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MOTHER TONGUE INTERFERENCE IN ENGLISH NEWS CAST: A CASE OF A KWARA TELEVISION NEWS
ABSTRACT
Language and man are inseparable and since the languages of the world come in contact, there is bound to be a problem like mother tongue interference which is a sociolinguistic phenomenon. This work takes for granted that grammatical competence is totally different from phonological competence and it has worked on this premise using phonological conventions in analysing the sampled data. The findings proved that interference at the phonological level is a major problem confronting our media houses in Nigeria with respect to spoken English. Suggestions have been proffered to effect the envisaged repair in the aspects identified.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                 i
Certification                                                                                       ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgements                                                                  iv
Abstract                                                                                   v
Table of Contents                                                                     vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction                                                                      1
1.1 The Research Problem                                                       3
1.1.1 The Research Question                                                   3
1.2 Research Purpose                                                              3
1.3 Scope of the Study                                                             4
1.4 Justification                                                                      5
1.5 Methodology                                                                      5
1.6 Data Description                                                                7
1.7 Definition of some Terms                                                   8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Introduction                                                                      11
2.1 Bilingualism/Multilingualism                                           11
2.2 The Status of English in Nigeria                                        13
2.3 Language Acquisition                                                        16
2.3.1 Second Language Acquisition                                         19
2.4 Mother Tongue Interference                                               21
2.4.2 Phonological Interference                                                22
2.5 The Position of the Media in our Society                            25
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Introduction                                                                      28
3.1 Under-differentiation                                                         29
3.2 Substitution                                                                      31
3.3 Hypercorrection                                                                 39
3.4 Epenthesis                                                                         40
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Summary                                                                           44
4.2 Conclusion                                                                        45
4.3 Recommendations                                                             46
Bibliography                                                                            48
Appendix                                                                                 49

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
If the question “what is language?” is asked, it has many senses and can be variously defined. It can be language of a particular field like science, humanity just to mention few. It can also be the animal language, sign language and many other types of languages.
Human language especially spoken dominates them all. Human language is natural. According to Adebayo (1995), “Language (Human Language) is one of the chief means by which a person learns to organise his experiences and thoughts”
In Adebayo’s words above, human language is one out of many means by which a person’s experiences and thoughts can be organised. This supports the many senses that language has. And also, without language, (spoken) thoughts will never be born and experiences of life will be wasted because no one will be able to learn from them. Communication is the major bridge that links the whole world. Communication is a crucial factor in the society at large and there is pieces evidence that prove this. The global village and the internet prove this among others.
Language whether written, spoken, sign or through any means is a tool for communication and English language, out of many languages of the world has emerged the most used language all over the world. The global village use this language (English) and it stands to be the language of the net.
English language accords respect and pride to its speakers but some have been left with the effective use of this language especially in the countries where the language (English) is not the mother tongue or the first language one comes in contact with, for instance in countries like Nigeria, Ghana and many others.
The language teachers, the broadcasters and some few others have been left with the duty of speaking the correct version of English language in Nigeria. And if this proof is true, these categories of people should speak error free English. However, it is unfortunate that some of our broadcasters still goof on air and this distorts communication. In the light of the above, this research is out to work on the use of language in English newscast under the title “Mother Tongue Interference in English Newscast: a Case of a Recorded Kwara Television News”

1.1 The Research Problem
This work knows that some issues that have become problems in our media houses have been handled by some scholars. For instance, Medubi (2007) and Okoye (2007). Both of them dwelt more on the problems confronting the press in Nigeria but not directly as this work will handle it. No one has really worked on how Mother Tongue Interference distorts communication in our media houses in Nigeria. This work will look into this problem and will try to proffer solutions.
1.1.1 Research Question
In handling the research problem above, this research will focus its attention on this question: How much does Mother Tongue Interference distorts communications in our media houses in Nigeria?
1.2 Research Purpose
The purpose of this research is to achieve some set goals.
Firstly, this research is to further enlighten the media on the importance of Standard English.
Secondly, this research is to also help the second language teachers. Since they are the foundation layers of all learners and when the foundation of a leaner is solid, anything built on it will stand erect.
Lastly, this research will be useful for the media and the second speakers of the English language on how to produce sounds of English that will be free from Mother Tongue Interference.
1.3 Scope of the Study
This work will focus on “Mother Tongue Interference in English Newscast”. Different authors have dealt with his topic from different perspectives.
Hoffmann (1991) identified four major types of mother tongue interference in English.
  1. a) Interference at the phonological level
  2. b) Interference at the grammatical level
  3. c) Interference at the lexical level
  4. d) Interference in spelling.
Alabi (2007) also identified three types of mother tongue interference in English which are: phonological interference, lexical interference and grammatical interference.
This research will concentrate on the phonological level of mother tongue interference because it deals mainly with speech (Day to day conversation).
1.4 Justification
This research topic “Mother Tongue Interference in English Newscast” is important because the problem is obvious in almost all the media houses in Nigeria.
Some authors have outlined the problems confronting our media houses in Nigeria but few have given us solutions. An author like Okoye (2007) outlined the problem of the press in Nigeria but did not give solutions to such problems.
This research is set to look into the problems and proffer solutions to them with top priority given to the phonological aspect.



1.5 Methodology
This research is to analyse the Kwara Television main News. This television station has two sections of news. Basically, the news at five O’clock and the news at half past six in the evening.
This research will analyse one of the main news which is usually broadcast by two people unlike the news at five which is shorter and taken by only one person.
More people also listen to the main news compared to the one at 5pm perhaps because it is fuller or later than the first or both.
Some of the workers in the newsroom will be interviewed to know the philosophy, ideology and the brief history of the television station.
The data will be analysed using phonological rules because this is the most pervasive type of interference according Romaine (1989, p.52).
In the process, if questionnaire will be useful, it will also be composed and given to some selected people in the society to know their reactions to the media house and oral interviews can also be conducted.
These are some of the methods that have been chosen for the success of this work.


1.6 Data Description
Kwara Television Authority UHF 35 (Socially responsible) was established in 1991 under the able leadership of Mall. Ishaq Maddibo Kawu. The establishment was promulgated into a decree in (1997) with six departments.
The departments are Administration, Accounts, Marketing, News, Programmes and Engineering.
After the tenure of Mall. Maddibo, eight directors have managed the Television station and Barrister Mohammed Abdul Raheem who is the current General Manager was appointed on 16th June, 2010. And he is the General Manager till date.
This station covers up to five states which are Kwara, parts of Oyo-state, Kogi, Ekiti and Osun states.
This television station has the mind of becoming the best in all things especially in informing people and updating them in all useful and educating matters.
Most people complained of the time of the main news which is (6:30pm) half past six. Many said they will still be at work or not at home at the time of the news and few who listen to KWTV news commend that the news is fuller and it covers more of the local events which some other stations usually neglect.
1.7 Definition of Some Terms
Mother Tongue/First language (L1).
Mother tongue also called the first language (L1) is the first language a child comes in contact with in his/her environment.         Mother tongue is slightly different from the first language. Mother tongue is the language of the parents especially the father while the first language is the language of the environment.
The child’s mother tongue can be his/her first language and it may not also be. In the case where a Yoruba child grows up in ‘Okene’ in Kogi-state where the language in such environment is “Ebira” the Yoruba child can or will conveniently speak, “Ebira” because of his/her environment.
1.7.1 Second Language (Target Language)
A second language (L2) is that which exists side by side with the indigenous language(s) in a bilingual or multilingual situation. It is usually an official language and as such enjoys a high status within the nation.
A second or the target language can be the fourth or the third language to be acquired but as long as someone has a language before learning another, it will be referred to as the second language or the target language
1.7.2 News
Danuta (1998, p. 4) says:
News is a late Middle English Word that means “tidings” New information of recent events. Even if we accept this definition as a useful description of what Newspaper delivers... A more useful definition might be information about recent events that are of interest to a sufficiently large group, or that may affect the lives of a sufficiently large group.



1.7.3 Phonology
Akmajian (2001, p.109) etal says “phonology is the subfield of linguistics that studies the structure and systematic patterning of sound of human language”.
In his words, phonology is used in two ways. The first one describes the sounds of a language and the rules governing the use of those sounds. While the second refers to that part of the general theory of human language that is concerned with the universal properties of natural language sound systems.
Conclusion
Since language and man are not the same and they cannot be separated, problems will always arise from the two angles. Solutions must also be provided to such problems in order to have effective communication in the society.
This chapter has introduced us to the work that will be done and the next chapter, chapter two will review some works of literature by some renowned scholars in the field of language and this will establish the place of this work by linking it to some works that have been read.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Introduction
In this chapter, related works in the literature as this research work is concerned will be reviewed. This will serve as bases for the whole study i.e. some aspects to be reviewed here will be used in analysing our data in chapter three.
Due to the fact that sociolinguistics is a wide field, mother tongue interference and some other related sociolinguistic aspects (including language acquisition, bilingualism and some others) have been selected for the review.
2.1 Bilingualism/Multilingualism
Bilingualism and multilingualism are features of sociolinguistics.
According to Coates (1993, p. 4)
Sociolinguistics has been defined as the study of language in its social context. The study of language in its social context means crucially the study of linguistic variation.
Coates (1993) also identified two types of variations which are: stylistics variation and social variation.
Mackey (1968: 554) in Romaine (1989) opines:
The study of bilingualism could therefore be said to fall within the field of sociolinguistics in so far as the later is a discipline which is concerned with the ways in which language is used in the society.
Grosjean (1982) estimated that about half the world’s population is bilingual and that bilingualism is present in practically every country of the world. It is very rare to see a country with just a language, even a language has varieties.
McGregor (2009, p. 168) opines:
Many speech communities around the world are constituted of individuals who speak two or more shared languages. I use the term bilingualism to refer to such situations allowing that more than two languages may be involved: sometimes the term multilingualism is used instead as the cover term.
From all the scholars that been quoted above, it is deducible that bilingualism is a situation whereby more than a language is present in a society and multilingualism in its case is referred to as a situation whereby more than two languages are used side by side in a geographical environment.
2.2 The Status of English in Nigeria
Nigeria is a multilingual state with (521) five hundred and twenty one indigenous languages. (Nine of these indigenous languages are dead while we have two languages (French and English) which have no native speakers. However, we have (510) five hundred and ten living languages apart from the dead and the ones whose orthography have not been designed as well as French and English) (Ethnologue; world languages; 2009). With English language co-existing with these languages in a number of situations, in other words, English language (a former colonial language) is being used to transact in the Nigeria society alongside the indigenous languages.
In the words of Alabi (2007),
It is now an established fact that English, which initially came to the Nigerian environment as a foreign language was later shaped and transformed by subsequent developments into a second language with an official status.
English language serves different functions in Nigeria among which are:
(a) It is the language of the media
(b) It is a subject/course in schools
(c) It is a tool for education
(d) It is the language of the politics
(e) English language is the lingua franca.
This shows that without the knowledge of this language, it is impossible to attain an appreciable social height in the country. English language also ascribes prestige to its speakers.
Many who speak this language (English) in Nigeria speak only to communicate. There are people who have been left with the duty of speaking the standard version of the language. Some will say since English is not their mother tongue, they can speak the language anyhow as long as they are understood.
The broadcasters, the language teachers and some others are those that people in Nigerian society look up to for standard version of English language but unfortunately; some of these people still goof and this affect communication in a negative way.
Alabi (2007, p.80) again says:
It must be remarked that the variety of English that performs these tremendous functions in Nigeria is not the same as the native speaker’s varieties spoken in Britain or America.
No matter how people tried to speak English language in Nigeria, it cannot be the same as the native speakers will speak it because “The variety of English used in Nigeria has been indigenized to suit Nigerian environment (Alabi 2007).
In all, English language in Nigeria is a status symbol which built an heir of respectability to its speakers.



2.3 Language Acquisition
Under normal circumstances, any child within the first five years will acquire the language in his/her environment. This language is known as the first language or the mother tongue.
McGregor (2009, p. 203) writes that:
Normal children in all societies acquire, within the space of a few years fluent control of a language, sometimes two or more...
Exceptions are few: children with severe physical handicaps such as extreme mental retardation, Down’s syndrome, may not acquire a language. Fully; very rarely a child is not exposed to sufficient speech.
McGregor (2009, p. 204) also says that the process of acquisition of all languages is believed to proceed through similar developmental stages”.
Language acquisition can also be the process by which children learn to speak the language of the community they are born.
McGregor has six of the stages of language acquisition which are said to have been investigated to run across all the languages.
These stages are as follow:-
  1. Pre-language stage cooing, beginning at about two or three months; and babbling beginning at around six months. .
  2.  One-word stage, beginning at about a year or so; at around 12-18months children produce their first recognizable words.
  3.  Two-word stage, beginning at about 18-20months at this stage, he claimed that a child has an active vocabulary increase to around two to three hundred.
  4. Telegraphic speech, beginning at two to three years of age: “In this stage, functions words and morphemes, such as preposition (in language like) English and inflectional morphemes, begin to appear”
  5.  Basic mastery, at around four or five years.
  6.  Elaboration and expansion especially of lexicon also to some extent grammar-continuing throughout life. Language acquisition continues thought life.
Age is very significant in language acquisition and it has been emphasized that children before puberty acquire language easily compared to adults.
This is because some scientists believed with the help of researches that the ability of the brain to transfer certain information across the two hemispheres is what makes possible the effortless acquisition of language in early childhood. (Winkler, 2007, p.45).
“There is even a critical age for acquiring sign language natively” (Winkler, 2007, p.45).
He also identified some stages in acquiring a language just as McGregor (2009, p.204) did. Winkler says stages like babbling stage, communication through single sign (word) and combination of two signs or words. There are so many features that are connected to a child’s language. English speaking children leave out function words like an, a, and the. This is also called omission of articles.
These are words that add functions rather than content to an utterance. “Even their very first sentences follow a pattern” They usually consist of a combination of a verb, noun or an adjective. Something like. “Want milk” (Winkler, 2007, p.48).
Lastly, on the note of acquiring languages, each language has its structure and children learn this structure in the process of acquiring a language. No child will learn the structure of a language that he/she does not have any contact with. They also learn the sounds of their language as well as the constraints on how those sounds can combine.
Lack of proper acquisition of a language in a child will cause lack of competence when the child grows up to use the language in the society at large.
HH VOL 4
EFFECTS OF PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE  IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT  AREA
 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
The classroom environment of a school is an embodiment of the physical, sociological, psychological and psychosocial conditions.  The physical classroom environment has to do with the age of the classroom building, colour, level of available furniture, desks and seats, ventilation, lighting, roof, ceiling and floor Akubue, (2001).  The sociological classroom environment or climate refers to the feeling, which the teachers and the learners are able to generate in making the classroom morale high or low Akubue, (2001). The psychological classroom environment refers to the level of the speed of teaching, cohesiveness, distractions, interests, motivations, anxieties, confusion and difficulty of the classroom learning activities Haertel and Walbeg, (2004).
The psycho-social classroom environment is a type of classroom that has to do with interactions in the classroom. These interactions involve: teacher and students’ interactions, students and students interactions, students and instructional material interaction, and students, instructional materials and teacher interaction Anyafulude, (2006). It also refers to the extents the students perceive their classroom environment and how they want it to look like. Hong, (2003). In Nigeria psycho-social classroom environment, it appears that there is suppression of students by some teachers who claim to know everything, thereby giving students little or no opportunity to air their views Nwabueze, (2004). The psycho-social environment that students work in is very important. According to Fagbamiye, (2004) successful psycho-social environment is more likely to be a calm place rather than chaotic, to be task oriented and have an orderly climate   class. Fagbamiye continued by saying that in a geography classroom psycho-social environment, teacher/students interaction is very important.
According to Idowu, (2006), teacher/students interaction deals with interaction between the students and their teachers. The relationship may be positive or negative.  This relationship depends on how effective both the teachers as well as the students are able to perform their roles in the relationship. According to the same source, it also deals with teachers’ perception of their students and students’ perception of their teachers.  Some teachers perceive their students as been stubborn, older than their chronological ages, incapable of making decision, good for nothing, unfriendly, etc.  Other teachers perceive their students as being worthwhile, tender, friendly, innovative, intelligent, helpful etc. When the teacher’s perception of his student is positive, it may result to good teacher/student interaction but when he perceives his student in the negative direction, it may result in the negative direction and results to rancour, anger, hatred and poor students/teacher relationship. According to Dewey, (2006) the poor student relationship may lead to poor achievement while good student/teacher relationship may lead to better achievement  .
Another form of interaction in the classroom according to Mgboro and Omebe, (2005) is the students/students interactions.  This form of interaction involves the peer group.  The peer group is a group of individuals who are of approximately equal size, age and status with whom the child finds himself in the same class.  This group fills great and growing need for the child, for with them, he learns to develop new feelings of adequacy and acceptance.  So the peer group appears to be the second in importance to the teacher in the psychosocial classroom environment.  The individual according to Onyehalu, (2004) relies on peers for social acceptances support and solidarity.  When his/her peers accept the him, there is likely going to be a better achievement   than when the student is rejected by his/her peers.
Teachers/students/instructional materials are another form of interaction   psychosocial classroom environment.  It is a means by which students/teachers interact with their instructional materials.   , instructional materials are very important as they bring realities to what the teacher is teaching   lesson. According to Fagbamiye, (2004), in a Geography psycho-social classroom-learning environment, the student and teacher interact with each other and use of variety of tools and information resources in their pursuit of learning activities.  The nature of the classroom environment and psycho-social interactions may make a difference in how the students learn and achieve their goals  .
The nature of psycho-social secondary schools classroom learning environment has been found to differ according to location Lawren, (2006).  This difference due to location may lead to students’ different perception of their psychosocial classroom in rural and urban schools, and may or may not result to difference in students’ achievement in rural and urban schools.  According to Murdock (2007) location influence social interaction. Classroom achievement cannot be divorced from the social fabric in which it is embedded. Wentzed (2006) continued by saying that a learner’s concept of his worthiness, competence and other academically related qualities are derived from interactions with others in the acaemic environment.
Statement of the Problem
Classroom achievement as explained earlier refers to school progress made by a student from one class to another. In measuring achievement, it is believed that students should go through the appropriate experience which will enable them to learn or gain the ability to achieve tasks to acquire certain skills in a deserved way.
Students’ achievement  may not be improved unless there is provision for ideal psycho-social classroom environment .  It is also not certain whether  students in rural and urban schools perceive their classroom psych-osocial environment in a similar manner, and if the differences in their perception relates to their achievements.
Hence, the problem of this study stated as a question is, what is the relationship between student perception of classroom psychosocial environment and their achievement in senior secondary school?

Purpose of the Study
          The purpose of this study is to investigate the Effects Of Psycho-Social Factors On Student Performance in selected secondary schools in --------local government area..  Specifically, this study intends to find out:


  • Determine the effect of psycho social factors as a determiant of students academic perfprmamnce
  • Find out the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in secondary schools
  • Investigate if students interest influence their performance
  • To find out if teachers qualification/experience have any relevance on the students academic performance

  • To determine if school environment influence students performance



Research question
  1. Does phsyco social factors have effect on students academic performance?
  2. What are the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in secondary schools?
  • Does students interest influence their performance in the subject?
  1. Do teachers qualification/experience have any relevance on students academoic performance?
  2. Does school environment influence students performance?



Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will provide information to the geography teachers and educators on the students’ perception of classroom psychosocial environment and their achievement
The result will provide information to the government on the level of students’ perception and achievement   in rural and urban schools, knowing this will help improve the psycho-social environment, by increasing educational conditions of such schools that will enhance  students achievement in Nigeria
Both the study and its beef up literature on achievement and psycho-social environment may sensitize teacher taumers to help create a better interaction in the classroom.
The school administrator will not be left out.  This work will help them in the sense that they will be able to guide their teachers in creating a better psycho-social environment.
The government, if aware of psycho-social environment can make a rule for examining bodies to monitor psycho-social environment.  The work will also serve as a resource materials to researcher who may be interested in the area.  Additionally, it will provide the frame work for other researchers to build on.
Findings of this study will help to increase the knowledge base of what is known already about psychosocial classroom environment and also guide the teachers in providing conducive learning atmosphere by arranging and organizing the classroom in a way that the students will like.
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to SSII students in Ikere  Local Government Area of  Ekiti State.  This is because, the researcher does not want to use people in external  examination classes because they are preparing for their examination or beginners because they might not have gotten enough knowledge from SS 1.  As such, the researcher considers it more appropriate to use SS 2 and the content scope is the psycho-social  classroom environment of Ikere  local government area of ekiti state.
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INFLUENCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON STABILITY OF MARRIAGE AMONG COUPLES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Certification page                                                                                                       iii
Dedication                                                                                                            
Acknowledgements
Table of contents                                                                                                        vi
Abstract                                                                                                                      ix
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study                                                                                           1
Statement of the problem                                                                                           9
Purpose of the study                                                                                                   10
Research Questions                                                                                                     10
Research Hypotheses                                                                                                  11
Significance of the Study                                                                                           11
Delimitation of the Study                                                                                           13
Limitation of the Study                                                                                              13
Definition of terms                                                                                                     13
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                                                                                16
Studies related to communication skills and Marital Satisfaction                              17
Studies related to communication skills and Conflict resolution                               27
Studies related with Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Satisfaction                             32
Studies on age at time of marriage and marriage stability                                          43
Summary of Literature Review                                                                                  44
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                                                         47
Area of the Study                                                                                                       47
Population of the Study                                                                                              48
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                              48
Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   48
Validity of the instruments                                                                                         49
Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       49
Method of Data Collection                                                                                         49
Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           50
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTSANDDISCUSSION                                                        
Analysis and discussion of the research questions                                                     51
Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                                                                                                     58
Conclusion                                                                                                                  59
Recommendations                                                                                                      61
Suggestion for further Studies                                                                                    62
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
ABSTRACT
The study examined the influence of effective communication on stability of marriage among couples in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. In this study, some relevant and extensive literatures were review under relevant sub-headings. The descriptive research survey design was used to assess the respondents’ opinions, using the questionnaire and the sampling technique. In this study, 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used as samples to represent the population of the study.Three (3) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study.The data collected from the respondents was analyzed using frequencies, table, and the figures were analyzed using Chi-square and the analyses of the null hypotheses is at 0.05 level of significance. Results revealed that there is significant relationship between communication and marital stability among couples, there is no significant effect of length of marriage on communication ability of couples and finally, the third hypothesis revealed that there is no significant effect of age at marriage on marital stability among couples. It was recommendedamong others that couples should open lines of communication in their marriage over all matters, including seemingly trivial ones.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Communication is like glue that holds the world, continents, countries, states, societies, communities and people together. Take the example of a group of tourists viewing a picturesque landscape. Although the entire group beholds the same scene, each person sees it differently. Why? Each individual has a different vantage point. No two persons are standing at the same location. Furthermore, not everyone focuses on the same portion of the scene. Each person finds a different aspect to be particularly intriguing. The same can be said of relationships, even when they exist among the very best of friends, no two people share precisely the same look on matters; siblings, friends, relations and so on. Not even husband and wife, the subject of this research study, have the same view on matters. The dissimilar perspectives can become a source of bitter contention. In fact, among factors cited to have contributed to divorce include personality incompatibility, lack of open communication and negotiation between married couples (Kabali, 2006). Even the Bible supports that view in 1Corinthians 7:28 that “Those who marry will have pain and grief” (The New English Bible1 Corinthians 7:28).
Marriage has been defined by Monroe (2003), as a religious duty and is consequently a moral safeguard as well as a social necessity. In fact when people make choices to marry, they want to live happily ever after. They want a loving, happy, successful marriage. After they have been married for a while, and the novelty has worn off, they tend to discover that marriage does not maintain itself.Marriage takes work from both spouses to stay. Marriage is the most difficult maze to ever get lost in (Angel, 2008) if marriage mates do not work their differences. Marriage can be like heaven on earth, just as it could be described as a living hell. It all depends on what one makes of it. A successful marriage is like food. It depends on many key ingredients to be successful. These ingredients include such attributes as trust, love, time, friendship, understanding, honesty, loyalty, sincerity and, above all, effective communication.
Marital stability can be defined as the endurance of a marriage due to the cooperation of both husband and wife. In fact, marital stability is viewed as a function of the comparison between one’s best available marital alternative and one’s marital outcome (Lenthal,2009). A marriage without effective communication is very likely to crumble.Communication is a life wire of marriage relationship or any other meaningful relationship (Esere, 2002, 2006). It is the elixir for ailing marital relationships (Olagunju&Eweniyi, 2002). With so many marriages ending tragically in divorce (Adegoke&Esere, 1998) observed that it is more important now to work on the communication between husband and wife. The way couples deal with their inevitable conflicts, as a result of cohabitation, seems to be a powerful predictor of couples’ adjustment and stability in their marital relationships (Lazarides, Belanger &Sabourin, 2010).
Marital instability has been linked with more negativity and less positivity usually as conflicts; negative reciprocity and difficulty getting out of the negative reciprocity cycle and more important for the purpose of this study, non-verbal communication and verbal communication have been observed as causes of unstable marriages. Unhappy couples display, among others, more criticism, dominance and withdrawal, and less support and problem-solving behaviour, and the demand-withdraw pattern of communication has been linked repeatedly to marital dissatisfaction and satisfaction (Lazarides, Belanger &Sabourin, 2010). These same set of people usually are unable to function well in their work places as they carry their marital problems to their work places, constituting a nuisance to their employers. These and many more problems escalate when there is no communication, and many problems are resolved when there is effective communication in a marriage. It is on this premise that it was thought important by, any successive researchers to investigate the relationship bet0ween communication and marital stability, as well as the influence of communication on marital stability.
Olson and DeFrain (2000), consider communication as the heart of intimate human relationship and the foundation on which all other relationships are built, they also assert that it is the key to a successful couple relationship. In fact, the ability and the willingness to communicate have been found to be among the most important factors in maintaining a satisfying relationship. Studies reveal that the
top five issues generating conflict in marriage are money, family, communication, household tasks and personal taste. The ability of a relationship to adjust, to take into account the changing needs of its members hinges on communication. Over the last twenty years, marital therapists, especially those working from the behavioral and cognitive behavioral model, have placed a strong emphasis on the relationship between communication, marital adjustment and stability.
Marital stability is viewed as a function of the comparison between ones best available marital alternative and ones marital outcome (Lenthal, 2009). It refers to the stability of the marital relationship, rather than to the condition of individual spouses. Stable marriages are those that there is no plan to divorce. In contrast, marital instability is defined as the propensity to divorce, which is determined by the presence of thoughts or actions which may lead to marital separation (suchas consulting a divorce attorney). Marital stability therefore refers to the relationship, not to the spouses as individuals.
Litvyak (2002) identified five communication styles as purported by Virginia Satir. The "blamer" or "aggressive" style reveals a dictator, a fault-finder and a boss. The "blamer" hides a feeling of alienation and loneliness behind the facade of tough and complacent person. The "placater" or "nonassertive" person tries to avoid any kind of confrontation, apologizes for his/her very existence; talks in an ingratiating way; seeks to please people and never disagrees no matter what. The "computing" or "intellectual" style communicator tends to be emotionally detached in any encounter. He/She appears very aloof and correct, careful to show little emotion, uses super-reasonable communication and entails being very correct and logical with no semblance of showing any feeling (Gray, 1990; Litvyak, 2002).
The fourth communication style is the "distracting" or "manipulative". Instead of taking positive actions, people with "distracting" style of communication uses a whole range of emotions from anger to guilt to manipulate others' feelings and to avoid unpleasant encounters. It is extremely difficult for these persons to stay focused. Such persons ignore questions and flirt from one thing to the next. The fifth and final communication style is called "leveling" or "assertive". Levelers’ response in words, body posture, tone of voice and facial expression are all congruent, all convey the same message. Levelers shares feelings rather than trying to conceal them. They are comfortable with vague situations; they are ready to talk honestly about their feelings and to stand for their rights and not to discriminate others. Gray (1990); Satir (1991); Smith &Apelleci (1982) and Litvyak (2002) all assert that leveling is the ideal communication approach and is a good step toward dynamic couple communication. Awareness of these styles as they occur in families can improve communication among family members.
Several studies have found that overall marital satisfaction is higher among couples who rated their communication as good. Flowers (2010); Gottman&Krokoff (2009) all suggest that effective communication amongst other factors contribute to happy, satisfying and stable marriage. Tanner (1990) in Santrock (2002) observed that lack of communication was high on women’s reasons for divorce whereas for men it was insignificant. Developmentalists have conducted less research on the quality of communication within families than on some of the other dimensions of communication, so they are a long way from understanding all the ramifications of communication styles (Bee and Boyd, 2007). Concerns about communication ability are becoming wide spread as more marital failures are being blamed on the inability of couples to communicate effectively (Orthner, 1981). What these and other studies seem to be saying is that good communication does not just involve periodic problem solving, it is a condition of the relationship that is continuously reinforced. In view of the current increase in the cases/rate of divorce and marital instability globally and in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State, occasioned with the relevance of communication in marital relationship, the researchers sought to determine the influence of effective communication on the stability of marriage among couples in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Some elements are responsible for instability of marriage among couples, the element responsible could be improper communication (Eniba, 2009). Some couples lack the way with which to express themselves through communication, leading to misunderstandings between each other.Lack of communication in marriages is a cause for serious concern on the part of the couple(s) involved other members of the family, the immediate society and the world in general. This is because, the home is the nucleus of the society and marriage is the major avenue whereby the society is populated by the number of children that are born in such marriages, thus marital instability, due to lack of communication, produces negative multiplier effect on the society (Esere, Yusuf &Omotosho, 2010).
A lot of individuals consider divorce to be the solution to such marital problems so they opt for divorce. As such, there are a lot of divorced individuals in society (Kabali, 2006). It comes as no surprise, then, that Rutter (1998) called the last three decades a transition period into the “the divorce revolution”. Marital distress, conflict, family uncertainty among couples could threaten societal values, an embarrassment to themselves, children and their society at large (Undiyaundeye, 2006).
Marital instability affects the society, going by the rate of divorce and the direct impact on the children, who, in most cases, grow to be social misfits and a nuisance. The tragedy of the matter is that this situation this occurs on a nationwide scale (Agim, 1997; Obe, 1997; Carew, 1995). Marital instability contributes to the spread of single-parent families, which in turn leads to social problems such as poverty, crime, substance abuse (by both parents and children and declining academic standards) (Blankenhorn, 1995; Glenn, 1996; Popenpoe, 1996; Amato, 2000). Psychological effects of marital instability include decline in happiness and more conflict. In fact, they seem to experience sadness, be upset (Harkonen, 2013). Marital instability and divorce can have important economic consequences, especially for women. In the case of divorce, economic dependency in the former marriage tends to lead to larger economic losses during and after divorce, whereas, the sole provider may even gain more economically (Diprete and McManus &DiPrete, 2001; Uunk, 2004; Harkonen, 2013).
The end result of any case of marital instability is a breakdown of the union or divorce, home desertion, juvenile delinquency, truancy, school drop outs, lukewarm attitude to study, indiscipline, etc. (Igbo, 2007, Nwobi 2007; Igbo, 2000)
 Statement of the Problem
          Many homes are not intact, as some couples live like cat and rat in some homes. Research studies over the years found out that unsatisfactory condition in some homes can be linked to lack or poor effective communication among couples. In recent times it seems of people having troubles in making friends and even entering into family bonds. This is because we live in a world where family members come home only to sleep and eat, and then dash out. Seldom do they actually sit around a table to enjoy a meal together. The sense of family, belonging is missing. There is a gross lack of communication as a result of no significant conversation. It often gets worse between husbands and wives.
As a result of societal, economic and governmental changes, problems in marriage have surfaced on a grander scale. There has been notable increase in the divorce, separation of couples, remarriages of divorce parents and children living in stepfamilies as a divorce. Lack of proper communication if not handled succinctly and cooperatively by couples may degenerate to crisis levels, resulting in emotional distance between the couple, low self-esteem, poor nutrition, children’s lack of respect for authority, loss of discipline or parental control, low standard of living, withholding of sex from spouse, remarriage, divorce, spouse battering, sexual abuse, incest, rape power tussle and many more. A cursory look at the society shows quite a number of aforementioned problems.
Thus, the need for a study of this kind to come up with valuable ways that effective communication in marriage can be encouraged and emphasized.
Purpose of the study
This study investigated the influence of communication on stability of marriage among couples in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. It also examined the following causes of marital instability and to what extent communication affects marital stability. The study further established whether duration of marriage can affect marital stability.
Research Questions
The following questions will guide this study:
  1. Does communication have any significant influence on marital stability of couples?
  2. Does the length of marriage have any significant influence on communication ability of couples?
  3. Is there any significant effect of ageat marriage on marital stability among couples?
Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in this research study:
  1. a)   There isno significant relationship between communication and marital stability among couples in Ikere Local Government
  2. b)    There is no significant relationship between the length of marriage and communication ability of couples in Ikere Local Government Area
  3. c) There is no significant relationship between age at marriage and marital stability among couples in Ikere Local Government
Significance of the study
The study will provide insight on trouble-prone areas of marital conflict in homes of members of the community and help them identify the right counselling tool with which to address their problems.
The findings of the work would also be of great assistance to both marriage counsellors in conflict resolution and management and marital health and stability. It is also hoped that the findings would be used as tools by marriage and family counselors in assisting married spouses in their area of weakness and strength. It is therefore envisaged that counsellors will find the outcome of this work essential, for a healthy family is a prelude to a healthy and peaceful nation.
Educational administrators can also benefit from this study by the insight they will gain on the attitudes, signs and ways of addressing marital conflicts. Information obtained can impact on curriculum development and upgrade teaching and learning, especially since the subjects in this study are literate persons. As such, educational administrators in post-primary schools and other institutions of higher learning will be awakened to their responsibility based on the revelations likely to be made by the study.
Married persons and those intending to marry would find the findings useful, as they can mirror their marriages and intentions from the findings of this study, and most definitely reduce marital instability for those who have serious marital problems.
One other potential beneficiary is the researcher in the discipline who, hopefully, will be motivated and challenged to develop further interest in the study of marital and family therapy. This research study may be of help to the researcher who needs material on marital therapy.
Delimitation of the study
The study limits itself to the influence of communication on marital stability among couples in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. Analysis will be on couples in the Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Limitation of the study
This study attempts to investigate the influence of communication on marital stability among couples in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. A limitation of this study is that participants are sampled from only Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. Therefore the findings cannot be generalized to married couples all over Nigeria. The researcher chose the Ikere local government area of Ekiti State because of familiarity, size, diversity of couples and cost effectiveness.
Definition of terms
Emotional Distance: this refers to behaviour that is “cool, aloof, unresponsive, uncommunicative, and unwilling to be vulnerable” that occurs between people that are supposed to be emotionally intimate, in this case, a married couple.
Marital Breakdown: This refers to the common process whereby a marriage interpersonal relationship between man and woman erodes, such that they cannot ordinarily restore their relationship.
Spouse Battering: is a kind of domestic violence in which physical or psychological harm is inflicted with the effect of establishing control by one individual over the other. It covers incidents of physical attack,  slapping, pushing, pinching, spitting, kicking, hitting, punching, choking, burning, clubbing, stabbing, throwing boiling water or acid and setting on fire as well as spouse being forced to be involved in sex or undesirable sexual acts. It also includes psychological abuse, which can consist of repeated verbal abuse, harassment, confinement and deprivation of physical, financial, personal resources and social activities, etc.
Sexual abuse: This is the forcing of undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another. It could also be defined as unwanted sexual activity forced by a person on another person, either by coercion or threats.
Parental Control: This refers to the ability of a parent to exercise authoritative or dominating influence over; direct the affairs of his or her child(ren).
Incest: Incest is sexual intercourse between family members and close relatives. The term may apply to sexual intercourse between people in a blood relationship. Incest could also refer to people who are related by adoption, stepfamilies.
Power Tussle: This refers to a tough struggle between married partners to show who has the most power or effect over the other. It could be in form of fierce competition between the couple to show that one cannot do without the stronger one, to show power.
Economic dependence: This refers to the ability of someone, a group or an organisation to be self-sufficient, rely only on oneself economically. In this case, it refers to the ability of one mate to be self-sufficient, not relying on the other for economic gain or protection.
Substance Abuse: Substance abuse can simply be defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. Medline's medical encyclopaedia defines drug abuse as "the use of illicit drugs or the abuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or in a manner or in quantities other than directed (by a physician).
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THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF FEMALE DROPOUT FROM SCHOOLS IN ISE ORUN EKITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Female education is important as that of the male child. As stated in the National Policy on Education (2008) with regards to women’s education special effort will be made ministry of education and Local Government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development and social welfare and of information to encourage parents to send their daughters to schools. This part of National Policy of Education emphasized the importance of women’s education. When looking at the influence of women over children, women’s education cannot be treated as something of no importance. It is a truism that the hand that rocks the candle rules the world.
In Ise town  as a whole, people are clamouring in the state for females taking active part in politics like any other places. For instance, there has never been any female member of the house of assembly from the town or any neighbouring village in the Local Government. Also there had never been anybody who has risen to the post of a school principal what I think can be attributed to this problem is the issues of dropouts of the female students from schools.
The need for effective education of women in any nation or society cannot be over emphasized as far as the development of that society is concerned. However, this study is based on the assumption that not all female students dropout from schools in the state.
Looking at the term ‘dropout’ it is used in qualifying those students who could not complete their education oral programme at any level of education due to one reason or the other. According to Collaway (2009) school dropouts are pupils who are unable to complete their course of education for which they originally enrolled. There are a lot of reasons which may make a student decide to dropout of school. for this study, we are using secondary school as a case study.
According to Umoh (2006) stated that in making secondary school education easier for all youth both federal and state government have steadily expanded and consolidated secondary education facilities across the country to cater for the growing number of primary school leavers and that from 1975-1986 academic session, the population in secondary schools according to him has contributed to having sizeable number of students dropouts of schools.
We have some people who traced the causes of this problem to the financial or physical disabilities, but whatever might have contributed to this problem of school dropout, the effect on the political, economic and social life of nation is always negative. The fact that Ekiti is in haste to develop and catch up with other progressive towns in the state in particular, having been aware that education is the main instrument of change as evidences in the national policy on education that root is education on the greatest force that can be used to bring about readiness, it is also the greatest force that can used to bring about readiness. It is also the greatest instrument that nation can afford for the development of its economics, political, sociological and human resources.
In the National Policy on Education the main goal of secondary Education on which is the form of education children receive after primary Education and before tertiary stage is well specified. It is said to be an educational system capable of ensuring that every citizen full opportunities to develop his intellectual and workers capabilities for his own benefit and that of his community. Though this goal we can see that secondary education is very important and therefore should not be handled with levity if only we want our children to pass through it successful and continue their studies. The completion of secondary schools education has now become a very difficult task for some female students due to certain problems militating against them and which will finally force them to withdraw from the school before they complete their education.
Statement of the Problem
It is noted that, female students in secondary schools in Ise Local Government Area of Ekiti State perform below expectation in academic despite the fact that they are of the  same socio-economic background with their counterparts. They are also exposed to the same leaning conditions can this dropout of female students be attributed to the attitude of parents believe that there is difference between male and female children which may eventually affect their attitudes towards their male and female children’s education. Also it is the case that some parents are illiterate and hence do not believe much in the education of their female children. The family size of the female student can as well constitute an abstract to their education, in a situation where the number of children in the family is too large, parents may decide to hand off the education of some of their children and in most cases it is their female child.
Absence of student teacher interaction between the female students and their male teacher may also constitute a problem. This is also application to the interaction between the male senor and female students where as these are people that are in the position to help these students in their academic problems.
Research Question
  1. What is the proportion of female children that had education beyond secondary school?
  2. Does the attitude of parents affect the education of their female students?
  3. Is there any relationship between the parents socio-economic state and female deposit in school?
  4. What is the relationship between the female students and their teachers?
  5. What is the contribution to the educational achievement and competence of female students or otherwise?
Research Hypothesis
1    There is no significant difference in the Causes and effect of female dropout
from school.
  1. There is no significant difference in the perceived dropout and causes of pupils in primary school.
  2. There is no significant difference in the effect of school and technical training in Nigeria.
  3. There is no significant difference in the dropout of pupils in primary school and effect of female dropout in school.
  4. There is no significant difference in the cause of male and effect of female dropout from school
Purpose of the Study
Generally, the study is to investigate the causes of dropout among female of students in Ise Oru Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Specially,, the objectives are to:
  1. Find out the root causes of female dropouts from schools;
  2. Find ways to reduce the rate of dropouts.
  3. Encourage government to introduce sex education in the post primary schools, and tertiary institutions to curb unwanted pregnancy which often leads to female dropouts from schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State

Significance of the Study
The study will go a long way in helping to know the causes of dropout in schools. It will show the poor state of women education in Ise Oru Local Government Area of Ekiti State. It is also show the Government, philanthropist and the entire populace why there is need to encourage women in pursuing formal education. It will help to improve women’s education in the Local Government vis-à-vis the nation as a whole. It will also help to show the importance of women to national development.
Scope of the Study
Although the topic based on the causes and effect of female dropout from schools in Ise Orun Ekiti Local Government area of Ekiti State was chosen as the case study as no research had been carried out on this effect in the especially on its female dropout significance in the school.
Limitation of the Study
The researcher work is based on the study of dropouts from schools. As a result, effort would be made to concentrate on the extent of which causes and effects of female dropouts from schools can be based in IseOruLocal Government Area of Ekiti State.

Factors affecting the learning of mathematics among primary school pupils in AkureSouth local government area of Ondo State
ABSTRACT
The study examined the factors affecting the learning of mathematics among primary school pupils in AkureSouth local government area of Ondo State.  It has been observed that pupils shy away from the study of science.  This is a negative attitude that brought about poor performance of student in basic science subjects.  The study used survey research design.  It was as a result of this that prompted the research into the problem of teaching and learning science in primary schools.  The research aimed at identifying the problems and suggests solution to there.  As a result of these two research questions were raised. (1)    What factors are responsible for difficulty in the teaching and learning of mathematics in primary schools?
(2)     What strategies could be adopted to enhance better teaching and learning of mathematic in primary schools?
Some factors such as quality and quantity of teaching staff attitude of students, physical facilities, parents and government were investigated.  Three different questionnaires were administered to one hundred and fifty (150) mathematics pupils and thirty (30) teachers drawn from twenty (20) primary schools in AkureSouth local government area of Ondo State in order to collect data.  In administering it likert rating scale was used and simple mean was used to analyzed it.  Some of the finding are:
  • The teaching and learning environment is not conducive
  • The foundation of teachers in science subject is poor
  • The pupils have foundation in science
Based on the findings, it was recommended that
  • For effective teaching and learning to take place, the government should send science teachers for training
  • It has become necessary for government to provide the necessary infrastructures and facilities that will enhance teaching and learning of basic science in the primary schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                        PAGES
TITLE PAGE                                                                         i
CERTIFICATION                                                                 ii
DEDICATION                                                                       iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                     iv
ABSTRACT                                                                           vi
TABLE OF CONTENT        S                                                       viii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION                                                                 1
Background of the Study                                                                  1
Statement of the Problem                                                                  8
Purpose of the Study                                                               9
Significance of the Study                                                                  9
Delimitation of the Study                                                                  11
Research Questions                                                                 11
CHAPTER TWO  
REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                                         13
Concept of Parental Involvement                                            13
Parental Involvement and Academic Performance                            16
Peer Group Prior Achievement and School
Academic Performance                                                            19
Peer Group Composition and Pupils
Academic Performance                                                            21
Parental Involvement and Pupils’ Behaviour
and Their Academic Performance                                            23
Peer Group Learning Environment and Pupils
Academic Performance                                                            26
Summary of Literature Review                                                         28
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY                                                                30
Research Design                                                                      30
Population for the Study                                                                  31
Sample and Sampling Technique(s)                                        31
Instrumentation of Data Collection                                         32
Validation of the Instrument                                                   32
Administration of the Instrument                                            32
Data Analysis Technique(s)                                                    33
CHAPTER FOUR
Discussion of Finding                                                              48



CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION       51
Introduction                                                                                      51
Summary of Findings                                                                       51
Conclusions                                                                                                52
Recommendations                                                                                      53
Limitation of the Study                                                                     55
Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                 55
REFERENCES                                                                                57
QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                         59


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
          Mathematics has been of great importance because of its importance to human race, most especially in daily activities.  Mathematics plays in the world’s current technology development, this is because without Mathematics counting might not be possible.  In our century, it is the soul of the prosperity of nations and it is an economic and technological development as well as improving the quality of life of the individuals and the society at large Farrant (2010).   Mathematics, as a school subject, has over the years gained prominence in the school curriculum worldwide.
          In the last five decades, the world has witnessed Mathematics curriculum innovations and several changes in the teaching of the content in different levels of education.  Inocoridge and Bybee (2012) Yoloye (2013) identified the objectives of teaching Mathematics to include:  Knowledge of Mathematics academic discipline to acquire the skills of scientific method, having clear explanations for societal issues through increasing interest Mathematics literacy and societal goals, for personal needs and for career awareness.
          In Nigeria, the Mathematics is taught in school subjects like Biology and Physics.  Some of the most distinct characteristics of Mathematics are experimentation, observation and discovery.  It provides the development of skills of pupils asking questions and making investigations, making hypothesis, inference of results and experiment to pupils.
          (Acikgoz, Kaygusuz & Oncl, 2010) laboratory method is after used in Mathematics and it is targeted that pupils do trial and error activities.  Therefore, the laboratory applications are integred part of Mathematics (Orbay , Ozdogan, Oner, Kara & Gumus 2013).  The success of Mathematics programmes depends largely on the classroom teachers.  They constitute the most important agent in the ongoing exercise to revolutionize the teaching and learning of Mathematics.  According to (Awotua-efebo, 2011) Mathematics teachers have the potentials for enhancing the quality of education by bringing life to the curriculum and inspiring to curiosity and self directed learning.
          Some definite demands on the teaching of Mathematics were made by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN).  This means that there are some demands made of the teacher if he or she is to teach his or her course effectively.  So also are some demands, made of the pupils if they are to benefit maximally from the programme.  Some of these demands, according to (STAN) Mathematic Teacher Association of Nigeria, are as follows:  Demand of the teacher are the quality of the teacher skills and successfulness teacher seeking new information on new teaching techniques, regular in service training, regular or frequent evaluation of the pupils re-thinking of the teachers approach in the class to assess the class and be able to modify his teaching method if such an approach is not working adequately and how well equipped are the laboratories demands made of the pupils are wrapped round aims and objective of the STAN.
          Some of these demands are:  pupils should be able to recall should be able to relate their experience to other subjects, should be able to communicate effectively, should be able to apply their knowledge to new situations.  The above listed demands constitute themselves into a number of definite problems in the classroom.  Generally, the education of a nation is evaluated in part by the quality of its teachers, the quality of teachers itself depends largely on the kind of training they received both at the academic and professional levels for these reasons teachers of Mathematics need good training to enable them meet a better requirement and enough training to enable them meet a better requirement and enough academic information in a variety of the basic Mathematics subject.
          Akpan (2012) observed that Nigeria problems have been that at implementation he said that a visit to primary and secondary school Mathematics teacher will show that the nursed hope in curriculum reform are expensive venture in the past decade.  So therefore, turning out, in the nearest future qualified and dedicated scientist, engineers, medical doctors etc from these schools are in serious danger.
          Furthermore, Akueshi (2010) warned that the world is developing scientifically and technologically in very sphere of human endeavours; we should thrive to join this technologically training or else we shall be left behind and it will be disastrous and unpleasant.  As a result of poor teaching method poorly equipped Mathematics laboratories over dependence on print materials; pupils performed poorly in Mathematics subjects in Nigeria.
          Despite all the efforts made by government to promote Mathematics education in Nigeria coupled with several research works that has been carried out, the problems of teaching and learning Mathematics are still persisting.
According to Adebayo (2012) on educational policy 2010, he stated that hack of finance to execute the project, shortage at manpower lack of facilities and lack of policy itself (i.e the planning and implementations) are factors responsible  for poor performance in Mathematics subjects in our primary schools.  Adeyemi (2013) and Adeyegbe (2010) stated that even though a number of Mathematics curriculum reforms were inquiry based and problem-solving in style research finding have continued to show that teaching and learning in Mathematics remain problematic.
          Ayodele (2012) stated the problems as in adequacy of textbooks, lack of learners interest, unqualified mathematics and psychological fears of Mathematics subjects as factors responsible for poor performance in Mathematics subjects textbooks are not adequately available.  The ones that are available  are written by foreigners with their language and cultural background, making it difficult for indigenous teachers try to complement by writing textbooks, most of their work lack in standard, probably because they are horridly written just to bridge gabs, without adequate research.
          Most laboratories are not well equipped, school relly more on imported laboratory apparatus and equipment and grants are never enough large class sizes in Mathematics subjects teaching and lack of incentives for teachers.  One teacher to twenty-five (25) pupils are the recommended still remains a dream is schools classes are over populated to the tune of fifty (50) and above.  Inadequate Mathematics teachers, approach to Mathematics teaching Mathematics is an abstract course and will only be understood through practice.
          Some teachers do not put effort in improvisation of teaching aids and most importantly pupils attitude and aspirations:  Some pupils attitude has made up their mind that they are not going to study Mathematics, therefore will not waste time on Mathematics subjects.
          Poor primary school background in Mathematics subjects as factor responsible for the poor performance at pupils in the Mathematics subjects with these problems in mind the researcher decided to investigate suggest ways in which they could be successfully met.  Hence, this study intends to investigate factors affecting the learning of Mathematics among primary school pupils in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.


Statement of the Problem
          This study will be carried out in an attempt to identify the factors affecting the learning of Mathematics among primary school pupils in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.  The teaching and learning of Mathematics have standards to be followed by Mathematics teachers if effective learning by pupils is to be acquired.
          Despite the fact that government has invested a lot on Mathematics education, there are some persistent problems in our primary schools. This will invariable affect the use of instructional materials in the teaching-learning activities because (a) the pupils population may be much (b) the incompetent teacher who lacks the pedagogical skills may not be able to utilize the materials effectively even when they are available.  Moa Dowell (2011) conducted a survey of Mathematics teaching in primary schools in Nigeria.
          Adesenuga (2013) also commented that if any Mathematics is to be taught well, it should be taught practically, hence the need for sufficient materials for effective teaching of Mathematics within and outside the laboratory.  In view of the above, it is, therefore, important to significant improvement in the availability of these materials and qualified teachers.
Purpose of the Study
          The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the learning of Mathematics among primary school pupils in Akure South local government area of Ondo State and suggest ways to enhance the teaching and learning of basic Mathematics in primary schools.  Toward the achievement of this aim the study set out the following objectives.
  1. To identify the factors that militates against teaching and learning of Mathematics.
  2. To examine the strategies that could be remedy the difficulty in the teaching and learning of Mathematics subjects.
  3. To make suggestions on the ways to enhance the teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary schools.
Significant of the Study
          The Mathematics curriculum is designed to help students acquired basic scientific skills and improves the performance and achievement as well.  This study tends to uncover the challenges and proffer solutions to teaching and learning of Mathematics to the pupils, parent, teachers, government and the entire society.  If the result of this research is properly initialized it will:
  1. Promote the ideals that teaching and learning of Mathematics. Thus, it will increase the pupils interest in Mathematics.
  2. Motivate the parent to contribute to solving the challenges facing the teaching and learning in primary school especially in Akure South local government area.
iii.      Convince the Mathematics teachers that improvisation in Mathematics lesson can solve some problems in teaching and learning of Mathematics.
  1. Make the government, through of the ministry of education to realize to need for provision of Mathematics equipment to schools and posting of qualified Mathematics teachers to primary schools it is not the issue of jack of all trades master of none. Teaching has attained professionalism and specialization.
  2. Help the Nigeria society in their quest for improved technology and industrialization.
Delimitation of the Study
          This study is delimited to all primary schools in Akure South local government area.  It is limited to the pupils offering Mathematics students and teachers.
Research Questions
          To guide this study, the following research questions were raised and answered after thorough investigation.
  1. What factors are responsible for the difficulty in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on teachers’ perception?
  2. What factors are responsible for the difficulty in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on pupils’ perception?
  3. What strategies could be adopted to enhance better teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on teachers’ perception?
  4. What strategies could be adopted to enhance better teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on pupils’ perception?

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