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THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF FEMALE DROPOUT FROM SCHOOLS IN ISE ORUN EKITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Female education is important as that of the male child. As stated in the National Policy on Education (2008) with regards to women’s education special effort will be made ministry of education and Local Government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development and social welfare and of information to encourage parents to send their daughters to schools. This part of National Policy of Education emphasized the importance of women’s education. When looking at the influence of women over children, women’s education cannot be treated as something of no importance. It is a truism that the hand that rocks the candle rules the world.
In Ise town  as a whole, people are clamouring in the state for females taking active part in politics like any other places. For instance, there has never been any female member of the house of assembly from the town or any neighbouring village in the Local Government. Also there had never been anybody who has risen to the post of a school principal what I think can be attributed to this problem is the issues of dropouts of the female students from schools.
The need for effective education of women in any nation or society cannot be over emphasized as far as the development of that society is concerned. However, this study is based on the assumption that not all female students dropout from schools in the state.
Looking at the term ‘dropout’ it is used in qualifying those students who could not complete their education oral programme at any level of education due to one reason or the other. According to Collaway (2009) school dropouts are pupils who are unable to complete their course of education for which they originally enrolled. There are a lot of reasons which may make a student decide to dropout of school. for this study, we are using secondary school as a case study.
According to Umoh (2006) stated that in making secondary school education easier for all youth both federal and state government have steadily expanded and consolidated secondary education facilities across the country to cater for the growing number of primary school leavers and that from 1975-1986 academic session, the population in secondary schools according to him has contributed to having sizeable number of students dropouts of schools.
We have some people who traced the causes of this problem to the financial or physical disabilities, but whatever might have contributed to this problem of school dropout, the effect on the political, economic and social life of nation is always negative. The fact that Ekiti is in haste to develop and catch up with other progressive towns in the state in particular, having been aware that education is the main instrument of change as evidences in the national policy on education that root is education on the greatest force that can be used to bring about readiness, it is also the greatest force that can used to bring about readiness. It is also the greatest instrument that nation can afford for the development of its economics, political, sociological and human resources.
In the National Policy on Education the main goal of secondary Education on which is the form of education children receive after primary Education and before tertiary stage is well specified. It is said to be an educational system capable of ensuring that every citizen full opportunities to develop his intellectual and workers capabilities for his own benefit and that of his community. Though this goal we can see that secondary education is very important and therefore should not be handled with levity if only we want our children to pass through it successful and continue their studies. The completion of secondary schools education has now become a very difficult task for some female students due to certain problems militating against them and which will finally force them to withdraw from the school before they complete their education.
Statement of the Problem
It is noted that, female students in secondary schools in Ise Local Government Area of Ekiti State perform below expectation in academic despite the fact that they are of the  same socio-economic background with their counterparts. They are also exposed to the same leaning conditions can this dropout of female students be attributed to the attitude of parents believe that there is difference between male and female children which may eventually affect their attitudes towards their male and female children’s education. Also it is the case that some parents are illiterate and hence do not believe much in the education of their female children. The family size of the female student can as well constitute an abstract to their education, in a situation where the number of children in the family is too large, parents may decide to hand off the education of some of their children and in most cases it is their female child.
Absence of student teacher interaction between the female students and their male teacher may also constitute a problem. This is also application to the interaction between the male senor and female students where as these are people that are in the position to help these students in their academic problems.
Research Question
  1. What is the proportion of female children that had education beyond secondary school?
  2. Does the attitude of parents affect the education of their female students?
  3. Is there any relationship between the parents socio-economic state and female deposit in school?
  4. What is the relationship between the female students and their teachers?
  5. What is the contribution to the educational achievement and competence of female students or otherwise?
Research Hypothesis
1    There is no significant difference in the Causes and effect of female dropout
from school.
  1. There is no significant difference in the perceived dropout and causes of pupils in primary school.
  2. There is no significant difference in the effect of school and technical training in Nigeria.
  3. There is no significant difference in the dropout of pupils in primary school and effect of female dropout in school.
  4. There is no significant difference in the cause of male and effect of female dropout from school
Purpose of the Study
Generally, the study is to investigate the causes of dropout among female of students in Ise Oru Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Specially,, the objectives are to:
  1. Find out the root causes of female dropouts from schools;
  2. Find ways to reduce the rate of dropouts.
  3. Encourage government to introduce sex education in the post primary schools, and tertiary institutions to curb unwanted pregnancy which often leads to female dropouts from schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State

Significance of the Study
The study will go a long way in helping to know the causes of dropout in schools. It will show the poor state of women education in Ise Oru Local Government Area of Ekiti State. It is also show the Government, philanthropist and the entire populace why there is need to encourage women in pursuing formal education. It will help to improve women’s education in the Local Government vis-à-vis the nation as a whole. It will also help to show the importance of women to national development.
Scope of the Study
Although the topic based on the causes and effect of female dropout from schools in Ise Orun Ekiti Local Government area of Ekiti State was chosen as the case study as no research had been carried out on this effect in the especially on its female dropout significance in the school.
Limitation of the Study
The researcher work is based on the study of dropouts from schools. As a result, effort would be made to concentrate on the extent of which causes and effects of female dropouts from schools can be based in IseOruLocal Government Area of Ekiti State.

Factors affecting the learning of mathematics among primary school pupils in AkureSouth local government area of Ondo State
ABSTRACT
The study examined the factors affecting the learning of mathematics among primary school pupils in AkureSouth local government area of Ondo State.  It has been observed that pupils shy away from the study of science.  This is a negative attitude that brought about poor performance of student in basic science subjects.  The study used survey research design.  It was as a result of this that prompted the research into the problem of teaching and learning science in primary schools.  The research aimed at identifying the problems and suggests solution to there.  As a result of these two research questions were raised. (1)    What factors are responsible for difficulty in the teaching and learning of mathematics in primary schools?
(2)     What strategies could be adopted to enhance better teaching and learning of mathematic in primary schools?
Some factors such as quality and quantity of teaching staff attitude of students, physical facilities, parents and government were investigated.  Three different questionnaires were administered to one hundred and fifty (150) mathematics pupils and thirty (30) teachers drawn from twenty (20) primary schools in AkureSouth local government area of Ondo State in order to collect data.  In administering it likert rating scale was used and simple mean was used to analyzed it.  Some of the finding are:
  • The teaching and learning environment is not conducive
  • The foundation of teachers in science subject is poor
  • The pupils have foundation in science
Based on the findings, it was recommended that
  • For effective teaching and learning to take place, the government should send science teachers for training
  • It has become necessary for government to provide the necessary infrastructures and facilities that will enhance teaching and learning of basic science in the primary schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                        PAGES
TITLE PAGE                                                                         i
CERTIFICATION                                                                 ii
DEDICATION                                                                       iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                     iv
ABSTRACT                                                                           vi
TABLE OF CONTENT        S                                                       viii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION                                                                 1
Background of the Study                                                                  1
Statement of the Problem                                                                  8
Purpose of the Study                                                               9
Significance of the Study                                                                  9
Delimitation of the Study                                                                  11
Research Questions                                                                 11
CHAPTER TWO  
REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                                         13
Concept of Parental Involvement                                            13
Parental Involvement and Academic Performance                            16
Peer Group Prior Achievement and School
Academic Performance                                                            19
Peer Group Composition and Pupils
Academic Performance                                                            21
Parental Involvement and Pupils’ Behaviour
and Their Academic Performance                                            23
Peer Group Learning Environment and Pupils
Academic Performance                                                            26
Summary of Literature Review                                                         28
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY                                                                30
Research Design                                                                      30
Population for the Study                                                                  31
Sample and Sampling Technique(s)                                        31
Instrumentation of Data Collection                                         32
Validation of the Instrument                                                   32
Administration of the Instrument                                            32
Data Analysis Technique(s)                                                    33
CHAPTER FOUR
Discussion of Finding                                                              48



CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION       51
Introduction                                                                                      51
Summary of Findings                                                                       51
Conclusions                                                                                                52
Recommendations                                                                                      53
Limitation of the Study                                                                     55
Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                 55
REFERENCES                                                                                57
QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                         59


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
          Mathematics has been of great importance because of its importance to human race, most especially in daily activities.  Mathematics plays in the world’s current technology development, this is because without Mathematics counting might not be possible.  In our century, it is the soul of the prosperity of nations and it is an economic and technological development as well as improving the quality of life of the individuals and the society at large Farrant (2010).   Mathematics, as a school subject, has over the years gained prominence in the school curriculum worldwide.
          In the last five decades, the world has witnessed Mathematics curriculum innovations and several changes in the teaching of the content in different levels of education.  Inocoridge and Bybee (2012) Yoloye (2013) identified the objectives of teaching Mathematics to include:  Knowledge of Mathematics academic discipline to acquire the skills of scientific method, having clear explanations for societal issues through increasing interest Mathematics literacy and societal goals, for personal needs and for career awareness.
          In Nigeria, the Mathematics is taught in school subjects like Biology and Physics.  Some of the most distinct characteristics of Mathematics are experimentation, observation and discovery.  It provides the development of skills of pupils asking questions and making investigations, making hypothesis, inference of results and experiment to pupils.
          (Acikgoz, Kaygusuz & Oncl, 2010) laboratory method is after used in Mathematics and it is targeted that pupils do trial and error activities.  Therefore, the laboratory applications are integred part of Mathematics (Orbay , Ozdogan, Oner, Kara & Gumus 2013).  The success of Mathematics programmes depends largely on the classroom teachers.  They constitute the most important agent in the ongoing exercise to revolutionize the teaching and learning of Mathematics.  According to (Awotua-efebo, 2011) Mathematics teachers have the potentials for enhancing the quality of education by bringing life to the curriculum and inspiring to curiosity and self directed learning.
          Some definite demands on the teaching of Mathematics were made by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN).  This means that there are some demands made of the teacher if he or she is to teach his or her course effectively.  So also are some demands, made of the pupils if they are to benefit maximally from the programme.  Some of these demands, according to (STAN) Mathematic Teacher Association of Nigeria, are as follows:  Demand of the teacher are the quality of the teacher skills and successfulness teacher seeking new information on new teaching techniques, regular in service training, regular or frequent evaluation of the pupils re-thinking of the teachers approach in the class to assess the class and be able to modify his teaching method if such an approach is not working adequately and how well equipped are the laboratories demands made of the pupils are wrapped round aims and objective of the STAN.
          Some of these demands are:  pupils should be able to recall should be able to relate their experience to other subjects, should be able to communicate effectively, should be able to apply their knowledge to new situations.  The above listed demands constitute themselves into a number of definite problems in the classroom.  Generally, the education of a nation is evaluated in part by the quality of its teachers, the quality of teachers itself depends largely on the kind of training they received both at the academic and professional levels for these reasons teachers of Mathematics need good training to enable them meet a better requirement and enough training to enable them meet a better requirement and enough academic information in a variety of the basic Mathematics subject.
          Akpan (2012) observed that Nigeria problems have been that at implementation he said that a visit to primary and secondary school Mathematics teacher will show that the nursed hope in curriculum reform are expensive venture in the past decade.  So therefore, turning out, in the nearest future qualified and dedicated scientist, engineers, medical doctors etc from these schools are in serious danger.
          Furthermore, Akueshi (2010) warned that the world is developing scientifically and technologically in very sphere of human endeavours; we should thrive to join this technologically training or else we shall be left behind and it will be disastrous and unpleasant.  As a result of poor teaching method poorly equipped Mathematics laboratories over dependence on print materials; pupils performed poorly in Mathematics subjects in Nigeria.
          Despite all the efforts made by government to promote Mathematics education in Nigeria coupled with several research works that has been carried out, the problems of teaching and learning Mathematics are still persisting.
According to Adebayo (2012) on educational policy 2010, he stated that hack of finance to execute the project, shortage at manpower lack of facilities and lack of policy itself (i.e the planning and implementations) are factors responsible  for poor performance in Mathematics subjects in our primary schools.  Adeyemi (2013) and Adeyegbe (2010) stated that even though a number of Mathematics curriculum reforms were inquiry based and problem-solving in style research finding have continued to show that teaching and learning in Mathematics remain problematic.
          Ayodele (2012) stated the problems as in adequacy of textbooks, lack of learners interest, unqualified mathematics and psychological fears of Mathematics subjects as factors responsible for poor performance in Mathematics subjects textbooks are not adequately available.  The ones that are available  are written by foreigners with their language and cultural background, making it difficult for indigenous teachers try to complement by writing textbooks, most of their work lack in standard, probably because they are horridly written just to bridge gabs, without adequate research.
          Most laboratories are not well equipped, school relly more on imported laboratory apparatus and equipment and grants are never enough large class sizes in Mathematics subjects teaching and lack of incentives for teachers.  One teacher to twenty-five (25) pupils are the recommended still remains a dream is schools classes are over populated to the tune of fifty (50) and above.  Inadequate Mathematics teachers, approach to Mathematics teaching Mathematics is an abstract course and will only be understood through practice.
          Some teachers do not put effort in improvisation of teaching aids and most importantly pupils attitude and aspirations:  Some pupils attitude has made up their mind that they are not going to study Mathematics, therefore will not waste time on Mathematics subjects.
          Poor primary school background in Mathematics subjects as factor responsible for the poor performance at pupils in the Mathematics subjects with these problems in mind the researcher decided to investigate suggest ways in which they could be successfully met.  Hence, this study intends to investigate factors affecting the learning of Mathematics among primary school pupils in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.


Statement of the Problem
          This study will be carried out in an attempt to identify the factors affecting the learning of Mathematics among primary school pupils in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.  The teaching and learning of Mathematics have standards to be followed by Mathematics teachers if effective learning by pupils is to be acquired.
          Despite the fact that government has invested a lot on Mathematics education, there are some persistent problems in our primary schools. This will invariable affect the use of instructional materials in the teaching-learning activities because (a) the pupils population may be much (b) the incompetent teacher who lacks the pedagogical skills may not be able to utilize the materials effectively even when they are available.  Moa Dowell (2011) conducted a survey of Mathematics teaching in primary schools in Nigeria.
          Adesenuga (2013) also commented that if any Mathematics is to be taught well, it should be taught practically, hence the need for sufficient materials for effective teaching of Mathematics within and outside the laboratory.  In view of the above, it is, therefore, important to significant improvement in the availability of these materials and qualified teachers.
Purpose of the Study
          The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the learning of Mathematics among primary school pupils in Akure South local government area of Ondo State and suggest ways to enhance the teaching and learning of basic Mathematics in primary schools.  Toward the achievement of this aim the study set out the following objectives.
  1. To identify the factors that militates against teaching and learning of Mathematics.
  2. To examine the strategies that could be remedy the difficulty in the teaching and learning of Mathematics subjects.
  3. To make suggestions on the ways to enhance the teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary schools.
Significant of the Study
          The Mathematics curriculum is designed to help students acquired basic scientific skills and improves the performance and achievement as well.  This study tends to uncover the challenges and proffer solutions to teaching and learning of Mathematics to the pupils, parent, teachers, government and the entire society.  If the result of this research is properly initialized it will:
  1. Promote the ideals that teaching and learning of Mathematics. Thus, it will increase the pupils interest in Mathematics.
  2. Motivate the parent to contribute to solving the challenges facing the teaching and learning in primary school especially in Akure South local government area.
iii.      Convince the Mathematics teachers that improvisation in Mathematics lesson can solve some problems in teaching and learning of Mathematics.
  1. Make the government, through of the ministry of education to realize to need for provision of Mathematics equipment to schools and posting of qualified Mathematics teachers to primary schools it is not the issue of jack of all trades master of none. Teaching has attained professionalism and specialization.
  2. Help the Nigeria society in their quest for improved technology and industrialization.
Delimitation of the Study
          This study is delimited to all primary schools in Akure South local government area.  It is limited to the pupils offering Mathematics students and teachers.
Research Questions
          To guide this study, the following research questions were raised and answered after thorough investigation.
  1. What factors are responsible for the difficulty in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on teachers’ perception?
  2. What factors are responsible for the difficulty in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on pupils’ perception?
  3. What strategies could be adopted to enhance better teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on teachers’ perception?
  4. What strategies could be adopted to enhance better teaching and learning of Mathematics in primary school based on pupils’ perception?

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FACTORS THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR PUPILS LATENESS TO SCHOOL IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
ABSTRACT
The study investigatesfactors that are responsible for pupils lateness to school in primary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Four research questions were formulated for the study. The study will employed mixed method of quantitative and qualitative techniques.Quantitative data from questionnaire survey was analysed with appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics including frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation was also used for closed questions. From the analysis of the study, it was revealed that late coming to school by pupils could be as a result in a factor, thus teachers and school administrators ought to work hard with the view to reducing the problem. The study also revealed that punctuality of a child to school could change him to become a better individual who uses his time judiciously in future career. The study recommend that school authorities as well as other stake holders  should provide shuttle buses with moderate fare to convey students to and from school at various vintage points since majority of the pupils reside off campus, counselling intervention for pupils should be strengthened, the school environment should be a place of interest. The classroom should be conducive for teaching and learning process, furniture, facilities of co-curricular activities, adequate libraries and reading rooms, clean and healthy environment do play an important role in attracting the pupils, appropriate teaching methods should be applied by the teachers.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                                    i
Certification                                                                                                         ii
Dedication                                                                                                  iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                                iv
Table of Contents                                                                                       v
Abstract                                                                                                      viii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study                                                                                      1
Statement of the Problem                                                                                   10
Purpose of the study                                                                                  11
Research Question                                                                                              11
Significance of the Study                                                                                    12
Clarification of Terms                                                                               13
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Parental socio-economic status as a determinant factor of academic-
performance of students                                                                                      14
Impact of Students’ Socio-economic Background on Academic Performance 17
Home and School Factors as Determinants of Students’ Achievement                19
Effect of Family Structure on student academic performance                    21
Effect of Time on pupils academic performance                                         22
Causes of lateness to school                                                                       24
Effects of lateness on Pupils                                                                       30
Theoretical Framework
Empirical Framework
Appraisal of the literature reviewed                                                           32
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Research design                                                                                          33
Area of the study                                                                                        34
Population of the study                                                                              34
Sample and sampling technique(s)                                                             34
Research Instrument                                                                                   34
Validation of the instrument                                                                       35
Reliability of the instrument                                                                       35
Data collection procedures                                                                         35
Data analysis techniques                                                                                      36
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Data Analysis                                                                                             37
Summary of Findings                                                                                 44
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussions                                                                                                46
Conclusions                                                                                                47
Recommendations                                                                                                48
REFERENCES                                                                                         51
APPENDICES                                                                                           60



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ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AS DETERMINANTS OF STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
Chapter one
1.0     Introduction
          Social studies is the interdisciplinary integration of social science and humanities concepts for the purpose of practicing problem solving and decision making for developing citizenship skills on critical social issues.
I think this is a useful definition. It emphasizes the ultimate goal process teaching – to help students think critically and to use what they know to be active citizens. I have a definition, too:
Social studies is the study of people. Social studies should help students acquire knowledge, master the process of learning, and become active citizens.
A closer look at my definition and a discussion of those provided by the NCSS and Professor Barth should bring social studies into sharper focus.
          Social studies is the study of people are the domain process. This includes people as nearby as family and as far away as those who live in the most distant nations. It includes people living now, those who lived long ago, and those who will live in the future. Social studies has the potential to be the best part of the school day because it is when children connect with other people. As children learn about others, they will be fascinated by differences among cultural groups, while at the same time they will find the commonalities that create a shared sense of humanity. It is a complex task to teach about people, and information must come from many fields of study. The NCSS definition points out that it is the various disciplines of the social sciences and humanities that provide the content for what is taught during social studies. While history and geography should serve as the core process, it is imperative that the other social sciences are not neglected; rather, they should be a significant part of every social studies program. The other social sciences are anthropology, economics, philosophy political science, psychology, religion, and sociology.
1.1     Background of the Study
          It is universally accepted, that education enables individuals to contribute to the development and improvement in the quality of life for themselves, their communities and the nation as a whole. Primary school is no doubt the foundation of education and has prominently been regarded as a fundamental human right. It is an essential component of human capital and it plays an important role in economic growth and development of a country. Primary education, therefore, remains an important areas that should be carefully managed.
A study conducted by Kietu and Sunderland (2000) at the Lancaster University found out that five or more years of a farmer’s primary education led to increased farm productivity, reduced size of farm labour and increased use of yield augmenting inputs. This means that by acquiring primary education one can increase one’s earnings (Kitetu, 1998). The school environment refers to factors within the school that influence the teaching-learning process. The school environment includes classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers, among others variables that can influence the teaching –learning process (Ajayi 2 2001). The extent to which pupils learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides to the learners and the teacher. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching-learning process and academic performance of pupils. Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persuade and Turner (2008) quoting Marsden (2005) which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment, schools. In developed countries like the United Kingdom and the Unites Kingdom and the Unites States of America, teaching and learning may not be influenced by similar challenges as in the developing countries. As the developing countries talk of awareness and wastage due to illiteracy of the parents, the developed countries have concentrated in funding their education without fear of any wastage or poor enrolment (MOEST: Report on Sector measures to ensure all public primary schools have all the required physical facilities, instructional materials among others variables that may lead to effective teaching-learning process. Instructional materials are a major component in the process of teaching and learning and textbooks are often the most cost effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency of schools (Psachropoulous & Woodhall, 1995). 3 in the developing countries, poor learning environments have always been identified as key factors that lead to poor performance in public primary schools (UNICEF, 2003). This is due to overstretching of the available resources due to increased enrolment. In Uganda, physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on the teachers, pupils and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms and inconsistent temperature make teaching –learning process difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among the pupils and higher absentee rates among pupils (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 and Ostendorf, 2001). Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on pupils ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities which creates uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for the teachers combined with frustrating behavior by the pupil including poor concentration also have an effect on the teaching learning process. the situation is not any different here in Kenya where several schools suffer due to lack of or inadequacy of physical facilities and instructional materials (UNICEF, 2003). Unless schools are adequately provided with physical facilities and instructional materials, effective teaching and learning may not take place. Class size has also been an issue that influences the teaching-learning process in most schools in the developing countries. In Kenya, since the inception of Free Primary Education (FPE), there has been increased enrolment which leads to overcrowding in classrooms making the work of the teacher difficult 4 since he/she cannot easily move around in the classroom (Wabuoba, 2011) quoted in Chuma (2012). The school administration is a crucial factor in the success of a school. The head teacher should be in a position to ensure that all factors within the school that make the school environment favourable for teaching-learning process be put in place to ensure quality standards are maintained. The Education Act of 1968 stipulates that the head teacher is responsible for overall management, control and maintenance of standards in the schools and is accountable for all that happens in the school. He is charged with the duty of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting (Okumbe, 2001). The head teacher is the seen as the first supervisor and therefore should always ensure that effective teaching-learning is taking place in the school. Teaching-learning process can be measured through assessment that is done to pupils using continuous assessment tests (CATS), standardized examination like the sub-country MOCK and the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE). In Lower Nyokal divisions school environmental factors such as availability of instructional materials, availability of physical facilities, class size and school location are factors within the school that may influence the teaching-learning process in Homa-Bay district. Effective teaching-learning process may not take place when rate of repetition, drop out and absenteeism seems to be high in the division and this influences performance of learners.
          The enviable position which social science education system of most countries of the world, including Nigeria is perhaps justifiable. The reason is that social science can exert a dominant, if not decisive influence the life of individual as well as on the developmental effort of a nation (Emovon, 1985). The universal recognition of the above submission is responsible for the prime position that has been accorded social science and in particular, social studies worldwide. Within the context of social science education, social science has been identified as a very important school subject and its importance in recognition given to the study core in the development of the individual and the nation that is made a core-subject among the core and other commercial development of any nation has been widely reported. It was as a result of the related courses in the Nigerian education system. Its inclusion as a core subject in social science in the secondary school calls for the teaching of it effectively. This is because environments determine the learning which leads to the attainment of greatness.
          (George and Kaplan, 1998), the environment plays a significant role during the learning process and they can directly or indirectly influence students attitudes toward, which is consequence can influence students’ performance. Environment are, invariably, role models whose behaviors are easily mimicked by student. What is environment likes or dislikes, appreciates and how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significant effect on the students. By extension, how environment influence, how they influence how students interact within can be more paramount than the teacher teach.
          The relationship between school location and student academic performance in economic has been widely reported. Adepoju, (2001) found that students in urban schools manifest more brilliant performance than their rural counterparts. Also, Ogunleye (2002) Ndukwu (2002), Odinko (2002) and Warwick (1992) reported a significant difference in the achievement of student in urban peri-urban areas.      
          However,, Daramola cited in Ogunleye (2002), and Orji (1997) did not find any significant difference in the urban and peri-urban schools.
          In view of these conflicting reports, there is the need to carry out a study with a view to determining which of the selected variables will have causal relationship with student performance in economic in Ekiti State.
          The study intends to pinpoint the environmental factors influencing the teaching and learning of economics in Ekiti State in Nigeria.
          Social studies Inyang –Abia Esu (2004) posited that social studies is an interdisciplinary subject which enables the learners to acquire wide knowledge of the surrounding complex phenomena and forces that influence man in his society. In line with the above definition, Edinyang and Mezieobi (2013) posits that social studies has been defined in Nigeria as an integrated field of study that probes man’s environmental relationships and imbues man with high level intellectual skills social skills and competencies germane to solving man’s environmental diverse problems for better and effective living. Social studies is a program of study which a society uses to instill in students or learners the knowledge, skill, attitude and actions it considers important in (Kissock 1981) defined culture as a groups benefit to the Nigerian society. Bullivant (1993) defines  a group’s program for survival in and adaptation to its environment. The cultural program consists of knowledge, concepts and values shared by group members through systems of communication. Culture also consists of the shared beliefs, symbols and interpretations within a human group. The essence of culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of a group interpret, use, distinguish one people from another in modernized (Banks, 1994a, 1994b). people within a culture usually interpret the meaning of (2001: 13) is a change in behavior or performance, which is as a result of experience and behavior or performance should lead to observable or demonstrable improvement if learning permanent change in behavior as a result of practice and experience. The desire or wish of all parents is that their children should go to school and acquire qualitative education that can equip them with skills, knowledge and good character qualitative education that can equip them with skills, knowledge and good character that can make them competent, well adjusted and effective citizens. The knowledge acquired can equip the children to understand and solve problems of life. Good character will make children acceptable in the society and grow in the nurture and fear of God, enjoying interpersonal relation with fellow men wherever they find themselves (Denga and akuto 2004). Parents, the community and nation at large expect their offspring to benefit from a positive change in behavior as a result of their exposure to the individual learner but to the society in which such an individual lives and operates. Learning in individual is a complex phenomenon that depends on a multitude of factors such as the teacher, the learner, the institutional environment among others. For learning to take place effectively, there has to be an interaction among the various factors
          The need for investigation becomes imperative since it will go a long way in ameliorating those problems.
1.2     Statement of the Problem
           The Government commitment to education is noted from sessional paper no. 1 of 2005 which guarantees every learner the right to quality and relevant education. The government has invested in education especially in public primary schools through the introduction of Free primary Education (EPE). The country’s provision of Free Primary Education is an effort by the government to increase access and retention of pupils in schools. The development of Educaiton Sector Support Programs is based on the rationale of the overall policy goal of achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Government\s commitment to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) as stipulated in Basic Education Act of 2013. Despite efforts made by the government to ensure each child attends school by providing free Primary Education, there are pupils who still fail to attend school on a regular basis (AEO, Lower Nyokal Division, 2012). Effective teaching-learning process may not be guaranteed when the rate of absenteeism, repetition and dropouts is high in the division. If teaching learning process is not improved in Lower Nyokal, then the division will lag behind both in social and economic development in the district. Anyango (2012) found that teachers’ attitudes, adequacy of teaching learning resources and girls attitude towards education led to poor performance among girls in Lower Nyokal division. Opudo (2012) found that head teachers style of management influence the performance of 6 pupils in Homa-Bay district. However, no study the school envrionmetn can influence the teaching-learning process. the researcher intended to find out if there is a relationship  between school environmental factors and the teaching learning process and make recommendations on how to improve them to ensure quality standards are maintained.
1.3     Significance of the Study
          This study will help to sensitize the education administrator to appreciate the need to make available necessary materials, example chalkboard, graphs, audio-visual materials etc. that will enhance effective learning of economics if they not available.
          This study will help to direct the economics teacher’s attention to the needs for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significance because it is going to provide information and evaluation of their plans.
          It will be useful to learners, for through this they will be able to identify he factors influencing the proper learning economics this study will help to produce sound economics students that will function very well in economy such as:
a.       Know how to use scare productive resources with alternative uses to meet prescribed ends and be able to apply the principle of economics               
 b.      The product of economics should be able to pick employment within a limited employment opportunity in any economy.
          This work will serve as a serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the finding of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issue.
Also, the study would throw more light into the causal relationships among the students, and the school environment – related variable under investigation and performance of students in economics. The outcome of the stud is therefore expected to stimulate the stakeholders to improve upon the isolated variables which have been found to have direct causal relationships with students performance in financial, with a view to enhancing student performance in the economics subject.
1.4     Objective of the Study
          The main purpose of this study is to identify environmental factors influencing learning of economics in Ido/Osi Local Government of Ekiti State.
The study will specifically to ascertain;
1.       The extent to which instructional materials are available and why students perform poorly in external examination.
2.       The difficulties students encounter in the study of economics subjects.     
3.       The educational qualification of economics teachers in Ido/Osi Local Government Ekiti State.
3.       The difficulty students encounter in the study of economics subject
4.       The extent to which other related subjects influence their learning process as a subject
1.5     Research Questions
          The following research questions guided this research work.
1.       To what extent are instructional materials available for economics?
2.       What is the problem encounter by students of economics?
3.       What is the educational qualification of economics teachers in Ido/Osi Local Government Area in Ekiti State?
4.       To what extent do related subjects influence learning of economics as a subject?
1.6     Delimitation of the Study
          The main aim of the study is to examine the environmental factors influence learning of economics in Ido/Osi Local Government Area in Ekiti State, since most secondary school in the local government in Nigeria faces similar problems in terms of educational structure, the scope of study in respect of the educational sector may be reduced to the minimum.
          However, due to time factors, the study is limited to the local government and secondary school in Ido/Osi Local Government Area in Ekiti State.