bring out more meaningful and effective instruction.
Learning: Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behavior, skills, values, or preferences. Evidence that learning has occurred may be seen in changes in behavour from simple to complex.
TEACHING: The act, practice or profession of a teacher, it is a complex, multifaceted activity, often requiring us as instructors to juggle multiple tasks and goals, simultaneously and flexibility.
VARIABLES: They are refers to as an attributes of a physical or an abstract system which may change its value while it is under observation.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Is the observed in an experiment or study whose changes are determined by the presence or degree of one or more independent variables.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: A manipulated variable in an experiment or study, whose, presence or degree determines the change in the dependent variables.

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Computer education is of paramount importance to national development and it is on this premise that the government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary through to tertiary institutions. The Ministry of Education stipulates that schools should offer technical and vocational subjects to students. At secondary school, a student should enroll for two technical/vocational subjects among which is Computer Studies. It’s against this background that the government went   about distributing computer assessories to schools across the country. Complementing these efforts, private companies donated and distributed computers to various schools at the state and federal levels. Despite such efforts, analysis carried out shows that the majority of schools are not offering the subject (Jegede, 2003). This has been the situation prevailing even in the schools which received the donations of computer packages. This, therefore, has prompted this current study to find out why computer studies are not being undertaken in the majority of schools despite the significance of the subject to national development and in the face of support from the political and corporate leaderships.
Education systems around the world face formidable challenges that are taxing conventional strategies. Fresh approaches are needed to address persistent problems of the past and provide students with an education appropriate to the needs of a modern, information based global economy. Now, after more than two decades of unfulfilled promises to revolutionize education, computer and communication technologies are finally able to offer opportunities to significantly improve teaching and learning. Aduwa, 2005
In any educational system, the level of available resources places a restriction on the degree to which any new subject can be introduced into the school curriculum, especially where only the most basic facilities have so far been provided. But ICT is of such importance to the future industrial and commercial health of a country that investment in the equipment, teacher education, and support services necessary for the effective delivery of an ICT-based curriculum should rank high in any set of government priorities. The curriculum proposed takes account of these resource issues and specifies minimum requirements for effective delivery in different circumstances (UNESCO, 2004).
 Reasonable computer studies are yet to start in Nigerian secondary schools, the computer-student ratio is small, funding by government has not been encouraging, computer education syllabus is unpopular among students and parents and thus hardly implemented, and teachers are inadequate to implement computer education (Jegede & Adelodun, 2003). Teachers in Nigerian secondary schools cannot implement computer education because majority of the teachers are not competent in basic computer operation and in the use of simple application software (Yusuf, 2005b).
Teachers require access to information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure for a number of reasons. These include their need to live as citizens in a world undergoing rapid and major transformations as a result of increased use of ICT, their need to embed ICT use in their teaching and administrative duties and, increasingly, their need to use ICT in their professional studies (Burnip, 2006). One of the millennium development goals of the Nigerian nation in the education industry is that schools (ICT) compliant. In response to this goal, government procured and distributed computers to schools. Those computers are now stored in principals’ offices unused in our schools nationwide. Mkpa (2007), has confirmed this in our secondary schools. In the wake of this, computer education and ICT compliance cannot be achieved. According to a study by Bukaliya and Mubika (2011), the qualifications of the majority of the teachers are farfrom being satisfactory due to lack of exposure to college curriculum that does not cater for ICT training. The teachers have poor practical skills in ICT usage since the majority of them could not even use the basic software in computers for the delivery of their lessons and indications are that the teachers lack the necessary skills and knowledge of computers in basic software usage. Studies by Ya`acob et al (2005) and so and Swatman (2006) on teachers` readiness for ICT generally, suggest that there is still a long way to go before schools can embrace on modern technology.
Due to the existing constraints in computer education implementation, remedial action needs to be taken. Lauand Sim (2008) propose the need to put in place measures to ensure that adequate access to technical support is provided. Lau and Sim (2008) established that teachers needed training which should be offered on a continuous, rather than a one off basis so that their computer knowledge is upgraded over time.
Computer is defined as an electronic device capable of performing a wide range of complex calculation at a very high speed. It can add, divided, subtract ad multiply. It can also be used for word processing and generation of report, memorandum as well as other operations that make life easier for man. Mkpa, (2007).
The computer developed just over four decades ago, has almost becomes inevitise in many countries, states, town, school even in an individual homes. Today, there are some places where one will find it difficult to operate without the knowledge of computer.
Computer not only dominates international communication and information but also has taken over almost all transactions in offices, homes and schools. No wonder this age has been described as “Age of information”. This implies that by the end of this century, four-sixth of us will be information workers and not manual workers Mkpa,. (2007).. Our jobs will be of process information and pass along to others, the result of the processing. The emphasis will be on production of information, storage and distribution of information in various forms.
All categories of workers such as lawyers, accountants, journalists, e.t.c. will be ineffective without the knowledge of computer. Nigeria like any other third world countries is taking up the challenge to meet the requirement of this technological development by embarking on computer literacy programmes.
The introduction of computer connotes that students at all level of education must be aware of  this new and modern tool so that they can appreciate it, use it, understand how it works and learn how to apply it to solve their everyday problems. (Jone 1986). For the fact that the educational standard of any nation start from primary and secondary levels, it will be necessary for computer literacy programme to be integrated into the primary and secondary school curricula in order to achieve the lofty goal of computer literacy in our country, Nigeria.
Cost has been reported as one of the factors which influence provision and use of ICT services (Adomi, 2010). The cost of computers is too high for many schools  to afford. Monthly Internet rates are exorbitant and the charges for satellite television are unaffordable for most people in Africa (Brakel and Chiseuga, 2003). This has made it difficult for Nigerian secondary schools to acquire and install ICT facilities for the use of teachers and students. Therefore for full implementation of computer education, government should be ready to provide ICT facilities to schools. Problem facing Nigeria and its ICT programmed is lack of workforce training (Goshit, 2006). Teaching as a profession in Nigeria is considered to be for poor people, therefore the few professional that are available prefer to work in companies and industries where they can earn better salaries. With this deplorable condition, teachers are not motivated to go the extra mile in assisting the students to acquire computer education (Oduroye, 2001).
Adequate timing is also required in the teaching and learning of computer. Therefore introduction of computer education demand time. For computer education to be fully implemented, teachers  should be given adequate time to go for training. Because they can only teach computer subject when they are fully trained.

Statement of Problem
In view of the fact that students  from both secondary and tertiary institution are immediate sources of manpower for industry and commerce, it is hoped that ICT literacy could have been taught to students in preparation for employment. However, this has not been the case for the majority of secondary school and tertiary institution. Most of the graduates who have gone out seeking for job also lack basic knowledge of computers despite being a prerequisite for employment in many organisations.
Some of the problem militating against the introduction computer education in secondary schools are lack of physical facilities, lack of  adequate fund from government, lack of competent computer teachers. Even schools where computers exist, the students could not operate it due to the fact that they were been taught theoretical aspect from textbooks and not together with practical due to the fact that the teachers could not operate the computers and inadequate power supply. In view of this, the study intent to examine the problems militating against the introduction of computer education to the secondary school in Ekiti State.

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the problem militating against the introduction of computer education to the secondary schools in Ido/Osi Local Ekiti State.  
Specifically, the study examined availability of computer resources in the schools, availability of trained manpower in teaching computer education in school, the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in schools, adequacy of time for computer lessons on the timetable and remedies to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools.
Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
1.     Are computer resources available in the schools?
2.     Do you have trained manpower to teach computer  science in the schools?
3.     What is the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in schools?
4.     Is time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on the timetable?
5.     Are there enough fund to finance the introduction of computer in the schools?
6.     Are there enough physical facilities for computer teaching and learning?
7.     What remedies can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools?



Significance of the Study
The study will be of greater benefits to students, school management, parents and the society at large.
          It would enable the student to understand problems militating against introduction of computer into secondary schools. This study would unveiled to government problem militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools. It would also unveiled to school management the effects of inadequate school facilities, inadequate funding  and problem of incompetent computer teachers to the introduction of computer education in secondary school in Ekiti State.
          The study would also contribute to existing knowledge and serve as a guide to students who may want to carry out research on similar research topic.

Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study was basically on the problems militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools.
In order to keep the study within reasonable scope and time factor, the study was delimited to some selected secondary schools in the Ido/Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study considered a limited factors that could militate against the introduction of computer education in the secondary schools in Ekiti State.

Definition of Terms
Computer: Is defined as an electronic device which under, a stored program, accepts data, process them and produce the result of the processing.
Computer education: Is the process of learning or teaching about computers.
Hardware: This is the physical parts of the machine, which include the mechanical, and the electrical component of the Computer such as input and output devices, the CPU e.t.c.
Software:   Is the programme that enables the computer to carry out operation as it has been instructed.
Memory:    The Internal hardware in the computer that stores information for further use.
ROM (Real Only Memory): Is the type of memory that holds information permanently.
RAM (Random Access Memory): It is the type of memory in which information can only be written and read. It holds information temporarily.
Password:  Is a set of characters used as a file name known only by the creator for security purpose.
Basic:         An acronym for beginner’s all purpose symbolic instruction code. A high level language for beginner.
Data: Any kind of information composed of letters, number symbol e.t.c. which can be processed by a computer.

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Collect FCSC Forms from Chairmen of the States Civil Service Commissions in the Following Geo-political Zones:
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MOTHER TONGUE INTERFERENCE IN ENGLISH NEWS CAST: A CASE OF A KWARA TELEVISION NEWS
ABSTRACT
Language and man are inseparable and since the languages of the world come in contact, there is bound to be a problem like mother tongue interference which is a sociolinguistic phenomenon. This work takes for granted that grammatical competence is totally different from phonological competence and it has worked on this premise using phonological conventions in analysing the sampled data. The findings proved that interference at the phonological level is a major problem confronting our media houses in Nigeria with respect to spoken English. Suggestions have been proffered to effect the envisaged repair in the aspects identified.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                 i
Certification                                                                                       ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgements                                                                  iv
Abstract                                                                                   v
Table of Contents                                                                     vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction                                                                      1
1.1 The Research Problem                                                       3
1.1.1 The Research Question                                                   3
1.2 Research Purpose                                                              3
1.3 Scope of the Study                                                             4
1.4 Justification                                                                      5
1.5 Methodology                                                                      5
1.6 Data Description                                                                7
1.7 Definition of some Terms                                                   8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Introduction                                                                      11
2.1 Bilingualism/Multilingualism                                           11
2.2 The Status of English in Nigeria                                        13
2.3 Language Acquisition                                                        16
2.3.1 Second Language Acquisition                                         19
2.4 Mother Tongue Interference                                               21
2.4.2 Phonological Interference                                                22
2.5 The Position of the Media in our Society                            25
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Introduction                                                                      28
3.1 Under-differentiation                                                         29
3.2 Substitution                                                                      31
3.3 Hypercorrection                                                                 39
3.4 Epenthesis                                                                         40
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Summary                                                                           44
4.2 Conclusion                                                                        45
4.3 Recommendations                                                             46
Bibliography                                                                            48
Appendix                                                                                 49

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
If the question “what is language?” is asked, it has many senses and can be variously defined. It can be language of a particular field like science, humanity just to mention few. It can also be the animal language, sign language and many other types of languages.
Human language especially spoken dominates them all. Human language is natural. According to Adebayo (1995), “Language (Human Language) is one of the chief means by which a person learns to organise his experiences and thoughts”
In Adebayo’s words above, human language is one out of many means by which a person’s experiences and thoughts can be organised. This supports the many senses that language has. And also, without language, (spoken) thoughts will never be born and experiences of life will be wasted because no one will be able to learn from them. Communication is the major bridge that links the whole world. Communication is a crucial factor in the society at large and there is pieces evidence that prove this. The global village and the internet prove this among others.
Language whether written, spoken, sign or through any means is a tool for communication and English language, out of many languages of the world has emerged the most used language all over the world. The global village use this language (English) and it stands to be the language of the net.
English language accords respect and pride to its speakers but some have been left with the effective use of this language especially in the countries where the language (English) is not the mother tongue or the first language one comes in contact with, for instance in countries like Nigeria, Ghana and many others.
The language teachers, the broadcasters and some few others have been left with the duty of speaking the correct version of English language in Nigeria. And if this proof is true, these categories of people should speak error free English. However, it is unfortunate that some of our broadcasters still goof on air and this distorts communication. In the light of the above, this research is out to work on the use of language in English newscast under the title “Mother Tongue Interference in English Newscast: a Case of a Recorded Kwara Television News”

1.1 The Research Problem
This work knows that some issues that have become problems in our media houses have been handled by some scholars. For instance, Medubi (2007) and Okoye (2007). Both of them dwelt more on the problems confronting the press in Nigeria but not directly as this work will handle it. No one has really worked on how Mother Tongue Interference distorts communication in our media houses in Nigeria. This work will look into this problem and will try to proffer solutions.
1.1.1 Research Question
In handling the research problem above, this research will focus its attention on this question: How much does Mother Tongue Interference distorts communications in our media houses in Nigeria?
1.2 Research Purpose
The purpose of this research is to achieve some set goals.
Firstly, this research is to further enlighten the media on the importance of Standard English.
Secondly, this research is to also help the second language teachers. Since they are the foundation layers of all learners and when the foundation of a leaner is solid, anything built on it will stand erect.
Lastly, this research will be useful for the media and the second speakers of the English language on how to produce sounds of English that will be free from Mother Tongue Interference.
1.3 Scope of the Study
This work will focus on “Mother Tongue Interference in English Newscast”. Different authors have dealt with his topic from different perspectives.
Hoffmann (1991) identified four major types of mother tongue interference in English.
  1. a) Interference at the phonological level
  2. b) Interference at the grammatical level
  3. c) Interference at the lexical level
  4. d) Interference in spelling.
Alabi (2007) also identified three types of mother tongue interference in English which are: phonological interference, lexical interference and grammatical interference.
This research will concentrate on the phonological level of mother tongue interference because it deals mainly with speech (Day to day conversation).
1.4 Justification
This research topic “Mother Tongue Interference in English Newscast” is important because the problem is obvious in almost all the media houses in Nigeria.
Some authors have outlined the problems confronting our media houses in Nigeria but few have given us solutions. An author like Okoye (2007) outlined the problem of the press in Nigeria but did not give solutions to such problems.
This research is set to look into the problems and proffer solutions to them with top priority given to the phonological aspect.



1.5 Methodology
This research is to analyse the Kwara Television main News. This television station has two sections of news. Basically, the news at five O’clock and the news at half past six in the evening.
This research will analyse one of the main news which is usually broadcast by two people unlike the news at five which is shorter and taken by only one person.
More people also listen to the main news compared to the one at 5pm perhaps because it is fuller or later than the first or both.
Some of the workers in the newsroom will be interviewed to know the philosophy, ideology and the brief history of the television station.
The data will be analysed using phonological rules because this is the most pervasive type of interference according Romaine (1989, p.52).
In the process, if questionnaire will be useful, it will also be composed and given to some selected people in the society to know their reactions to the media house and oral interviews can also be conducted.
These are some of the methods that have been chosen for the success of this work.


1.6 Data Description
Kwara Television Authority UHF 35 (Socially responsible) was established in 1991 under the able leadership of Mall. Ishaq Maddibo Kawu. The establishment was promulgated into a decree in (1997) with six departments.
The departments are Administration, Accounts, Marketing, News, Programmes and Engineering.
After the tenure of Mall. Maddibo, eight directors have managed the Television station and Barrister Mohammed Abdul Raheem who is the current General Manager was appointed on 16th June, 2010. And he is the General Manager till date.
This station covers up to five states which are Kwara, parts of Oyo-state, Kogi, Ekiti and Osun states.
This television station has the mind of becoming the best in all things especially in informing people and updating them in all useful and educating matters.
Most people complained of the time of the main news which is (6:30pm) half past six. Many said they will still be at work or not at home at the time of the news and few who listen to KWTV news commend that the news is fuller and it covers more of the local events which some other stations usually neglect.
1.7 Definition of Some Terms
Mother Tongue/First language (L1).
Mother tongue also called the first language (L1) is the first language a child comes in contact with in his/her environment.         Mother tongue is slightly different from the first language. Mother tongue is the language of the parents especially the father while the first language is the language of the environment.
The child’s mother tongue can be his/her first language and it may not also be. In the case where a Yoruba child grows up in ‘Okene’ in Kogi-state where the language in such environment is “Ebira” the Yoruba child can or will conveniently speak, “Ebira” because of his/her environment.
1.7.1 Second Language (Target Language)
A second language (L2) is that which exists side by side with the indigenous language(s) in a bilingual or multilingual situation. It is usually an official language and as such enjoys a high status within the nation.
A second or the target language can be the fourth or the third language to be acquired but as long as someone has a language before learning another, it will be referred to as the second language or the target language
1.7.2 News
Danuta (1998, p. 4) says:
News is a late Middle English Word that means “tidings” New information of recent events. Even if we accept this definition as a useful description of what Newspaper delivers... A more useful definition might be information about recent events that are of interest to a sufficiently large group, or that may affect the lives of a sufficiently large group.



1.7.3 Phonology
Akmajian (2001, p.109) etal says “phonology is the subfield of linguistics that studies the structure and systematic patterning of sound of human language”.
In his words, phonology is used in two ways. The first one describes the sounds of a language and the rules governing the use of those sounds. While the second refers to that part of the general theory of human language that is concerned with the universal properties of natural language sound systems.
Conclusion
Since language and man are not the same and they cannot be separated, problems will always arise from the two angles. Solutions must also be provided to such problems in order to have effective communication in the society.
This chapter has introduced us to the work that will be done and the next chapter, chapter two will review some works of literature by some renowned scholars in the field of language and this will establish the place of this work by linking it to some works that have been read.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Introduction
In this chapter, related works in the literature as this research work is concerned will be reviewed. This will serve as bases for the whole study i.e. some aspects to be reviewed here will be used in analysing our data in chapter three.
Due to the fact that sociolinguistics is a wide field, mother tongue interference and some other related sociolinguistic aspects (including language acquisition, bilingualism and some others) have been selected for the review.
2.1 Bilingualism/Multilingualism
Bilingualism and multilingualism are features of sociolinguistics.
According to Coates (1993, p. 4)
Sociolinguistics has been defined as the study of language in its social context. The study of language in its social context means crucially the study of linguistic variation.
Coates (1993) also identified two types of variations which are: stylistics variation and social variation.
Mackey (1968: 554) in Romaine (1989) opines:
The study of bilingualism could therefore be said to fall within the field of sociolinguistics in so far as the later is a discipline which is concerned with the ways in which language is used in the society.
Grosjean (1982) estimated that about half the world’s population is bilingual and that bilingualism is present in practically every country of the world. It is very rare to see a country with just a language, even a language has varieties.
McGregor (2009, p. 168) opines:
Many speech communities around the world are constituted of individuals who speak two or more shared languages. I use the term bilingualism to refer to such situations allowing that more than two languages may be involved: sometimes the term multilingualism is used instead as the cover term.
From all the scholars that been quoted above, it is deducible that bilingualism is a situation whereby more than a language is present in a society and multilingualism in its case is referred to as a situation whereby more than two languages are used side by side in a geographical environment.
2.2 The Status of English in Nigeria
Nigeria is a multilingual state with (521) five hundred and twenty one indigenous languages. (Nine of these indigenous languages are dead while we have two languages (French and English) which have no native speakers. However, we have (510) five hundred and ten living languages apart from the dead and the ones whose orthography have not been designed as well as French and English) (Ethnologue; world languages; 2009). With English language co-existing with these languages in a number of situations, in other words, English language (a former colonial language) is being used to transact in the Nigeria society alongside the indigenous languages.
In the words of Alabi (2007),
It is now an established fact that English, which initially came to the Nigerian environment as a foreign language was later shaped and transformed by subsequent developments into a second language with an official status.
English language serves different functions in Nigeria among which are:
(a) It is the language of the media
(b) It is a subject/course in schools
(c) It is a tool for education
(d) It is the language of the politics
(e) English language is the lingua franca.
This shows that without the knowledge of this language, it is impossible to attain an appreciable social height in the country. English language also ascribes prestige to its speakers.
Many who speak this language (English) in Nigeria speak only to communicate. There are people who have been left with the duty of speaking the standard version of the language. Some will say since English is not their mother tongue, they can speak the language anyhow as long as they are understood.
The broadcasters, the language teachers and some others are those that people in Nigerian society look up to for standard version of English language but unfortunately; some of these people still goof and this affect communication in a negative way.
Alabi (2007, p.80) again says:
It must be remarked that the variety of English that performs these tremendous functions in Nigeria is not the same as the native speaker’s varieties spoken in Britain or America.
No matter how people tried to speak English language in Nigeria, it cannot be the same as the native speakers will speak it because “The variety of English used in Nigeria has been indigenized to suit Nigerian environment (Alabi 2007).
In all, English language in Nigeria is a status symbol which built an heir of respectability to its speakers.



2.3 Language Acquisition
Under normal circumstances, any child within the first five years will acquire the language in his/her environment. This language is known as the first language or the mother tongue.
McGregor (2009, p. 203) writes that:
Normal children in all societies acquire, within the space of a few years fluent control of a language, sometimes two or more...
Exceptions are few: children with severe physical handicaps such as extreme mental retardation, Down’s syndrome, may not acquire a language. Fully; very rarely a child is not exposed to sufficient speech.
McGregor (2009, p. 204) also says that the process of acquisition of all languages is believed to proceed through similar developmental stages”.
Language acquisition can also be the process by which children learn to speak the language of the community they are born.
McGregor has six of the stages of language acquisition which are said to have been investigated to run across all the languages.
These stages are as follow:-
  1. Pre-language stage cooing, beginning at about two or three months; and babbling beginning at around six months. .
  2.  One-word stage, beginning at about a year or so; at around 12-18months children produce their first recognizable words.
  3.  Two-word stage, beginning at about 18-20months at this stage, he claimed that a child has an active vocabulary increase to around two to three hundred.
  4. Telegraphic speech, beginning at two to three years of age: “In this stage, functions words and morphemes, such as preposition (in language like) English and inflectional morphemes, begin to appear”
  5.  Basic mastery, at around four or five years.
  6.  Elaboration and expansion especially of lexicon also to some extent grammar-continuing throughout life. Language acquisition continues thought life.
Age is very significant in language acquisition and it has been emphasized that children before puberty acquire language easily compared to adults.
This is because some scientists believed with the help of researches that the ability of the brain to transfer certain information across the two hemispheres is what makes possible the effortless acquisition of language in early childhood. (Winkler, 2007, p.45).
“There is even a critical age for acquiring sign language natively” (Winkler, 2007, p.45).
He also identified some stages in acquiring a language just as McGregor (2009, p.204) did. Winkler says stages like babbling stage, communication through single sign (word) and combination of two signs or words. There are so many features that are connected to a child’s language. English speaking children leave out function words like an, a, and the. This is also called omission of articles.
These are words that add functions rather than content to an utterance. “Even their very first sentences follow a pattern” They usually consist of a combination of a verb, noun or an adjective. Something like. “Want milk” (Winkler, 2007, p.48).
Lastly, on the note of acquiring languages, each language has its structure and children learn this structure in the process of acquiring a language. No child will learn the structure of a language that he/she does not have any contact with. They also learn the sounds of their language as well as the constraints on how those sounds can combine.
Lack of proper acquisition of a language in a child will cause lack of competence when the child grows up to use the language in the society at large.
HH VOL 4
EFFECTS OF PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE  IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT  AREA
 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
The classroom environment of a school is an embodiment of the physical, sociological, psychological and psychosocial conditions.  The physical classroom environment has to do with the age of the classroom building, colour, level of available furniture, desks and seats, ventilation, lighting, roof, ceiling and floor Akubue, (2001).  The sociological classroom environment or climate refers to the feeling, which the teachers and the learners are able to generate in making the classroom morale high or low Akubue, (2001). The psychological classroom environment refers to the level of the speed of teaching, cohesiveness, distractions, interests, motivations, anxieties, confusion and difficulty of the classroom learning activities Haertel and Walbeg, (2004).
The psycho-social classroom environment is a type of classroom that has to do with interactions in the classroom. These interactions involve: teacher and students’ interactions, students and students interactions, students and instructional material interaction, and students, instructional materials and teacher interaction Anyafulude, (2006). It also refers to the extents the students perceive their classroom environment and how they want it to look like. Hong, (2003). In Nigeria psycho-social classroom environment, it appears that there is suppression of students by some teachers who claim to know everything, thereby giving students little or no opportunity to air their views Nwabueze, (2004). The psycho-social environment that students work in is very important. According to Fagbamiye, (2004) successful psycho-social environment is more likely to be a calm place rather than chaotic, to be task oriented and have an orderly climate   class. Fagbamiye continued by saying that in a geography classroom psycho-social environment, teacher/students interaction is very important.
According to Idowu, (2006), teacher/students interaction deals with interaction between the students and their teachers. The relationship may be positive or negative.  This relationship depends on how effective both the teachers as well as the students are able to perform their roles in the relationship. According to the same source, it also deals with teachers’ perception of their students and students’ perception of their teachers.  Some teachers perceive their students as been stubborn, older than their chronological ages, incapable of making decision, good for nothing, unfriendly, etc.  Other teachers perceive their students as being worthwhile, tender, friendly, innovative, intelligent, helpful etc. When the teacher’s perception of his student is positive, it may result to good teacher/student interaction but when he perceives his student in the negative direction, it may result in the negative direction and results to rancour, anger, hatred and poor students/teacher relationship. According to Dewey, (2006) the poor student relationship may lead to poor achievement while good student/teacher relationship may lead to better achievement  .
Another form of interaction in the classroom according to Mgboro and Omebe, (2005) is the students/students interactions.  This form of interaction involves the peer group.  The peer group is a group of individuals who are of approximately equal size, age and status with whom the child finds himself in the same class.  This group fills great and growing need for the child, for with them, he learns to develop new feelings of adequacy and acceptance.  So the peer group appears to be the second in importance to the teacher in the psychosocial classroom environment.  The individual according to Onyehalu, (2004) relies on peers for social acceptances support and solidarity.  When his/her peers accept the him, there is likely going to be a better achievement   than when the student is rejected by his/her peers.
Teachers/students/instructional materials are another form of interaction   psychosocial classroom environment.  It is a means by which students/teachers interact with their instructional materials.   , instructional materials are very important as they bring realities to what the teacher is teaching   lesson. According to Fagbamiye, (2004), in a Geography psycho-social classroom-learning environment, the student and teacher interact with each other and use of variety of tools and information resources in their pursuit of learning activities.  The nature of the classroom environment and psycho-social interactions may make a difference in how the students learn and achieve their goals  .
The nature of psycho-social secondary schools classroom learning environment has been found to differ according to location Lawren, (2006).  This difference due to location may lead to students’ different perception of their psychosocial classroom in rural and urban schools, and may or may not result to difference in students’ achievement in rural and urban schools.  According to Murdock (2007) location influence social interaction. Classroom achievement cannot be divorced from the social fabric in which it is embedded. Wentzed (2006) continued by saying that a learner’s concept of his worthiness, competence and other academically related qualities are derived from interactions with others in the acaemic environment.
Statement of the Problem
Classroom achievement as explained earlier refers to school progress made by a student from one class to another. In measuring achievement, it is believed that students should go through the appropriate experience which will enable them to learn or gain the ability to achieve tasks to acquire certain skills in a deserved way.
Students’ achievement  may not be improved unless there is provision for ideal psycho-social classroom environment .  It is also not certain whether  students in rural and urban schools perceive their classroom psych-osocial environment in a similar manner, and if the differences in their perception relates to their achievements.
Hence, the problem of this study stated as a question is, what is the relationship between student perception of classroom psychosocial environment and their achievement in senior secondary school?

Purpose of the Study
          The purpose of this study is to investigate the Effects Of Psycho-Social Factors On Student Performance in selected secondary schools in --------local government area..  Specifically, this study intends to find out:


  • Determine the effect of psycho social factors as a determiant of students academic perfprmamnce
  • Find out the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in secondary schools
  • Investigate if students interest influence their performance
  • To find out if teachers qualification/experience have any relevance on the students academic performance

  • To determine if school environment influence students performance



Research question
  1. Does phsyco social factors have effect on students academic performance?
  2. What are the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in secondary schools?
  • Does students interest influence their performance in the subject?
  1. Do teachers qualification/experience have any relevance on students academoic performance?
  2. Does school environment influence students performance?



Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will provide information to the geography teachers and educators on the students’ perception of classroom psychosocial environment and their achievement
The result will provide information to the government on the level of students’ perception and achievement   in rural and urban schools, knowing this will help improve the psycho-social environment, by increasing educational conditions of such schools that will enhance  students achievement in Nigeria
Both the study and its beef up literature on achievement and psycho-social environment may sensitize teacher taumers to help create a better interaction in the classroom.
The school administrator will not be left out.  This work will help them in the sense that they will be able to guide their teachers in creating a better psycho-social environment.
The government, if aware of psycho-social environment can make a rule for examining bodies to monitor psycho-social environment.  The work will also serve as a resource materials to researcher who may be interested in the area.  Additionally, it will provide the frame work for other researchers to build on.
Findings of this study will help to increase the knowledge base of what is known already about psychosocial classroom environment and also guide the teachers in providing conducive learning atmosphere by arranging and organizing the classroom in a way that the students will like.
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to SSII students in Ikere  Local Government Area of  Ekiti State.  This is because, the researcher does not want to use people in external  examination classes because they are preparing for their examination or beginners because they might not have gotten enough knowledge from SS 1.  As such, the researcher considers it more appropriate to use SS 2 and the content scope is the psycho-social  classroom environment of Ikere  local government area of ekiti state.
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