Title page
Table of Contents
Background of the Study
Purpose of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Research Questions
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
Empirical Review of Literature

Research Design
Population and Sampling Procedure
Research Instrument
Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
Administration of Instrument
Data Analysis
Discussion of Findings
Suggestion for Further Research

Background of the Study
The nature of man’s environment is one of the basic determinants of his state of health, among other factors.
This implies that the condition of man’s home, place of work and every other place he makes use of has a direct relationship with his well being. Oredipe (1996) is of the opinion that there is a natural relationship between man and his environment. According to him, this is because the environment presents to man various opportunities and at the same time various problems. The environment place limit or control on the development of man. It also governs the course of man’s manipulation of the environment. It will either make it easier or difficult for man to rest his living of the environment. Gidado (2003) is of the opinion that man through his intellectual capabilities tends to maximize his contact with and utilization of environmental resources: man attempts to either constantly condition the environment to suit his needs or to adjust himself to the environmental conditions.
Adesina (1998) stated that the apparent health problems in Nigerian society associated with poor environmental sanitation have assumed noticeable dimensions that all services thinkers would readily accept the need for constant appraisal of the environmental with a view to finding workable solution for improvement. In the opinion of Oredipe (1996), the environment is an aggregate of all conditions that surrounds man at any point in space. For the early man, those conditions were mainly mutual. They included such elements like climate, soil, vegetation and the terrain.
Kalesanwo (1994) suggests that the basic requirements for a health living are adequate supply of safe water, provision for the hygienic disposal of waste, among others. Generally, poor environmental sanitation will cause filthy environment giving bad odours, causing awful scenes, harboring flies and germs and ultimately encouraging outbreaks of epidemics (Gidado, 2003).
Funke (2001) is of a good school is the availability of a healthy environment including clean toilets, classrooms, libraries, play fields, among others. Idowu (1996) states that sparkling clean toilets is an essential environmental component of any “good” schools. Similarly, Akinseinde (1999) has identified that the school environment has to be neat with neatly cut paths and flowers spacious and clean classrooms and toilets. It is however regrettable to observe that the problem of environmental abuse, which has become characteristics of Akoko in recent years, is gradually finding its way into our primary and secondary schools especially those without security fence in the cities. Apart from this some members of the school community especially the learners (pupils and students) are often found of the habit of littering the ground with pieces of papers, biscuit wrappers, sachets of water, among others.
In some instance, students are often found defecating and urinating indiscriminately in the school compound either as a result of non-availability or inadequacy of toilets facilities.
This, at first, results in land pollution and later, air pollution. Thus, the members of the school community run the risk of the breakdown of epidemics. According to Adegoke (2000), rubbish in the form of papers, human waste and other solids is unpleasant to look and it can spread diseases fast. Similarly, Gidado (2003) has stated that, more than any other things, waste degrade the quality of our environment, it constitutes health hazards. Epidemics of Cholera, Dysentary and Diarrhea in some cities and towns such as Lagos and Ibadan can be traced to the pollution of the land Oredipe, (1996). Similarly, the aesthetic beauty of the environment is destroyed.
The problem of land pollution in the school community common in schools where there are no dustbins, incinerators, etc for waste collection.
However, the situation may also arise where pupils are not well informed on the need to dispose their wastes properly and hygienically. Similarly, learners can also resort to polluting the land with wastes such as papers, nylons etc where dustbins are/or incinerators are not accessible or too for from their classes. In such situations, children may ‘cleverly” dump wastes anywhere provided they are not caught.
Considering the attendant effect of land pollution in the school system such as the breakdown of epidemics such as cholera, dysentery, diarrhea, pupils will consequently fall sick and thus unable to come to school. The importance of education to national growth and development can be underrated. Then this implies that our educational aims and goals may not be achieved to the desired level as a result of learners’ and teachers’ ill-health resulting from environmental abuse. Considering the adage “Health is wealth”, it becomes imperative to carry out a comprehensive study of the problems militating against effective environmental sanitation exercise in primary schools in Akoko Local Government Area of Ondo State.
Purpose of the Study
The need to undertake a comprehensive study of the school environment and consequently problems militating against effective environmental sanitation in our educational institutions cannot be over-emphasized.
This study is designed to:
a.                            Make a critical analysis of the environmental health problems of primary schools in Akoko local government area of Ondo State.
b.                            Carry out an investigation into the problems inhibiting effective environmental sanitation in primary schools in Akoko local government area of Ondo State.
c.                             Carry out an analysis of the various ways through which wastes are generated in the primary school system.
d.                            Investigate the method(s) employed by school authorities at ensuring that wastes are well and hygienically disposed and to ensure that the school environment is neat at all times.
Statement of the Problem
The state of environmental hygiene of a school system is a vital aspect of the school that cannot be overemphasized. This is because, the state of hygiene of a school has a direct relationship with the state of health of members of such school community and consequently the level of effectiveness of the school programme of activities. This implies that a school with a hygienic environmental health is more likely to be successful in the task of facilitating the achievement of the school’s aims and goals. This calls for a more serious attention to be paid to the environmental health condition and consequently sanitation methods and problems in our schools.
The abuse of the school environment, especially land as a result of inadequacy or at times, non availability of toilet facilities as well as wastes collection materials such as dustbins, incinerators, etc is risky, health wise. If this is not controlled, it could result in reducing the school’s “educational output” in terms of learner’s achievement. It is obvious that in a school where pupils defecate and urinate indiscriminately because of non-availability of toilet facilities or ignorance, the attendant effect is the breakdown of epidemics arising from air and land pollution. This will consequently affect adversely teachers’ productivity and pupils’ ability to learn. In order to reduce the problem of the breakdown of epidemics in our schools, it is imperative to identify the problems militating against effective environmental sanitation in these schools and consequently suggest ways of averting epidemics arising from environmental abuse in the school system. This is the focus of this research study. The research study attempts to investigate the inhibiting problems of effective environmental sanitation in our school in Ondo state taking some schools in Akoko Local Government Area of Ondo State as a case study. In other words, this research study is geared at studying the problems militating against effective environmental sanitation exercise in selected schools in Akoko Local Government Area of Onso State.
Research Questions
For the purpose of this study, the following questions are raised and will be addressed vis-à-vis data gathered from responses to the items on the questionnaire. 
Research Question One: How often is environmental sanitation carried out in school?
Research Question Two: Are there enough toilet facilities and good drainage systems in our schools?
Research Question Three: Are there essential facilities needed for environmental sanitation in our schools (primary)?
Research Question four: whose responsibility is to cart away refuse generated in our primary schools?
Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited by the problem of poor record keeping culture, which has become a way of life in any public establishment in Nigeria including the primary schools. Consequently information relating to wastes generation and disposal in primary schools are often not regarded as vital records and thus not kept as an essential part of the information a primary school should have.
Nevertheless, the researcher will do everything possible to endure that this poor record keeping culture have little or no effect on the overall findings.
Definition of the Terms
The nature of concepts and terms used in this study is defined below to reduce ambiguities. The terms are interpreted as follows.
a)                 Environment: This refers to schools (primary) and their immediate surroundings in terms of land space and air. It includes the degree of cleanliness or otherwise of the primary schools and their land space including the degree of ‘pureness’ of the air.
b)                Health Problems: This refers to adverse state of health that could result consequent upon poor management of wastes generated in the school system. Such wastes, defending on its nature, could result in land and air pollution and this consequently result in the breakdown of air-borne diseases and other such disease that could threaten man’s well being.
c)                 Primary Schools: This is used to refer to educational institutions meant for children aged six to eleven plus. They are attached prior to attending the secondary school.
d)                Problems: This is the term used to refer to a collection of inhibiting factors that prevent effective environmental sanitation in our primary schools.
e)                 Epidemics: This refers to diseases arising from environmental abuse in the primary school system. Such diseases may among others include dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, and respiratory disorders.
f)                  Wastes: The refers to both solid and liquid materials that are generated in the schools but not needed. Solid wastes may include pieces of papers, torn footwears, and uniform of pupils, torn cardboard etc. similarly, solid wastes include faces that could be generated either by the pupils or members of staff. Liquid waste primarily include urine and other liquid arising from science practical.
g)                 Pollution: This is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the environment that may be harmful to members of a community such as the schools.