Background to the study

The judicious use of time by an individual to succeed in all aspect of life refers to time management. It does not only help individual to make the best use of time, but ensures successful accomplishment of tasks within the stipulated time frame (Prachi, 2019). Time has been seen as a general phenomenon which all human‗s has at their disposal for optimal effectiveness. Time management is imperative for the survival of any given organization in a highly competitive and globalized word. It is important in accomplishing individual task as well as business productivity; as organizations strongly believes that every single minute could be converted to money/profit. To achieve organization effectiveness, proper time management plays a pivotal role in motivating employees; thus improving employee‘s performance and organizational productivity (Channar, Shaikh, Pathan and Mughal, 2014). A person‘s ability to manage their time Mancini (2018) is one of the key causes of success or failure in a person‘s life.

Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency, productivity and performance (Buck et al 2011).Time management depends on the will power and self-discipline; it is only possible through self – motivation, performance, ability and motivation (Brigitte, Claessens, Eerde and Rutte, 2005). Appropriate time management plan adopted by administrators Ugwulashi, (2011) helps to improve standard, save costs, remedy poor situations, leads to value and harmonize organizational focus. Improving higher education administration requires time to provide all it take to make a quality institution. Improving higher education administration requires time to provide all it takes to make to make a quality institution. It upholds the principle of ―just in time ―approach in managing educational processes for quality assurance at various level of education.

Time management plays a vital role in improving student‘s performance and achievement. Effective time management not only affects performance of workers, but also helps them cope with stress, conflict and pressure. Students in developing countries are faced with numerous challenges. Procrastination and lack of prioritization are huge obstacle towards effective time management. Procrastination take place in our everyday behavior. With range of studies links personal behavior factors such as lack of motivation, deficiencies in self-regulation and poor management (Gafani Et al 2010). Effective time management help develop task oriented coping behavior on persons and him/her to mobilize and utilize resource in an effective manner. For students to achieve better academic performance, they need to priority their time and limit the incidence of procrastination.

Without practical time management, Silberman (2014) opine that one may actually find students struggling to get project done by a deadline or getting essential work finished by the end of the day. Teaching them the skill that they need to manage their time can really improve their academic performance drastically. Inspiring students on how to develop good time management is difficult, as getting work done efficiently will not only improve the performance, but will also result to motivation and academic excellence. In spite of the significance of time management in the achievement of optimal performance, organizations do not treat time management as an essential ingredient of survival (Adebisi, 2013). In order to manage time, students, individual and managers must be creative, innovation and introduce various time techniques/strategies in producing best output within the stipulated time limit. Time management is committed on solving problems. Examples of such problems are; being unable to handle distractions, meeting deadline pressure, procrastination, self-control, obscurity of personal goals, not being able to say ―no‖, too much social relations etc. Akomolafe (2005) stated that time really cannot be managed because it cannot be slowed down, speed up or manufactured. However, Quek (2011) alleged that time can be managed because when one wants to solve the problem of procrastination, one needs to learn and develop time management skills. In the mind of the researchers, there is an indication            that     Quek   feels    that procrastination may affect time management. Time is natural; however, people live and work or exist within time. Therefore, time rolls along with human existence. To the researcher however, time management is as important as human and material resources in any organization. From observation, poor time planners seem to be faced with low productivity, inefficiency, ineffectiveness and low morale, stress and frustration with themselves. Time is always available although it waits for no one, and is no respecter of gender as reflected in the research conducted by Omolola (2010) that both male and female undergraduate are affected by time management.


Statement of the problem

Government and Parents have invested hugely on secondary education but the academic performance of secondary school students in public examinations has been so unimpressive as earlier stated and blames have quickly been shifted to teachers, inadequate funding of education, inadequate provision of instructional materials in the school, poor implementation of educational reforms, cumbersome curriculum, school location, class size, some socio – economic factors like the parents’ income and family type and some psychological factors like the students’ intelligence,  studies time   and study habit.

            Studies Time and study habits among the stated factors have only enjoyed few attentions or have not been thoroughly looked into by the researchers as it was found in the study of Kelly (2004) and Nuthana and Yenagi (2009).More so, to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, there is no current study investigating the relationship between students’ studies time, study habits and academic performance in Biology in secondary schools. Therefore, this fact makes a new demand on looking at the students’ time management strategies and study habit in relation to their academic performance in biology.

 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine  the effect of study time on students academic performance in Biology.

Specifically, the purposes included:

1.      To determine the effect of study time on students academic performance in biology

2.      To examine time management strateges and  it effect on students academic performance in Biology

3.      To examine the contribution of Students’ study habit and its effect on students academic performance in Biology

Research Questions                                                    

            The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

1.      What  are the effect of study time on students academic performance in Biology  ?

2.      Does time management strategies affect students academic perofrmanc ein Biology 

3.      What are the effect of students study habit on students academic performance in Biology?

Research Hypotheses

Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. They are:-

1.      There is no significant  relationship on students study times and their academic performance in Biology

2.      Student time management strategies   have no significant relationship with the academic performance in  of biology students

3.      There is no significant relationship between students’ study habit and academic performance in  Biology.

Significance of the Study

The study will be significant to the students, teachers, parents, school counselor and other stakeholders in education most especially the researchers.

1.      The findings of this study will help the students to be aware of the time management strategies and study skills to be adopted as a habit and also guides the students in the choice of any of the strategies of managing time and study skills.

2.      The findings and information of this study would be of great importance in helping the teachers understand the diversities of their students and help them design ways to improve the students’ time management and study habits.

3.      The study will also guide the parents in helping the students provide motivation in their choice of suitable time management strategies and study habit.

4.      The study will be of significance for the school counselors  in helping them get the necessary knowledge of time management strategies and study habit and advising the students in their choices of these strategies and habits of studying

5.      The findings of this study would also serve as a catalogue for future use by policy makers and other stakeholders in education sector most especially the researchers.

6.      The findings will significantly have positive effects on the students’ academic performance.

Scope of the Study

The study focused on the Students' Studies time and their academic performance in biology. The study was carried out in the secondary schools in -----------State among the senior [higher] secondary school students in five selected secondary schools in ----------  State  

Operational Definition of Terms

Time is referred to be very personal to the students in which any events like study, relaxation, sleeping etc. it is a moment or period students can appropriate something to be done.

Management is the systematic way of planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling time for activities to take place by scheduling, prioritization activities, setting of goals, Handling the most difficult task first, handling the easiest tasks first and keeping task lists and by using clock based reminders and alert.

Time management refers to the intended actions of the students to plan, organize, coordinate and control time for activities like study, relaxation etc. to take place.

Time management strategies used in this study includes: clock-based reminders and alert, scheduling, prioritization, Goal setting, Handling the most difficult task, carrying out easiest tasks first and keeping task lists.

Habitsis the attitude or behaviour of the students towards their studies

Study habit is the study skills that could be adopted by the students and practiced regularly.  The study skills used in this study that students could adopt includes: reading and note taking, concentration, comprehension, cramming, selection of main ideas, class work and assignment, guessing examination questions.

Students’ Academic Performance is referred to being able to effectively study and also referred in this study as the progress or performance of the students who sat for the 2016 WASSCE.




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