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INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE POOR PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE  BY SSS 3 STUDENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Teaching and learning of Literature-in-English is one of the ways one can attain proficiency in the use of English language because literary works especially those written in English make good use of language in different ways to get their meaning across. Williams (2014) asserts that the learner of English as a second language (L2) if exposed to Literature will internalize and consciously adopt the rhythm of natural speech, economy  and richness of diction, rhetorical and organizational device from drama, poetry and prose. In Nigerian secondary schools, available evidence shows that students’ use of the English language leaves much to be desired (Abe, 1991: Onukaogu, 2002: Fatimayin, 2004). Students can no longer converse fluently in English and cannot write good essays. In addition, classroom observations and Ogunnaike’s 2002 findings show that Literature is not properly taught by teachers in most cases and that most schools do not have enough English language teachers resulting in haphazard teaching and learning.
Secondary school education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage. One of the goals of secondary education as contained in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2008) is to raise ‘a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, and…’ This is one of the things Literature-in-English can develop in students. Literature-in-English is like a kaleidoscope where one can pick up different kinds of useful ideas and teachings for one’s needs.
Literature-in-English is one of the vital subjects of study in the Nigerian senior Secondary Schools. Literature-in-English as a key school subject which refers also to the study books of art such as drama, prose and poetry which are the genres of Literature which authors create, so as to improve their skills in the English Language (De Naplis, 2002). The National Policy on Education (2004) confirms the importance of Literature-in-English in Nigeria, It is listed as one of the core subjects which are made compulsory for all secondary school students in both the junior and senior secondary school classes, though not yet implemented in many states of the nation. Also, students who want to offer courses like law, Mass Communication, English and Theatre arts must pass Literature-in-English at credit level in Senior Secondary School Examination (WASSCE) to gain admission into any Nigerian Tertiary Institutions.
Many factors have been identified to be responsible for the poor state of students’ performance in Literature-in-English which include: students negative attitude to reading, poor methods of teaching, poor reading habit, students’ low language proficiency among others (Lawal, 2000; Ogunnaike, 2002; Ezeokoli, 2002). To buttress these, students rarely read the prescribed texts because of their negative attitude towards reading and poor linguistic background. As a result of the above sha1low answers and responses were given to the examination questions.
It is evident from these reports that most students offering Literature-in- English as a subject in Nigeria lack interest in the subject which has affected their attitudes and performance towards the subject. It could be inferred from these reports that students do not possess and utilize the actual texts but relied on “study guides and notes”.
Besides students’ poor performance in Literature-in-English which has always been a major justification for researchers’ investigation, one needs to consider closely the global effect of inadequate teaching and learning of Literature-in-English on the society itself. It should be noted that the students poor performance in Literature is against actualizing the aims and objectives of teaching Literature-in-English in the senior secondary schools and also the philosophy of Nigeria on education as stated in the National Policy on Education (2004).
Teaching is communication. In a good communication, there are three important aspects. These include the person giving the information, the message that is to be passed and the receivers. According to Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2016) instructional refers to the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of teaching and learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner defining the end goal of instruction and creating some “intervention” to assist in the transition of knowledge. Instruction may be aimed at teaching learners problems solving skills, thinking and reasoning skills including perception memory, language etc. many would agree that people learn better when they can build on what they already understand known as “schemes” but the more a person has to learn in a shorter amount it is to process that information in working memory.
Dick and Carcy (2004) presented an instructional model which addressed instruction as an entire system, focusing on the inter-relationship between contest, content, learning and instruction. According to Han, the component such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, learning and performance environments interacts with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes.
Horaby (2001), defined problem as anything that is difficult to deal with or to understand, therefore the problem associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning processes could be centered on its misuse with the set objectives. It could be regarded as obstacles against the smooth process of communication with the learners. According to Ashby (2001),
Performance refers to how well or badly somebody do something; meanwhile instructional problem affects the academic performance of the students. If the processes used in communicating with the students is not smooth or the instructional material is misuse with the set objective, then the students will perform negatively. Instructional problems therefore are those obstacles that pose difficulty in dealing with in the process of communicating skills, attitudes and values to the learner.
These obstacles which among others include:
Methodologies: According to Abdullahi (2009), methodologies employ in any teaching matters in that it acts as a driver that drives the instructions to the learner.
Meanwhile if wrong methodology is employ to a particular instruction while teaching it present confusion to the learner.
Wrong usage of the Instructional Materials with the set Objective: The set objective is a point of focus of the teacher while teaching. Akinsoba (2009) added that the usage of instructional material should be done in accordance with the set objective otherwise it leads the learners far from what they ought to understand on a particular topic.
          Improvisation of Instructional Materials: According to Dahar, (2010), improvisation is making something or someone using whatever is available usually because you do not have what you really need. It presents obstacle to communicating skills, attitudes and values improvisation does not suit the topic because improvisation are made when there is no instructional materials. Okeke(2009) stressed on the need to provide adequate instructions for the teaching and learning of English language.
          Lack of Instructional Materials: Some of the topics being treated or thought in English Language do not lend themselves to usage of instructional materials. Onuigbo (2003) outline some of the topics in English Language that do not lend themselves to instructional materials, these include word stress, sentence stress, intonation and the second system of English. Nelson-Jones, R. (1996) published an influential taxonomy of what he termed the three domains of learning; cognitive (what one knows or think), psychomotor (what one does physically) and affective (what one feels or the attitude one has). These taxonomies as stated by him are what instructional material touches, so any topic that does not have instructional materials cannot reflect to the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domain of the learners. Sweller (2006), measured the effects of working memory load, and found that lack of instructional materials has a direct effect on the performance of the learners.
Language of Instruction: The language used while teaching with instructional materials matters. Langdon (1998) added that the outcomes of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically misused or completed and assumed when it is used with wrong language. Languages of instruction have far reading implications on the performance of the students in various areas. One of the areas is in School Certificate English language. Poor performances have been recorded in School Certificate English Language in recent times. According to Richard (1999) the poor performance of students could be attribute to misuse of instructions, wrong application of methodologies to reflect to cognitive, psychomotor and Affective domains of the learners. It will not be out of place for one to blame these poor performances on the instructional process. Poor performance in school certificate English language is an unacceptable development in the students’ carrier.
Statement of Problem
       Classroom observation and interaction with students showed that compared to other subjects, many students no longer offer Literature even when they need it for career purpose.Secondary school students are deficient readers because they lack critical thinking skills which hinder them from being strategic and purposeful in reading. That is, they cannot interpret what is read, cannot recall, internalize and apply resulting in continued mass failure in public examinations. One would therefore expect students to offer Literature-in-English which can help them get the needed skills and strategies for effective learning. It is however baffling that students’ enrolment in this subject is on a gradual decline as only a handful of students offer it. Teaching and learning of Literature-in-English in schools should be a priority if we are to retain and uphold human dignity, respect for others and also understand culture and tradition.
       The aim of instruction is to inculcate into learners, the ability to build on what they already understand. Instructional problems are those obstacles that pose difficulties in dealing with in the process of communication skills, attitudes and values to the learners. The problems which among others include; the language of instruction, methodologies, lack of instructional materials with the set objectives and the problem of improvisation of instructional materials; These problems affect the academic performance of the students. It was on this backdrop that the researchers choose to write on the instructional problems associated with the poor performance in school certificate literature in English language by students in Ikere Local government area.
Purpose of the Study
       The major purpose of this study is to examine Instructional problems associated with the poor performance in school certificate literature in English language  bySSS 3 students in Ikere local government area of ekiti state
The specific objective are to;
  1. The extent to which poor methodologies pose problems to instructions while teaching literature in English
  2. The extent to which lack of instructional materials pose problem in teaching  of literature in English.
  3. The effect of teacher qualification in teaching and learning of literature in English
  4. The effect of teachers instructional competencies on student performance in literature in English
Research Questions
  1. To what extent does poor methodologies pose problems to instructions while teaching literature in English?
  2. Does lack of instructional materials pose problem in teaching  of literature in English?
  3. What are the effect of teacher qualification in the teaching and learning of literature in English?
  4. Does teachers instructional competencies have effect on student performance in literature in English?


Significance of the Study
The study is significant because, the identification of causes and possible remedies for poor performances of students in literature in-English will help to reduce the problems encountered in teaching and learning of literature in-English on the parts of the teachers and students. 
The usefulness of this research work in the educational system cannot be over emphasized. If the result of the study is properly utilized, it is going to be of benefit to the students, teachers and policy makers.
The research work will help to educate students on the instructional problems associated in teaching and learning literature in English.
The study will disclose to the teachers the obstacles that pose problem in dealing within the process of communicating skills, attitude and values to the learner.
The study will also disclose the topics that do not have instructional material, so that the government can help and make provision of such materials.
Finally, the study will add to exiting literature  and serve  as guide to students who may want to carry out research on related topic.
Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to selected secondary school in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. For the purpose of a better result, students offering literature in-English in SSS3 as well as teachers of literature in-English in SSS3 in the selected schools will be asked to supply information on the research.
Definition of the Terms
This introduction will not be completed without mentioning the definition of the term literature in English.
Literature: This can be define as an instrument used to mirror our society; that is it serves as remainder of event and issues for record purposes and for the benefit of the unborn generation, so that the living might take a cue from the experience of other.
Teaching: Teaching is an interactive process, primarily involving class room talk which takes place between teacher and pupil and occurs during certain definable activity."
Learning: Learning is an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience. Learning is a conscious process, and it usually takes place in the language classroom.
Language of Instruction: The language used while teaching with instructional materials matters.
Improvisation of Instructional Materials:Improvisation is making something or someone using whatever is available usually because you do not have what you really need.
Methodologies: This methodemploy in any teaching matters in that it acts as a driver that drives the instructions to the learner.




Influence of Teachers’ ethical practices on students discipline in selected secondary schools


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       Introduction

There has been both a public and private outcry that discipline has broken down in Secondary schools. The teachers’ have far reaching influence on their learners. The influence can either be positive or negative. Learners are more prone to learn from the teachers’ out of class interactions since as Ssekamwa (2006) reveals, teachers are supposed to be the learners’ mirror and model. According to (Seburimage, 2008), discipline plays a key role in the process of education and that to have an orderly and ideal learning situation, discipline is necessary for teachers and students.

1.1       Background to the Study

Teaching as a profession in Uganda was attributed to formal education introduced by missionaries in the 19th century, that over ran the traditional informal pre-colonial education that was conducted in most society’s homesteads which acted as classrooms. Thus, there was no code of conduct as we know it today, but instead good morals were socially imparted (Nsigarira, 2006). However, such an informal education was undermined by the formal education. Formal education transformed the teaching service into a real profession. That meant for one to qualify as a teacher, he had to go for training in teachers’ colleges after 1870’s and since then, it remained a profession with even a code of conduct.  It should however be noted that like it was during the colonial days, the missionary period had no written code of conduct for teachers. That was due to the fact that the administrators of the time gave morals the first priority unlike today where some are too reluctant. In other words, colonial education lacked a well written code of ethics for teachers. It was assumed that a good teacher conducts himself or herself in the best way either according to Christian or Islamic principles.
On the other hand however, with the attainment of independence in Uganda (2002) there arose a need for the code of ethics for the teachers. Indeed one of the serious educational problems encountered in Uganda during the post independent period, was how to control the professional standards of teachers. That was due to the fact that in the pre independence days, nothing binding was put into place to regulate teachers’ conduct. In 1963, the Education Act was passed which empowered the government to control public education. That brought to an end the religious ethical frame work that had been guiding teachers’ conduct. That led to the professional crisis among teachers in the 1970s and 1980s. Teachers’ associations were formed to monitor their conduct but efforts to come up with a code of conduct were futile.
            According to Nsigarira (2006), The Public Service Act of 1969 and the Education Act of 1970 still emphasized state controlled education, to ensure the proper conduct of teachers. The Public Service Commission issued one (amendment) regulations 1996 under the section of the Public Service (teacher) Act of 1969 of Uganda. It was that which served as the code of ethics at the time. In IkereEkiti, Ekiti State like elsewhere, it was this code which was being abused by some teachers. According to the survey conducted among secondary school teachers in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State, some teachers did not know that teachers’ ethical conduct hard a direct influence on students’ discipline and those teachers did not know that they have a duty to educate the students. Like Deon; a Greek word meaning obligation or duty, teachers’ code of conduct is obligatory. Every teacher, by that very fact is bound to follow the injunctions of this code.
            Deontological theory of Kant (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2008); when one fulfills an obligation, he or she has done right. Failure to fulfill an obligation is itself wrong. From the deontological point of view, therefore, when teachers follow their moral or ethical code, they become more professional and this has far reaching influence on their Students’ behavior. For instance, when a teacher treasures and acknowledges the uniqueness and individuality and specific needs of each student and provide guidance, counseling and encouragement to each to realize his full potential, he has done right as a teacher because he has fulfilled one of the duties of a teacher (UNATU, 2005).
Adams (1986) holds that discipline plays a big role in teaching and learning process. However, he remarks that school rules are often verbose, enumerating petty wrong doings that will not be tolerated by school authorities and the accompanying sanctions in detail. They are a top down trickle affair, imposed on students without students being given a chance to evaluate them. They stress the negative without attempting to describe the kind of positive behaviour which the school would like to be emulated. Since rules and regulations are externally set, students tend to resist them and at worst to break them.
For the purpose of this research study, the following terms take this meaning: Ethics generally refers to the study of human morality. Ethical means principles of right or wrong, morally well or correct, Longman (2005). Code of ethics is a set of rules regulating the morality of a person or a class of persons. Code of conduct is a set of rules regulating the behavior of a person or a class of persons. The word discipline means the development of self worth, self-control, respect for self and others plus the adherence to school routine set up in terms of its schedules and school regulations. Student discipline is defiant behavior, misbehavior and disruptive behavior, while to others student discipline means the general conduct of the student self-denial, self control, ordered behavior and obedience to authority. Longman (2005) defines an influence as power to have an effect on the way someone or something develops, behaves, or thinks without using direct force or commands. A teacher is a person who regularly instructs a person in a school to which there is Teachers Professional Code of Conduct (UNATO). With the young children, it is expected that the teacher and school administration play the role of external authority to impose discipline so that children can settle down and learn.
            However, discipline should be goal-oriented such that even as a teacher plays the role of external control, he or she should be inculcating the habits for order and self discipline. This creates self discipline and enhances performance. The dependent variable is students’ discipline and in this study, students’ discipline will include; attention, punctual and attendance. The independent variable in this study will be influence of teachers’ ethical practices which  included; teachers’ punctuality, code of dress, just and trustworthy of which leads the student to observe a strict discipline so as to allow his or her concentration on studies hence better performance in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.
According to Bandura (2007), students can learn a lot from their teachers. The teachers work under ethical theory which asserts that the rightness or wrongness of an act is dependent upon the nature of the consequences or outcomes of that action. That is to say an act is right because the outcomes are good and teachers ought to work with focus. Is the problem arising from lack of strict rules and regulations, lack of teachers’ counseling and guidance to students’ and harsh punishments or poor managers who are the teachers? There has been however no attempt to assess how teachers’ ethical practices influence students’ discipline. This study is therefore conceived to investigate the contribution of influence of teachers’ ethical practices on students’ discipline. Hence, the agency for the study appraising the influence of teachers’ ethical practices on students’ discipline in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.
Despite formal education being over one hundred years old in Uganda, with so many teacher training colleges all emphasizing ethics, formation of teachers’ associations and penalization of teachers who happen to abuse the code of conduct, some continued not to live up to their professional standards. That was supported by endless reports on cases of teachers’ involvement in examination- malpractice, corruption, teachers’ learners’ sexual relationship, thefts.
According to the Onion, Friday, 29-June, 2009 pg 22, there was a bye-bye holiday party in Nansana where young students were treated to an optical nutrition of erotic dancing by karaoke dancers, while several couples of students were nabbed at Munyonyo Lake shore romancing with the breeze as they enjoyed explorations of their bodies and sweetly servicing each other. Worst of all, a couple of students were nabbed swapping saliva; the boy was sacking the tender lips of a young girl whose mother thought was at school in Kajansi. Such acts are depictions of the rotten manners of our future citizens. He called for police and all concerned authorities to act with ultimate haste to curb down the heinous acts before the situation runs out of hand. The teachers have a duty to see to it that they act as managers and control students by working closely with parents to set better study time tables that will guide students in holidays.
In 2004 about 20 schools were burnt in strikes and mysterious fires. Schools that suffered fires include; (1) Eleyo High School, (2) Ajeolagun Grammar School, (3) St.Stephen High School, (4) Amooye Grammar School (5) Staff School College of Education. According to Daily Monitor (Tuesday March 24 2009), X-Budo Headmaster sued over another Uganda shillings 192 million loan from bank of Baroda and 1.7 billion from Barclays bank, Unfortunately, to some teachers, the moral fiber is either lacking or scanty, and familiarity with code of conduct is very poor. Consequently, the observance of the code of conduct is very problematic and is causing a big out cry from the community of Ikere Ekiti.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

There arose a private and public outcry that instead of positively impacting learners, teachers are constraining students’ discipline as a result of their dysfunctional ethical practices through late coming mistrust, poor dress code, lack of implementation of rules and regulations, lack of counseling and guidance to students’ and harsh punishments. Onion, Friday, 29-June, 2009 pg 22, there was a bye-bye holiday party in Nansana where young students were treated to an optical nutrition of erotic dancing by karaoke dancers. This is because the students are exposed to many dangers like drug taking as some students were arrested taking opium and others having it in their suit cases, and where a student confesses having infected school mates with HIV/ AIDS which was one of the damning confessions of how HIV positive teenagers put colleagues at risk. The Red Pepper, July, 9 -2010 and The Sunrise, June, 4- 2010 pg1, which reported alarming drug abuse in schools.
Unfortunately, there was however no attempt to assess how teachers’ ethical practices influence students’ discipline. Consequently, the study sought to investigate the relationship between teachers’ ethical practices and students’ discipline in secondary schools.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to establish the extent to which teachers’ ethical practices bare influence on students’ discipline in selected secondary schools Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State..

1.4       Specific Objectives

The study had the following objectives:
(i)                To establish the influence of teachers’ code of conduct on students behavior in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.
(ii)             To find out the influence of teachers’ skills counseling and guidance to students’ in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.

1.5       Research Questions

The study had the following research questions:
(i)                How does teachers’ code of conduct influence students’ behavior in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.?
(ii)             How does counseling and guidance influence students’ discipline in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.? 
(iii)           How does teachers’ punctuality influence students’ time management in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.?

1.6       Scope of the study

The study focused on establishing influence of teachers’ ethical practices on students’ discipline that is: teachers’ code of conduct on students’ behavior, teachers’ counseling and guidance to students and teachers’ punctuality on students’ time management in four selected secondary schools in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The study focused on influence of teachers’ ethical practices and students’ behavior. The study will benefit the following; School administration and staff will benefit from improved discipline of both students and teachers.   Board of governors will find it easy to solve issues pertaining discipline since it will have improved and everybody involved administratively.  Ministry of Education and Sports will benefit as policy makers for their implementation , Parents’ Teachers’ Association (PTA), and students, through creation of principles governing the institutions as they will all be involved in formulation of the rules and regulations governing the school. Further, the findings of the study are likely to prompt more research in IkereEkiti, Ekiti State..
INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS OF PUBLIC SECONDARY
SCHOOL IN EKITI STATE
ABSTRACT
        The study was carried out to investigate the influence of school environment on academic achievement of students in Enugu State public secondary schools. The design of the study is descriptive while the population comprised principals and teachers in the education zone.
The sample size for the study was 600 respondents while a researchers’ self developed questionnaire formed the instrument for data collection. Three experts validated the instrument and a cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient method was employed to ensure the reliability of the instrument. Four research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study; while student t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. A review of empirical studies was carried out to guide the researcher into previous studies in the area and also to provide the researcher with the theoretical base. A 29-item questionnaire was used to get information from the respondents. Based on the data collected and analyzed, the following results were obtained. That staff office, classroom spaces for teaching students and staff common room represented the major areas that to a great extent affect the academic achievement of students in public schools, with regard to buildings. It was also revealed that desks, current books and presence of library assistants constituted the areas of influence to the academic achievement of the students with regard to library services in the public secondary schools. Both the principals and teachers agreed that access to reading materials in the school, lack of facilities, and nearness to school and in sufficient qualified teachers very greatly affect the academic achievement of the students. Inadequate teaching materials were also noted as a major factor affecting the students’ academic achievement. The two groups also shared common views in terms of the great influence of school health services, fencing of school for security and provision of power supply as important variable affecting the academic achievement of the students of public secondary schools.
Based on the above, the researcher recommends that schools should be provided with functional libraries, equipped with current reading materials to help enhance both the students’ academic achievement and the teachers’ effectiveness in academic activities in the school.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                    i
Approval page                                           ii
Certification                                                iii
Dedication                                                  iv
Acknowledgement                                                v
Abstract                                                      vii
Table of Contents                                                 viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study                                     1
Statement of the Problem                           1
Purpose of the Study                                  12
Significance of Study                                  14
Scope of the Study                                     15
Research Questions                                    15
Hypotheses                                                 16


CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework                            17
Concept of Environment                                      18
Concept of Public Secondary schools                  22
Historical Development of Public Secondary School     23
Changes in Structure of the Ownership of Public
Secondary School                                                25
School Building                                          28
Library Services                                         29
School Location                                          30
School Facilities                                         32
Theoretical Framework                             33
Skinnerian environmental theory               33
Review of Empirical Studies                     35
Summary of Literature Review                            37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design                                         39
Area of the Study                                       40
Population for the Study                                      40
Sample and Sampling Technique               40
Instrument for Data Collection                            41
Validation of the Instrument                      41
Reliability of the Instrument                       42
Method of Data Collection                         42
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS                          44
CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion of Results            55
Extent school buildings affect academic achievement of
Students                                                     55
Extent library services affect academic achievement of
students of public secondary school                    56
Extent school location affects academic achievement of
the students                                                          57
Conclusion                                                  59
Educational Implications                                     60
Suggestion for Further Studies                             61
Summary of the Study                               61
References
Appendix
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Generally in the whole world, particularly in Nigeria, education has been considered to be the corner - stone for development. It forms the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goal, (FRN, 2004). Education is very important in any given society. It is a process by which abilities and capabilities of individual are developed. These abilities might be physical abilities, emotional abilities, social abilities and intellectual abilities. It is the actualizing of human potential so that the individual can become something more than what he was before. According to Ugwuanyi (2003) education is the process by which society establishes to assist the young to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society. Emeka (2008) citing Kneller (2000) sees education as a process by which any society through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmit knowledge, values and skills from one person to another. As a result of deregulation in Nigerian education, the system of education has two main interest groups – public education and private education. Public education is the pillar or backbone of society which opens the door of equal educational opportunity to all citizens. It is a public owned property which attracts public attention constantly. According to Ukeje in Akpa, Udoh and Faghamiye (2005):
Public school is concerned with the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies of both mental and physical nature as equipment for the individual to live in this society, and acquisition of a relevant and balanced knowledge of facts about local and world phenomena. (P. 12-13)
Public schools can also be seen as those schools controlled neither by individuals nor by private interest or agencies but by those who represent the society as a whole. In other words public schools are those schools which are supported and controlled by the government of the state or nation.
Private schools are those schools that are not administered by local, state or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are founded in whole or part by charging their students tuition rather than with public funds. This means that the school established by the missionaries, individuals and voluntary organizations belong to this group. According to Hernes (2001) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Bank, private educational institutions are those that are not operated by a public authority, but are controlled and managed by a private body or board of governors not selected by a public agency on selected by public vote. The institution may be run by or operated by nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) or business enterprise. Secondary school is the stage of education following primary school.
It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. Webster
(2009) sees secondary school as a school intermediate between elementary school and collage usually offering general technical, vocational or college- preparatory course, while Collins (2003) refers to it as a school for young people, usually between the ages of eleven and eighteen. As for the National policy on education (FRN, 2004) it is the form of education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage.
Environment can be defined as a system within which living organisms interacts with the physical element while education environment is a learning place where the learner learn and interact with learning facilities in order to be socialized and face the challenges in the society. Agusiegbe (2004) sees environments as consisting of all elements existing around man and which exert some influence on him. These include physical, biological and social attributes. Environment can also be seen as aggregate of all the external condition and influence affecting the life and development of an organism. In this study, environment includes all the external condition and influences in the school that affect the academic achievement of the student such as laboratory equipment, library facilities, qualified teachers, furniture, school building, good administrative management, teacher pupil relationship and school location among others. Environment for the purpose of this work can be divided into two parts home environment and school environment. School environment is the thread that connects the multitude of activities on the school. In many respects, this thread is almost invisible, yet everyone experiences its influence. Dudek (2000) opined that it could be said to be the external influences in the school that can influence academic achievement of students irrespective of their intelligent quotient. School environment can also be considered as the second teacher since space has the power to organize and promote pleasant relationships between people of different ages, to provide changes, to promote choices and activities and for its potential for sparking different types of social and affective learning (Okeke 2001). It has been generally accepted that environment and heredity can hardly be separated from education in influencing achievement, hence a child’s life and ability is influenced by nature and nurture. Heredity provides the natural disposition while a healthy environment makes available a window of opportunities to the learner (Ohuche 2001). The environmental variable of the setting helps to a large extent in ensuring attainability of the goals of such setting. The environmental differences and the differences in the quality of instruction from one school to another can create differences in the level of knowledge acquisition of the students. This shows that the learning facilities children are exposed to and the socio-economic influence on them can affect their academic achievement.
School environment includes the school building and the surrounding grounds such as noise, temperature and lighting as well as physical, biological or chemical agent, (Chiu 1991). School environment can then be seen to include material and human resources, a learning place which consist of the entire interaction. The learning environment is both the natural and provided setting where teaching and learning
takes place. Maduewesi (1990) referred to teaching and learning environment as the setting physical and conceptual in which teaching and learning are carried out as deliberately planned. And to Okobia in Maduewesi (1990) learning environment means classroom surroundings, physical facilities in the classroom and teacher – pupil relationship.
The physical appearance and general condition of school physical facilities are the striking basis upon which many parents and friends of any educational institution make initial judgment about the quality of what goes on in the school. They are often turned off by dilapidated school blocks with sinking roofs and broken walls, bushy lawn and over grown hedges. Also are profane writings on walls, littered lawns and path ways. Finally, the school physical environment is like a mirror
reflecting the image of a school and through it the public decide whether or not to associate with the particular school (Mgbodile 2004).
In Nigeria today, schools are closely associated with the communities. Most communities depend on the neighbourhood school for the provision of good and appropriate environment for accommodation, furniture and all form of equipment for certain activities like club or village meetings, wedding reception and church services. There is need for a well planned and organized educational environmental enrichment because it fosters good interpersonal relationship. Moreover, Ajayi and Ashaolu (2005) opined that environmental enrichment regarding physical facilities is a major factor in students’ academic achievement. Supporting this Ayodele (2005) and Ajayi (2007), have shown that school resources aid students academic
achievement.
School building: These are tangible structures which serve as shelter for educational activities. They include among others classroom, laboratories, workshops, and teacher’s common rooms/offices, reading rooms, libraries, dormitories and dining hall. Despite the evidence that the quality of a school building affect students’ academic achievement, most public schools, in Ekiti state are in poor physical condition. It is in line with this that Earthman (2004) opined that the building in which students spends a good deal of learning does influence how well they learn.
(Mgbodile 2004) have pointed out that for effective teaching and learning situation, school building and educational goals, should be viewed as being interwoven. Apart from protecting the pupils from the sun, rain, heat and cold, school building represent learning environment which has great impact on the comfort, safety and performance of the children.
Library services: The school library is a room or building in a school where books, magazines, journals, periodicals, cassettes, computers among others are kept for student’s use. In other words, it is the central laboratory of the whole school, where all books in all subject areas, taught in the school and non-book materials are stocked. Dike (2001) sees school library as a learning laboratory par excellence where learners find the world of knowledge, interact directly with resources,
acquire information and develop research skill for lifelong learning.
The objective of the school library is to serve the school’s need and to make possible the purpose and methods of education which the school undertakes. The school library enables the students to look to new ways of learning, and with its resources can play a programme of work that aims at new ambition’s education result which would be impossible if learning were restricted to the use of direct teaching and textbook alone.
School location: A school could be located in the urban or rural area. Rural schools are generally inferior to urban schools as schools in rural areas lacked human and material resources needed for success at school. The location of school whether urban or rural affects a child’s ability to study and perform at the level expected of him. Mkpugbe (1998) noted that different aspects of school environment (rural and urban) influences students achievement. She further stated that the individual student’s academic behaviour is influenced not only by the motivating forces of his home, scholastic ability, and academic values but also by the social pressure applied by the participants in the school setting.
Therefore, the location of school has tremendous influence on children’s academic achievement.
School facilities: School facilities refer to inputs which ease the operation of academic activities. They include desks, chairs, blackboards, dustbins, teaching aids, typewriters, computers generators, and calculators and so on. School facilities according to Ehiametalor (2001) are operational inputs of every instructional programme. They are material resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning in schools. The quality and quantity of school facilities enhance the quality of teaching and learning as well as effective school management
(Ojedele, 2003).
Furthermore, educational facilities are needed to develop cognitive areas of knowledge, abilities and skills that are necessary for academic achievement. Moreover, the development of the affective and psychomotor domain is also facilitated by the presence of necessary and relevant school facilities.
Statement of the Problem
The problem under study has to do with an unsatisfactory condition of the educational system being operated in Nigeria. The establishment of government schools/community schools has resulted in a situation where by some school were favoured in terms of the provision of rich environment than others. It has been very difficult if not impossible for government to standardize the school environment. Thus the environment varies from school to school.
Some schools have adequate school buildings, good library and suitable textbooks, good administrative management, professionally qualified teachers, good laboratory equipments as well as good location. While in some schools little or none of these exist. It is because of this that Chike-Okoli (1997) in line with Ikediashi (2002) have pointed out that poor teaching experience, inadequate or poor physical infrastructure, unsatisfactory building design are likely to cause some physical discomfort for the students and are therefore bound to influence their academic achievement. The problem of this study put in a question form
is: What is the influence of school facilities and equipment on the academic achievement of students of public secondary schools in Ekiti State?
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study is to determine the influence of school environment on the academic achievement of students of public secondary school in Ekiti State. Specifically the study intends to:
  1. Investigate the extent the quality of the physical school environment with regard to school buildings affect the academic achievements of students of public secondary school in Ekiti State.
  2. Determine the extent the library services affects academic achievement of students of public secondary schools in Ekiti State.
  3. Find out the extent school location affect student’s academic achievement of public secondary schools.
  4. Ascertain the extents the school facilities affect students academic achievement of public secondary schools.
Significance of the Study
The findings from this study will be of immense benefits to the government, principals, teachers, parents as well as student researchers. The findings will help the government or the policy makers in formulating effective planning and implementation policies and programmes for improved school academic activities. It will also provide policy makers with intelligent forecast and analysis of future needs of the schools in the areas of building and facilities.
It will provide the school principals the opportunity to improve in school supervision so as to ensure both quality teaching and learning in the schools. It will enable them appreciate the contribution of school facilities and equipment on students academic achievement. The findings will enable the teachers to appreciate the need for proper instructional delivery. It will help the teacher to improve both in teaching effectiveness and increased productivity in the schools.
It will help the parents in determining the choice of the type of school for their children. This is because, their wards will enjoy good school learning environment that will lead to quality school products.
Finally, it will be of benefit to the student researchers as it will provide a valid working document or literature in investigating other areas not covered by this study. Thus, it will serve as a point of reference to future researchers in the field.
Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to the influence of school environment on the students’ achievement of public secondary schools in Ekiti State.
The content area covers school building, library services, school location and school facilities.
Research questions
The following research questions will guide the study:
  1. To what extent do the qualities of the physical school environment with regard to school building affect the academic achievements of students of public secondary schools?
  2. To what extent do the library services affect the academic achievements of students of public secondary schools?
  3. How does school location affect academic achievements of students of public secondary schools?
  4. To what extent do the school facilities affect students’ academic achievements of public secondary schools?
Hypotheses
Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and will be tested at 0.05 level of significant.
HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of teachers in urban and those in rural school on the extent school building affect the achievements of students of public secondary schools.
HO2: Male and female teachers do not differ significantly in their mean ratings with regard to the extent school facilities affect students’ academic achievement.


CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The review of the related literature for this study was carried out under the following subheadings: conceptual framework, theoretical framework, review of empirical studies and summary of literature review.
Conceptual framework:
Concept of environment
Concept of school environment
Concept of public secondary schools
Historical development of public secondary school in Nigeria
Changes in structure of the ownership of Public Secondary Schools
School Buildings
Library services
School Location
School Facilities
Theoretical framework
Theories of environment
Skinnerian Theory
Bandura social learning theory
Review of Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Review
A COMPARATIVE ATTITUDE OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS TOWARDS THE LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF EKITI STATE
ABSTRACT
          This research work was to examine the comparative attitude of male and female students towards the learning of Christian Religious Studies in Ikere Local Government of Ekiti State. The study is divided into five chapters, the first chapter deals with the background of the study, statement of the problems, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, scope of the study, research questions, research hypotheses. The second chapter deals with literature review, conceptual framework, concept of interest, concept of achievement, gender and achievement, theory of constructivism, concept of attitude, theory of multiple intelligence and review of Empirical studies. The third chapter deals with the design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, reliability of the instrument, experimental procedure, control of extraneous variables, method of data analysis. The fourth chapter deals with the findings and discussion, discussion of the findings. The fifty chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                 i
Certification                                                                             ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgement                                                                            iv
Abstract                                                                                   vi
Table of Contents                                                                             viii   
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                    1
Background of the Study                                                                   1      
Statement of the Problem                                                                  7
Purpose of the Study                                                               8
Significance of the Study                                                                   9
Scope of the Study                                                                           11
Research Questions                                                                 11
Research Hypothesis                                                               12             


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual framework                                                            13
Concept of Christian religion studies                                                14
Concept of attitude                                                                           22             
Concept of achievement                                                                    35
Gender and achievement                                                                   39
Theory of constructivism                                                                  42
Review of empirical studies                                                     43
Teachers instructional style/strategy and students academic achievement in Christian religious studies in secondary schools.                     43
Gender and its effects on students academic achievement in Christian religious studies in secondary schools                                                46
Interest of students on students academic achievement in Christian religious studies in secondary schools.                                                         49
Definition of Attitude                                                              50


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY      62
Research Design                                                                               62
Area of the Study                                                                    63
Population of the Study                                                          63
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                           64
Instrument for Data Collection                                                         65
Validity of the Instrument                                                       66
Reliability of the Instrument                                                    67
Experimental procedure                                                                    68
Method of the Data Analysis                                                   68
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION             
Introduction                                                                            70
Finding and Discussion                                                           70
Discussion of the Finding                                                        78    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                           
Summary                                                                                83
Conclusion                                                                              85
Recommendation                                                                     88
Limitation of the finding          s                                                        89
Reference                    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The high level of moral decadence and insurgencies in Nigerian nation is an indication that there is poor religious teaching in secondary school system. Christian religious studies (CRS) as one of the religious subjects taught in secondary school in Nigerian takes a central position in ensuring moral and spiritual well being of individuals in the society. The key roles of Christian religious studies in equipping the individuals and ensuring high level of morality is made clear in the objectives of Christian religious studies at the senior secondary level which include; to provide more opportunities for Nigerian youths to learn more about God and thereby develop their faith in God; to enable the youths to accept Christ as their savior; to help the youths develop Christian attitude and moral values (such as humility, respect, love, and justice, etc); to instill in the youth the spirit of tolerance , reconciliation ,peaceful co existence and non-violence as well as to develop and foster in the youth the spirit of respect for all people and human life. (Universal Basic Education Curriculum (UBA), 2013).
Without effective religious studies Nigerian nation will likely to end up in conflict, religious crisis, insurgencies and social unrest among other things. This is because religion control human actions in both social, political, economical and otherwise (Eluu, 2009). The teaching of Christian religious studies dates back to the 19th century with the pioneers of Nigerian Education (Banjo, 2003). During the missionary administration because of the moral values it teaches the people.
Following the government takeover of schools, Nigerian, secondary school curriculum was reviewed and more emphasis was placed on the studies of science and technological subjects.
This shift affected the study and interest of students in Christian religious studies in school system leading to poor enrollment in Christian Religion Studies. Gbenda (2004) stresses that student’s enrollment and interest in Christian religious studies could as well be as of result of inadequate provision of teaching aids, fewer professional teachers and lack of incentives among other things. Njoku (2009) equally adduced that poor enrollment of student in Christian religious studies could be attributed to teacher’s instructional delivery system and teachers’ personality. Christian religious studies is taught in all the senior secondary schools in Nigerian as an elective subject.
The elective nature of the subject in senior secondary schools in Nigeria equally reduced the number of students that register for the subject in West African examination council (WAEC)
and National Examination Council (NECO) as well as other internal examination. CRS is a subject that bases its teaching on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ (Ugwu, 2001) as a teaching subject, it is not only geared towards converting people to Christianity, but is necessary for value formation, orientation and reorientation of value system as well as spiritual upliftment of the student. Ali and Akubue in Njoku (2009) observed that, Christian religious studies is a subject which aims at developing and fostering in the lives of the students Christian attitudes and values such as respect to life, obedience to constitutional authority, responsible self, selfless series to God and humanity. To them, Christian religious studies is seen as an academic discipline that is designed to provide the leaner with moral and spiritual transformation. Following the government takeover of schools, Nigerian secondary school curriculum was reviewed and more emphasis was placed on the studies of science and technological subject.
This shift affected the study and interest of students in Christian Religious Studies in school system leading to poor enrolment in Christian Religious Studies. Gbenda (2004) stresses that students enrollment and interest in Christian Religious Studies could as well be as of result of inadequate provision of teaching aids, fewer professional teachers and lack of incentives among other things. Njoku (2009) equally adduced that poor enrolment of student in Christian Religious Studies could be attributed to teachers instructional delivery system and teachers personality. Christian Religious Studies is taught in all the senior secondary schools in Nigerian as an elective subject.
The elective nature of the subject in senior secondary schools in Nigeria equally reduced the number of students that register for the subject in West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) as well as other internal examination. Christian Religious Studies is a subject that bases its teaching on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ (Ugiou 2001) as a teaching subject, it is not only geared towards converting people to Christianity, but is necessary for value formation, orientation and re orientation of value system as well as spiritual upliftment of the students. Ali and Akubue in Njoku (2009) observed that CRS is a subject which aims at developing and fostering in the lives of students Christian attitudes and values such as respect to life, obedience to constitutional authority, responsible self, selfless series to God and humanity. To them, Christian Religious Studies is seen as an academic discipline that is designed to provide the learner with moral and spiritual transformation. This shows that Christian Religious Studies is the study of Christian lifestyles such as love, caring, patience, faith, forgiveness and hope in God as well as good relationship among men. Obanya in Njoku (2004) maintained that Christian Religious Studies like every other subjects has five features. These features are; a set of rational theoretical formulation, inherent capacity for growth, applicable solution to human problems, organized body of the knowledge and a degree of uniformity with other area of academic activities. In the content of this study, Christian Religious Studies is defined as a social science subject that teaches students good moral behaviour, fearing of God, knowledge and skills that will make them to contribute their quota in socio- economic and moral development in senior secondary schools.
The inclusion of sound religions and moral values in the life of students invariably could help in the development of spiritual and moral sound being of the students. These important values attached to the study of Christian Religious Studies in schools cannot be achieved if teachers do not utilized effective teaching method that appeals to all the senses of students in learning situations.
Teaching method as noted by Agwu (2005) refers to the overall plan for the orderly presentation of content of learning materials. Usually a method is driven by a philosophy or an assumption about how students learn in school. Teaching method is therefore, a general process the teacher adopts in presenting his lesson to the students, such that students learn such as assigning roles to individual students in the classroom. The important index in the teaching and learning process is that the students learn at the end of teaching (Aguokogbuo, 2005). Hence, the use of good teaching method in teaching of Christian Religious Studies plays an important role in harmonizing classroom instruction.
Nevertheless, it has been noted with dismay that even a subject as important as Christian Religious Studies is taught using the traditional lecture method (talk and chalk) (Asogwa & Echemazu, 2011). This old method, conventional as it is, appears to have reduced students’ interest and enrollment in the subject each year for both WAEC and NECO. For instance, Abdulhamid (2010) found that lecture method used by teachers have made many student lost their interest in classroom of learning and consequently may reduce students enrollment in some subject areas. He added that the use of lecture method set the teacher as the only active participant in the class while the students are complete observers or admirers through the lesson.
The theory of constructivism sees learning as the active participation in various activities within and outside the classroom. Therefore, inability of teachers to use methods that encourages students’ active participation could lead students to laziness, role memorization which even actually kills students’ interest and attitudes towards the learning of Christian religious studies. The theory of multiple intelligences holds the view that human being has fine separate intelligences (visual/spatial, verbal and logical, body/kinetic, musical, inter-personal intelligences). Therefore, if educators teach their students using methods that utilizes these intelligences in learning would promote students’ interest in learning process. Asogwa and Echemazu (2011) opines that most teachers rely on lecture method because of their experiences as most of them still regarded the way they were taught in their own days as the best way to teach in this modern times organizing for effective teaching of Christian Religious studies is centered on certain factors such as “what to teach”, “when to teach” and “how to teach”. The teacher does not only teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific students, he must also recognized and adopted a good and well-researched method of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate students’ achievement (Abdukamid, 2010).
Statement of the Problems
The importance of Christian Religious Studies in the present social, political and religious crisis in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized.
Nevertheless, the trend of poor academic achievement among male and female students’ over the years seems to be on the increase. It may be due to teachers’ use of lecture method of teaching which has been the prevalent mode of lesson presentation in secondary schools in Nigeria This method is teacher-centered and does not inspire and motivate students’ interest towards the learning of the subject in senior secondary schools. The students may end up therefore having low interest which could lead to poor achievement in Christian Religious Studies in schools. There appears, to be no available empirical study on the effect of role play method on students’ academic achievement and interest in Christian Religious Studies in Senior Secondary Schools in Ikere Ekiti  Education Area of Ekiti state, Nigeria.


Therefore, the problem of this study posed as questions are;
  1. Could gender and interest be militating factors on student’s academic achievement in Christian Religious Studies in secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti Education area of Ekiti State
  2. What are the effects of role play method on students’ academic achievement and interest in Ikere-Ekiti Education Area of Ekiti state?
  3. Could gender and interest be militating factors on students academic achievement in Christian Religious Studies in secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Education Area of Ekiti State?
The students may end up therefore having low interest which Could lead to poor achievement in Christian Religious Studies in schools. There appears, to be no available empirical study on the effect of role play method on students academic achievement and interest in Christian Religious Studies in senior secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Education Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Therefore, the problem of this study posed as questions are the effects of role play method on students academic achievement and interest in Ikere Ekiti Education Area of Ekiti State?
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of male and female students toward the learning of Christian Religious Studies in Ikere Local Government of Ekiti State.
Specifically, the study was designed to;
  1. Determine the influence of gender on students academic achievement in Christian Religious Studies
  2. Find out the influence of gender on students interest in Christian Religious Studies.


Significance of the Study
The study would be beneficial to students, teachers, religious instructors, curriculum planners, educational administrators, researchers and textbook authors.
To students, the study would help to improve their understanding of Christian religious studies and thus adjust properly in the society through active participation in the classroom leaning which stimulate their interest and change the negative perceptions they already have in learning Christian religious studies and this invariably help them to develop the affective domain of knowledge in secondary schools. They would equally perform better in internal and external examinations without depending on examination malpractice which have been the problem in the educational sectors. This is because the student stands a chance of becoming masters on their own through involvement in different roles in the classroom. The findings of the study would help teachers to have an insight into the meaning, application and problems of using role play method of teaching and thus change their method when the need arises for proper students’ achievement and interest in Christian Religious Studies in secondary schools. The relevance of effective method in the implementation of Christian religious studies in secondary school would be made known to teachers as they are the chief implementer of planned curriculum of schools. This could be done by teachers observing the students performing their roles and equally identifies the individual’s problem in using the method in the teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies in secondary schools.
Religious instructors and bodies are not left out as they would understand the best way to educate children in the principles and practice of Christianity which invariably will promote peace and harmony as well as co-existence in the Nigerian society. Curriculum planners or designers would be made to understand curriculum problems that affect the application of effective teaching method like Role-play in the implementation of Christian Religious Studies curriculum in secondary schools especially in Ikere – Ekiti Educational Area of Ekiti State.
The findings of the study would expose the educational administrators to the importance of conducive environment in teaching and learning and thereby put these environmental conditions such as classroom building, learning materials, quality library etc, in order for proper implementation of Christian Religious Studies curriculum. They would equally be meant to understand the interactional effects of gender and role-play method and thus help teachers to initiate change where appropriate. The findings of the study as well as the concepts, theories and
methods would be reference materials for researchers especially those that specialize in Christian Religious Studies. Finally, the textbook authors on education would benefit from the study by updating their knowledge on the techniques and besides disseminate the findings through textbooks they publish.
The larger society would equally benefit from this study. This is because, the effective teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies will bring desirable change in behaviour of students and this invariably would help to reduce high level of religious intolerance, hatred, killing, conflict, terrorism, militancy, and other insurgences that is ravaging Nigerian society
Scope of the Study
The study covered some selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Educational area of Ekiti State. The study is specifically covers the attitude of male and female students toward the leaning Christian Religious studies.  It also covers four content areas such as God’s protection, Gods’ provision, Eli and Samuels’ Children and example of King Asa. The choice of co-educational secondary schools in the study is because the study deals with gender therefore, using co-educational schools could help the researcher to compare the attitude and interest of both boys and girls.
Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study;
  1. What is the mean attitude scores of students taught Christian Religious Studies using teaching method and those taught lecture method?
  2. What is the mean attitude scores of students taught Christian Religious Studies using teaching method and those taught lecture method?
  3. What is the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Christian Religious Studies?
4          What is the mean interest scores of male and female students taught Christian Religious Studies method and those taught lecture method?
  1. What is the comparative attitude towards learning of Christian Religious Studies?
Research Hypotheses
Six (6) null hypotheses were developed to guide the study and was tested at 0.05 level of significance
HO1: There will no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught
Christian Religious Studies using teaching method and those taught using lecture method.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean  attitude scores of students taught Christian Religious Studies using teaching and lecture method.
HO3:   There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in Christian Religious Studies.
HO4:   There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of male and female students in Christian Religious Studies.
HO5    The comparative attitude of male and female student mean scores in Christian Religious Studies is not statistically significant.