The study is aimed at investigating the effects of parental status on educational development of students in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno state, Nigeria. The  study examined whether,  parents occupation, parents educational background and family size have effect on students  educational development.  In view of these, five  research questions were formulated. This study was a descriptive research of survey type. 150 respondents were selected for the study simple random sampling technique was used to select five secondary schools for the study. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using percentage. The study revealed that among others that  Low income of parents is a major impediment to academic success and development on the part of students.  Also the study revealed that parent educational background have effect on students educational development.  The study recommended that   parents should be sensitized on the need to make education children and wards a priority in the face of the present economic predicament by adequately providing for their school materials.




Background to the Study

Parental status refers to a parent person‟s position in a given group, society or culture as determined by wealth, occupation, education and social class.

The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hands of the parents. This is congruent with the common assertion sociologist has that education is an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home.( Ogunshola and Adewale 2012).

Akanle (2017) noted that education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is so because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation. Hence formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any society. Akanle (2017) stated that education not only provides knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering right attitudes and habits.

Education principally reflects a social process and implies social framework for development. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources. Much is said that formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization of any society (Checchi 2016). Unfortunately, for years this opportunity has not been distributed fairly due to lack of enough resources to allow all children to benefit from that advantage.

Several studies claimed that the academic achievement of a student highly influenced by socio-economic factors of the family (Ahamad, 2016; Hanfi, 2008; Smith, 2011).

  Parents status refers to an income, education attainment, andoccupation. Saifie & Mehmood (2011) defined "Socio-economic status (SES) is a combined measure of an individual's or family's economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation". Researchers have claimed that the low socio-economic status of parents is one of the factors of low academic performance of their children. "Children growing up in poverty may suffer

from more developmental delays and learning disabilities than children from higherincome homes"(Kapinga, 2014). Parents of low economic status may not be able to support the children adequately. Children have difficulties managing teaching materials, books, copies, school dress due to the lack of resources, whereas the students from middle and high economic class do not feel the lack. Parents of high and medium socio classes have controlled over the economic sources and educational  material, whereas low socio-economic has controlled for sustenance (Lareau, 2013).

Saifie & Mehmood further claimed, ". . . [s]table socio-economic status of a family brings comfort, positive attitude, and a healthy environment which leads to high academic achievements at the parts of students" (2011, p.127).

Parental education is a social capital for the academic achievement of the children. Hanafi (2008) claimed that most of the research of developed countries proved the positive relationship of academic achievement with their parent's education. Bakar et al. have also posited ". . . [p]arents with high educational qualifications perform well than those from parents with lower educational

qualifications" (2017, P. 296). Educated parents support their children in their educational activities. Kapinga (2014) concludes that those parents who reached a certain level of education could assist their children's assessment assigned by the school. Parental education acts as the social capital of the family. Educated parents involved in supporting their children to in homework, enhance a learning

environment at home (Tsung & Gao, 2012). Parental education acts as the human capital of the family. De serf (2010) emphasized more importance to the mother's education. Children's actions often reflect their mothers' actions and attitudes. Ahmad has emphasized on the parents' educational background as encouraging factor for children in t heir educational achievement: "When children observe their parent's behavior, it will indirectly promote children's response toward their parent's behavior which encourages and is involved in their education; the reciprocal process will occur, it will encourage and motivate the children to be successful in their studies". The academic performance is influenced by their socio-economic background.

Thomson, (2018) claimed that parents of the middle class participate in children's  education and development, and parents of lower-income do not participate. Thomson, (2018) claims that student of the low socio-economic class remains disadvantaged in school due to lack of home environment, which influences their academic success at school. Parents with higher socio-economic status can provide their children with support and home resources for individual learning.

Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the standard of education has fallen, consequently leading to lot of arguments among scholars and educationists. Teachers, government and students are often responsible for this phenomenon without investigating on other factors that could hinder high standard of education.

Every child in school performs in different way in terms of academics which may either be positive or negative. There are variations in the form where the students attend schools. In the recent times most parents, seems to be more interested in the feeding and clothing of their children than in their educational progress. Parents do not care about teaching and encouraging their children at home. They believe that the school teacher will do everything.

Some blame teachers and students for poor academic performance in the county. 

Many factors such as inadequate school facilities, cultural factors and inadequate teachers among others have been cited as the possible causes of poor academic performance in the county.

          However, parents’ s status is hardly mentioned.  The foregoing discussion had established that parent status and allied related factors such as home environment of students, parental educational background, health status of students, parental occupation and income could have effects on students’ academic achievement.

           It is against this background that the work is been undertaken to investigate the possible  Effects of parental status on educational development of students in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno state, Nigeria)


 Objectives of the Study


The general objective of the study is to determine  the effects of parental status on educational development of students in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno state, Nigeria).

The specific objectives were to;


1.     ascertain the  effect of parents socio-ecomomics status on  students  educational development?

2.                  To determine the relationship between parental occupation on educational development.

3.                 To examine the relationship between parental income  on students educational development.

4.                 To discover the relationship between parents level of education and student’s educational development

            To find the relationship between family size and students educational development

            Research Questions

          The following research question will be raised for the purpose of the study:

1.     What are the effect of parental socio economics status on educational development

2.     What are the effect of  parental occupation on educational development?

3.     Is there any relationship between parents income and educational development?

4.     To what extent does  parents level of education  have on educational development>

5.     Does family size  have effect  on students educational development ?

Significance of Study


The findings of this study would be of benefit to Junior Secondary School (JSS) students, teachers, counsellors, parents and school managements. JSS Students will benefit immensely from this study because the identified variables on the students‟ academic performance  will lead to a deeper insight into how such variables can be explored to improve the academic performance of these students. The findings of the study will also be useful to teachers as they work toward providing learning experiences that are motivating to students. The findings will be of immense value to the school counselors as they offer career counseling, vocational guidance and occupational information to students.

 Scope of the Study

This study was delimited to SS 2 students and their Parents in  five selected secondary schools in Maiduguri metropolis of Borno State . This is because these students have enough experiences in first and second years of their study and they will be able to indicate their parents‟ educational qualifications and occupation.   . 

Definition of Terms:

          Certain terms used in this research work are herby defined a operationally used in the study.

 Academic performance: This is the extent of achievement of learners in teaching and learning process at school and colleges.

Socio-Economic status: This means the socio and economic position of the individual or family in any given society determine and income.

Income: This refers to parents earning received as a wages, salary or interest e.t.c in a given period usually a year.

Occupation: This refers to a job on profession which could be skilled, semi-skilled, the work, trade business or any activity that one does which bring him or her income or earning. It must be legitimate on legal.

Parent education level:  this refers to parent’s level of formal educational attainment.

Parental status: parent status in totality embraces the background of the child such as the socio-economic status of the parent, type of home whether polygamous or monogamous, from both or single parent and parental aspiration for children.

Family size: This refers to the number of people in a family: father, mother or mothers, children and other dependants.




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