1.1               Background to the Study

Technical Education  is a form of education that focuses on teaching students practical skills and knowledge that are directly related to specific occupations or industries. It is often referred to as vocational education, trade education, or career and Technical Education  (CTE).

Technical Education  programs can range from high school-level courses to post-secondary programs such as technical colleges, community colleges, and vocational schools. These programs can provide training in various fields such as automotive technology, healthcare, computer science, construction, engineering, culinary arts, and many more.

The main objective of Technical Education  is to prepare students for the workforce by providing them with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required to perform specific job functions. Technical Education  emphasizes hands-on training, real-world experience, and practical skills development, which are essential for success in many industries.

Technical Education  has become increasingly important in today's rapidly evolving job market. Employers are looking for individuals with specialized skills and knowledge to fill specific job roles. Technical Education  provides students with a competitive edge in the job market, as they are equipped with the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in their chosen field. Additionally, Technical Education  programs often lead to well-paying and rewarding careers, making it an attractive option for many students.

The concept of Technical Education  is not really new to Nigerians. It was one of the major aims of the Nigeria traditional Education. Technical Education  mean the field of technology relating to discipline such as engineering and applied science, while on the other hand it is pedagogial implications that involves the discipline of Technical and Vocational Education (Abimade 2018). Technical Education  is composed of theoretical and practical instruction such instrument is said to be usually give to those who need to be employed in commerce and industry or in any type of enterprise which involve the use of tool and other machinery for their operation service.

Technical Education  facilities the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic stressed Technical and scientific knowledge (Lawal and Ojajuni 2011).

It musts be stressed that Technical Education  could target the Vocational higher or any other Education, but not all Technical Education  programme are Vocational in nature (Lawal and Olajuni 2011). Furthermore Technical Education  is the aspect of Education that involve the acquisition of Technical and application of the knowledge of the science for improvement of man surrounding Abdulai (2014). Technical Education  is also known as Vocational Education. Vocational Technical Education  was taught by non formal system through apprenticeship method. Nigeria people receive training in  Carving (Wood and Bronze) weaving, sculpturing, painting, decorations, carpentry, dress making and boat making, leather making (Fafunwa 1991 and Osokoya 2012).

However, in the Western school curriculum Vocational Technical Education  was introduced to Nigeria by the early Christian missionary during the colonial era. The pupil and the student were taught practical subject like needles works, housekeeping, agriculture, wood work, typewriting, shorthand, book keeping etc.

Also higher Education provided sub-Vocational and sub-professional type e.g agricultural Education was given at the more plantation Ibadan and Zamaru Zaira while the engineering Education was given at Government Technical Department and Nigerian Railways. Also Ventenary, medicine Education was provided by Von in Jos (Fafunwa 1974), Taiwo 1981, Adekunle 2004 Saliu 2012). Vocational Education has no limits as a type of occupation. It excluded the professions such as engineering architecture and other technological based form Vocational Education applies specifically to useful employment in trades, agriculture, home making Technical, and business areas (Abimade 2018). Vocational Education could be regarded as the aspect of Education which provide the recipients with the basic knowledge and practical skill needed for entry into the world of work as employee or as self employed Agbenta,  . (2015)

Technical and Vocational Education prepares ones of the work the individual become reliant and can make contribution to the development of the society. Vocational Education also nurture skill that are necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial, and economics development and thus build as self-reliant nation (Adeyemi 1997 and Oni 2007). According to them, Vocational Education is an aspect of the total process that focuses on individual occupation. Olaitan (2007) on his own, sees as the type of Education which is considered as the development of skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for success to any occupation. Vocational Education cover more areas than Technical Education . a good Vocational Education programme provide for cultivation of general Education experience (Abimade 2018). Therefore Technical Education  is organised in other to provide individual with the academic and Technical knowledge and skill which the individual need to prepare for further Education and for career. According to Robert (1981Ojajuni and Lawal (2011) the term Vocational and Technical Education  as a type of Education or training designed to prepare the learner to earn a living or increase his learning. They describe it as one of which Technical information and an understanding of the laws of science and technology as applied to modern design productions, distribution and service are essential for success.

United nation Educational and scientific cultural organization (UNESCO) 2014 sees Vocational Technical as Education and training to acquire the practical skill, known how and understand necessary for employment in a particular occupation trades or group of occupation or trades. Vocational and Technical Education  give individual the skill to have learn and work as productive citizen in a global society (Dike 2014, Lawal and Ojajuni 2011). Vocational and Technical Education  is an aspect of Education designed to prepare student for industry agriculture, commerce and economics which is usually provided at the junior and senior and even at tertiary institutions, (Lawal and Ojajuni, 2011). Vocation Technical Education  is the type of Education which fits the individual for gainful employment in recognized occupation as semi-skilled worker or technicians or sub-professional (Pounding  1997 and Oni 2007, Obanya 2007) Vocational Technical Education  is a part of integral development of three H e`s, the head the Heart and the individual Integrated personality development.

The aim and goal of Technical and Vocational Education according to Nigeria national policy on Education (2004) id to provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and business particularly in craft and advance craft at Technical levels; furthermore, to provide the Technical knowledge and Vocational skills necessary for agricultural commercial and economic development and also to give training and impact the necessary skills to individual who shall be economically self reliant.

In education sector motivation plays a great role when teacher are motivated, this will lead to good performance and high productivity of the system of the nation growth and high productivity of the system of the nation growth and development and also the welfare of its change citizen at large.

 Motivation is seen as the person’s effort to accomplish his/her duties, dedicating the needed effort and continuing it. Motivation plays a significant role in individual’s educational life and their achievement.  Motivation reflects in learners‟ choices of academic tasks, the time and effort they allocate to each task, their perseverance in academic tasks.  Motivation also enables them correctly handle obstacles they come across in the learning process. Wiegfield and Eccles (2011) believed that motivation is a multidimensional construct. To them, researchers in the field of motivation  in learning agree that a learners engaging in any learning condition has to answer three central questions: “Can I do this activity?”, “Do I want to do this activity and why?” and “What do I need to do to succeed?”  The concept of motivation is closely related toother constructs in education and psychology.

They include attention, needs, goals and interests which all focus on stimulating individual learners and rising their interest and attention towards engaging in an action or behaviors and the accomplishment of such actions or goals.

The concept of motivation is functional when an individual is thrilled to satisfy someneed or desire. The individualwill involve in, or be attractedtoward actions that are perceived as having the possibility to meet this need or desire.Educational psychologists are of the view that students‟ motivation is an indispensable requirement for efficient learning to take place. Fontana (2019) believed that, in the event of insufficient motivation to learn, the outcome of such learning willbe unsatisfactory.

The concept of motivation has been defineddifferently.However,all centered on whatinduce a person to perform a given action. Denhardt et al.(2018)views motivation as “what causes people to behave as they do”. To them, motivate on sketches the achievement and pursuit of goals. According to Lawler (2011)motivation is goal directed. That is individuals perform an action due to the goal they want to achieve. Pettinger(2006) take a different view in defining motivation. To him, motivation is environmentally dependent. That is people’s action is tailored by environmentalinfluences.

Campbell and Pritchard(2019)seemotivation as series of psychological procedures that cause the initiation, direction, intensity and the persistence of actions. Denhardt et al.(2018) stressed that motivation is not observe directly. They pointed out that motivation is an inner feeling that made people act in a particular way to achieve a given goal and purposes. Denhardt et al. (2018)further argued that motivation cannot be controlled directly. They maintain that motivation occurs within individual’s minds and hearts and should not be regarded as something that people do to others. Equally they stressed that motivation is not the same as satisfaction. To them, satisfaction is past-oriented while motivation is future oriented. In view of the importance attached to students‟ motivation, this study examines the influence of motivation on student academic achievement in secondary school  in Ogba Egbema  Ndoni local government

Motivation Psychologists believe that motivation is a necessary ingredient for learning (Biehler& Snowman, 2006). Satisfactory school learning is unlikely to take place in absence of sufficient motivation to learn (Fontana 2011). Denhardt (2018), defined motivation as “what causes people to behave as they do” Lawler (2019) said “motivation is goal directed”. Motivation outlines the achievement and pursuit of goals (Denhardt 2018). Pettinger (20010) defined motivation as environmentally dependent. Campbell & Pritchard (2019) defined motivation as being the set of psychological processes that cause the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior. Denhardt, Denhardt and Aristigueta (2018) outlined motivation is not: directly observable, the same as satisfaction, always conscious, and directly controllable.

Denhardt (2018) argued that motivation is not directly observable. Motivation is an internal state that causes people to behave in a particular way to accomplish particular goals and purposes (Denhardt, 2018). Motivation is not directly controllable: motivation is not something that people do to others and motivation occurs within people’s minds and hearts

(Denhardt 2018). Motivation is not the same as satisfaction: satisfaction is past oriented, whereas motivation is future oriented (Denhardt 2018) there are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation, occurs when the activity is done out of the free choice of the individual (Ryan &Deci 2000). Intrinsically motivated behaviours are seen when there is no other apparent reward except the activity itself (Deci 2007). Malone &Lepper (2007) defined intrinsic motivation as what people will do without external inducement.Fincham& Cain, (2006) viewed intrinsic motivation as patterns that have been associated with high perceived ability and control, realistic task analysis and planning and the belief that effort increases one’s ability and control.

            According to Ryan &Deci (2000), extrinsic motivation is a construct that is relevant whenever an activity is done in order to attain some reward. Extrinsically motivated behaviours are those where the controlling mechanism is easily seen (Deci 2018). An extrinsic orientation toward learning is characterized by a concern with external reasons for working, such as the judgment of others regarding one’s performance, grades, or some anticipated reward (Goldberg, 2010).

Boggiano (2006) revealed that achievement motivation positively influenced academic performance. It was found that motivational orientation predicted children’s standardized achievement scores (Boggiano et-al 2010). Children with an intrinsic motivation orientation had higher reading and math scores and higher overall achievement scores compared to their extrinsic  counterparts (Boggiano et-al 2013). There is a significant correlation between academic achievement and motivation (Sikwari 2014) and motivation has impact on academic achievement of secondary school students in mathematics with respect to gender (Tella 2007). Highly motivated students performed better academically than lowly motivated students (Tella 2007) and females are highly motivated compared to their male counterparts (Sikwari 2014). Surprisingly, a research conducted by Niebuhr (2005) to examined relationships between several variables and students’ academic achievement, found no significant effect on the relationship with academic achievement. Niebuhr (2005), suggested that the elements of both school climate and family environment have a stronger direct impact on academic achievement


1.2        Statement of the Problem

School education stage plays a significant role in the quest to develop the nation’s future manpower for rapid development. As a result, successive governments of Nigeria have made several efforts to improve the standards of learning through infrastructural development at the education sector among other policy initiatives. Despite all these efforts, the standard still remains low at secondary school level. This has prompted several researches into more effective ways of improving academic standards and has found out that inadequate motivation for students of secondary school students learning among other factors as disincentives to learning and academic achievement  

 Motivation plays a significant role in students’ academic work in Technical Education  and in their achievement. It reflects in students’ choices of learning tasks, in the time and effort they devote to them, in their persistence on learning tasks, in their coping with the obstacles they encounter in the learning process. Clear presentation and explanation of learning material is a necessary condition for meeting students’ cognitive level and promoting their understanding of learning material. At the same time, a collaborative learning climate is also a necessary condition for students’ school achievement. Teachers have to establish a cooperative atmosphere in their work with a class, among the students, with their colleagues in school, with parents and also within the broader community.   

There have been a lot of research works on effect of motivational teaching strategies. However little have been recorded in Technical Schools. In view of this, the researcher replicate the same topic in technical school in Ogun State.

        Significant of the study

It hopes that the final result of this research work will help in finding possible way, how motivation can influence productivity performance in teaching and learning process and also improve learning on the part of student. It is important for the researcher to put into consideration, the significance of the teacher motivation and academic performance to student. However this researcher will significance in the following ways:

1.      When teachers are being motivated, the society/government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best the student (youth) will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of it citizen.

2.      Parent will also benefit when teacher are being motivated in the sense that the student will be responsible to their parent and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out families responsibilities

3.      Student will benefit equal when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them enhance and improve their academic performance

4.      The teacher also benefit a lot when they positive motivated is given to them in term of promotion, fringe, benefit, salaried are paid at the end when due they will in their best in the teaching process. And also standard of living will improve.

1.4        Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study

1.      What are the  effect of motivational teaching strategies on students academic performance in Technical Education ?

2.      Do motivated student stand in chance of performing  in Technical Education   more excellently than student not motivated?

3.      What are the impact of teachers motivation on students academic performance in Technical Education  ?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypothses were raided to guide the study

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between motivational teaching strategies  and academic achievement in Technical Education  students  in secondary school  in Ogba Egbema Ndoni  local government area .


 Ho2: Motivated students does not stand in chance of performing more excellently than the student not motivated in Technical Education

Ho3:  There is no significant different between teachers motivation and students academic performance in Technical Education    

 1.5        Scope and Limitation

The study covers some technical secondary school in Ogun State. Moreover the scope of this study is limited for finding the effect of motivational teaching strategies in teacher performance and the student.

1.6        Definition of Terms

Motivation: Is the desire or want that energies and direct goal oriented behaviour

Teaching: The aching is the ability of transferring a body of knowledge to the student

Strategies: Is the method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to as problems.

Technical: Is the knowledge and ability needed to a accomplish mathematical, engineering, scientific or computer related duties as well as special tasks

Achievement: Is the process of achieving something especially by means of skills or perservance.




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