THE ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TO GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION. IN AKURE NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE.

 

THE ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TO GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION. IN AKURE NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO  STATE.


 

  ABSTRACT

This research was on attitude of parents towards  the education of Girl-Child in  Akure Nortth Local Government Area of Ondo State. The population comprised of all the secondary school teachers in Akure North Local Government Area.  Five (5) research questions were raised for the study. The sample consisted of 250 respondents from ten  (10) selected schools. The method of selection was simple random sampling process. The instrument use to collect data was a questionnaire while the data collected were analysed using percentage, frequency count and means scores. While the formulated hypothesis was tested using chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. The finding revealed  among others that the causes of the problem of parents attiude to Female Education  include: parent negative attitude towards education, Early marriage of girl child do not favour their education, Some cultural believe do not encourage Female Education , Some religious practices do not favour girl education, Poverty is one of the factor that hinders Girl-Child Education, Parents are ignorance to the benefit of education, Bad government policy could affect parent attitude towards girl and Insecurity is also one of the causes of Female Education. finding showed that the solutions to the problem of the Female Education  include: Free education should, Compulsory education, the parent should change their negative attitude toward the Female Education , more appointment should be given to women and law should be made to abolish early marriage, Law should be made to abolish early child marriage, there should be more enlightenment campaign for Female Education  and there should be more reward for girl child and their parent for Female Education. The study recommended that the government should make education free up to secondary school level in  Ondo state so that girls from poor homes can benefit. The Ministry of Women Affairs should organize Public Enlightenment programmes on the consequences of early marriage of girls. It also recommended that Parents should have a positive attitude toward girl-child education.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

          Background to the Study

The importance of education to human beings cannot be overemphasized. Education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely by reason of being human. The relationship between education and development is well established such that education is a key index of development. It has been documented that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child labor as well as bringing about empowerment (UNESCO, 2002). This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent times for all citizens of the world to have access to basic education.

The importance and linkage of education to the development of any society is well known. It is in recognition of this importance that the international community and governments all over the world have made commitments for citizens to have access to education. Meanwhile, it has been documented that across the globe, there are inequalities in educational access and achievements as well as high levels of absolute educational deprivation especially in children (Sbrahmanain, 2002). Girls constitute the largest population of illiterate children in the world till date (Otive, 2016 ). The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated that every person has a right to education. In 1990, the world Conference on Education For All declared among others that every person shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities  designed to meet their basic learning needs. 

The girl-child is a biological female offspring from birth to eighteen (18) years of age.This is the age before one becomes young adult. This period covers the crèche, nursery or early childhood (0 – 5 years), primary (6 – 12 years) and secondary school (12 – 18 years). During this period, the young child is totally under the care of the adult who may be her parents or guardians and older siblings. It is made up of infancy, childhood, early and late adolescence stages of development. During this period, the girl-child is malleable, builds and develops her personality and character. She is very dependent on the significant others, those on whom she models her behaviour, through observation, repetition and imitation. Her physical, mental, social, spiritual and emotional developments start and progress to get to the peak at the young adult stage. Education is the process of providing information to an inexperienced person to help him/her develop physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, spiritually, politically and economically. That is why at graduation ceremonies one hears the Vice-Chancellors pronounce these words while awarding degrees to their institutions‟ graduates, “you have been found worthy in character and learning Grace, C. O. (2011).

In Nigeria, several steps had been taken since independence to promote women‟s education, yet enrollment of girls remains poorer than that of boys. For example the National Policy in 2010  emphasized the need for women education. The goal was the full integration of women into the social and political status as a means of developing the nation‟s human resources for national economic growth. Its objectives included the promotion of gender mainstreaming into all policies and

programs. In addition, in 2007, the National Policy on Gender was adopted. The policy is premised on recognition of gender issues as central to and critical to achievement of the goals and objectives of national development. Education, formal or non-formal has been seen as the foremost agent of empowerment. It is the bedrock of women empowerment.

Parents‟ positive attitude towards child‟s education is important in determining school attendance and academic achievement of the child. Favorable attitude towards schooling and education enhances parental involvement in

children‟s present and future studies. Parent‟s attitude towards their children‟s education is affected adversely by low socioeconomic status, religious practices, and cultural belief of the people (Oyitso & Olomukoro, 2012). Parental attitude is a

measure or an index of parental involvement. One of the most important attributes of parental attitude is consistency. As children mature into adolescence, family involvement in their learning remains important. Less enrollment of girls (15%) in

the past few decades in the northern part of Nigeria, particularly in Sokoto state requires an investigation into different factors which are affecting overall situation of girls‟ education.

The enrolment of children in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions also demonstrates discrimination against females. There are remarkable disparities according to regions and states. However, gender disparities are common in all regions and states. In all the states and regions of Nigeria, women lag behind men in access to education. For instance, only 7.6% of women interviewed in the Northern part of Nigeria had some primary education, whereas, in the Southern part of Nigeria, at least 25.9% received some education. In the case of primary

school enrolment, only 12% of Girl-Child of school age are registered in the primary schools. In the South, 44.4% of girls are in primary schools Adelabu, M. A. and Adepoju, T. L. (2008)

According to Muhammad, Lawal, Muhammed and Hamza (2014), Female Education  is that type of education which equips the women with all the necessary tools needed for the effective discharge of their own peculiar roles in the service of the nation and indeed, to booster their personal development as well. It is also an avenue that prepares an individual to acquire knowledge and skills that are life- long assets to them during the cause of their stay in this world. It is that process which becomes girl’s reality effective. An educated woman understands her world and deals with society well effectively.  The prosperity of a country depends not only on the strength of neither fortifications nor the abundance of its income, but depends on the number of well and quality based citizens, that is character, enlightenment and women education. Therefore, education is the right of every girl everywhere and also the key to transforming both the life of girl and the life of her community.

Researches have shown that girls without education are denied the opportunity to develop their full potential and to play a productive and equal role in their families, their societies, their country and their world at large. Girls` education has been viewed as a primary predictor for a number of development indicators including national fertility rates, infant mortality, family income and productivity. World Bank economists have recognized girls’ education as single development intervention with the greatest individual and social returns. It is not only important as a social indicator or an engine for economic development leading to a greater level of health, economy, security, liberty and participation in social and political activity, but can possibly yield higher rate of return than any other investment available in developing world. In realization of the importance of the female child, concerted efforts were mounted by the governments at various levels to improve female participation in education and redress the gender inequalities in education enrolment and retention

However, the parents’ attitude towards their Female Education is important in determining her attendance and academic achievement of the girl child. Favourable and optimistic attitude towards education enhances parental involvement in their girl child’s present and future studies. Low socio economic status of the parent’s affects their attitude towards their children’s. In the recent years, the concept of education is beginning to be equated with learning, irrespective of where, when and how often it occurs. Parental attitude is a measure or an index of parental involvement. Family involvement in education has been identified as a beneficial factor in girl child learning. It is a key component of national educational policies and early childhood programs.

In a recent survey it was found that a child, brought up with affection and care in the least restrictive environment copes up better with the sighted world. Therefore, the family shapes the social integration of the child more than a formal school. The four basic parental roles- parents as educational decision makers include; parents as parents; parents as teachers and parents as advocates. It is essential that the home and school work closely together, especially for children with disabilities as the parents’attitude is so important. The importance of parents being partners in the education of their girl child. The foremost role of any parents should be: firstly actively support and secondly enrich the educational processes. Taminu (2004), asserted that there are two important persons in any child’s educational life. One is his/her parents while the other one is the professional of that institute. He states that parents are recognized as the major teacher of their children while the professional should be considered consultants to parents.

Aliyu (2011), in his own opinion maintained that parental attitude can be negative or positive. The negative attitude of the parents regarding education and schooling can prevent the girl child from getting education. Positive attitude of the parents can be beneficial to their children in many cases and can be reflected in improvement in class performance, creating interest among children to learn, and higher achievement scores in reading and writing and academic achievement of the child. Favourable attitude towards the need for woman participation in all facet of the national development required that emphasis be laid on the education of the girl child just as it has been for boys since education is a process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude that enable the girl child to be useful to herself and contribute to the development of her society and nation at large (Shuabu, 2015). Hence, education of the girl child is a vital ingredient through which a nation can attain any development.

In other word, Onoyase (2018),opined that the need for Female Education , is imperatively and indispensable for the socio-economic development of the Ondo   State in specific and Nigeria in general to deny or discriminate Female Education  which is key to enhancing their activities and productivity means we lost focus in education. But experience have shown that there can be no significant and sustainable transformation of the state and the country and reduction in poverty until the girl child receives basic education she needed so as to have her rightful place as equal partner in development. There is a popular belief that to educate a woman is tantamount to educating the whole nation. It is a common believe that to prepare a woman effectively for her multidimensional roles, she need to be functionally literate. A functional literate woman is expected to be able to read and write, to enable her cope with the modern challenges, especially at this period when some head of the families have not taken up their responsibility seriously (Taminu, 2004).

This position appears to contradict the attitude which some parents have toward the education of their female-child. Tomba and Tinkhoiling (2017), Stated that the girl-child education has been a burning and continues issue in the developing countries of which Nigeria is one. The girl-child education can be compared to a coin which has two sides. This is because in the northern part of Nigeria, the girl-child is not encouraged to go to school, whereas in the Southern part of the country, reverse is the case. For instance, Onoyase (2018), was of opinion that the there is a  glaring imbalance against girls in enrolment, attendance and completion rates in all levels of education in Nigeria particularly in northern parts of the country due to a variety of socio-cultural and religious factors. The female-child access to basic education especially in northern states of Nigeria appears to be something of great concern. He maintained that the ratio of boys to girls’ enrolment, retention and completion of secondary education particularly in  Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo  State remains alarmingly low. This is because it appears that only 40 percent of women in  South East  Nigeria might have been literate, culturally women are confined to their traditional roles with lots of sanctions imposed on them either by custom, norms or religion. Most parent still feel that training a girl means training her for her husband and only preparing her for home chores. It was a common belief that the education of girls end in the kitchen (Uzma, 2017).

Statement of the Problem

It is a known fact in the world that education is the basis of every society and it requires to be given to all without considering the gender aspects. The problem of female  education is not a regional, state, National or continent but a global issue of concerned. Education is the most viable instrument by man to conquer his environment and charted his destiny

In the past few decades, girl-child education in Africa has made great progress. But relatively speaking, this progress is still slow and uneven. On the one hand, the level of development of women's education between countries and countries in this region is still significantly different due to differences in geographical location, social class, language and ethnicity. On the other hand, compared with the rest of the world, Africa, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, still lags behind in the field of women's education. Girl-child education has been a burning and continuous issue in Nigeria. Its existing problem in Nigeria more especially in the Northern part of the country in which Ondo   State is one of the states and so it need to be clearly addressed. Compared with men, women in most  Local Government Area of Ondo  State have been disadvantaged in education, and the higher the level of education, the more unfavourable the situation

The problems of Female Education in Nigeria and in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo  State in particular include poverty. Although, poverty in the Akure Noth  Local Government Area of Ondo  State is one major challenge of Female Education  but it is not the only fact at play, the lack of access to good quality education in also one of the major determinants. Tradition and culture in which the women generally low status their status in the society and the limited expectations of opportunities of securing decent paid jobs at adult play pivotal role. Moreover, this view is compound in the parents’ eyes, if the quality of education is poor, low grade or the curriculum demands irrelevant to the girls’ future, social traditions and deep rooted religious and cultural beliefs and often barriers to expand girls’ educational opportunities in developing countries around the world. For examples in part African girls are abducted for marriage, the dowry system often promote that girls leave school for marriage in some state, the trafficking of young indigenous girls is lucrative and it is still in practice in many areas of the state despite government sanctions and also the status changes in the families that has turned many young girls into prostitute and sudden head of the family

Summarily, there are many more challenges bedevilling the Female Education  in Nigeria as a whole and Akure North  Local Government Area of Ondo  State in particular. These problems can be summarily the problem of girl-child education are numerous which may ranges from the hawking of goods by the girl-child of school ages, exploitation of the girl child by their parents, high tendencies of early marriages, religious/superstitious belief a times as a result of poverty and financial problem where some parents cannot afford to pay school fees for their children. In other cases, the problems emancipates from the fact that some parents considers educating girl child as waste of time for the sake of gender disparity or inferiority complex and above all illiteracy and poverty.

Therefore, the problem of this study is to investigate the attitudes of parents towards Female Education  in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo  State

          Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to find out the attitude of parents to girl-child education. in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo  State.

The specific objective is to

1.     Find out the attitude of parents towards the education of Girl-Child in Akure North Local Government Area

2.     Determine the attitude of parents based on gender disparity towards the education of Girl-Child inAkure North local government area

3.      Investigate the attitude of parent towards the education of their Girl-Child based on educational background

4.     Investigate the  causes or problems of the girls-child Education in Akure North local government Area of Ondo  State

5.     Find out the solutions to the problem of the girl-child education  in Akure North local government Area of Ondo  State

Research Questions

1.     what is the attitude of parents towards the education of Girl-Child in Akure North local government Area of Ondo  State ?

2.     What is the attitude of parents based on gender disparity towards the education of Girl-Child in North local government Area of Ondo  State?

3.     What is the attitude of parent based on educational background in North local government Area of Ondo  State ?

4.     What are the causes or problems of the Female Education in North local government Area of Ondo  State ?

5.     What are the solutions to the problem of the Female Education in North local government Area of Ondo  State ?

 

Hypothesis

The following null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study

Hypothesis 1: there is no significant different in the attitude of parents towards female education.

Hypothesis 2: there is no significant different in the attitude of parents toward education of Girl-Child based on educational background.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This research was carried out in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo  State. The study centred on the parents, teachers, government, societies and girl child. Research has to observe the overall mention area in order to establish the attitude of the parents towards Female Education . Conversely, due to time and financial constrains the study is limited to public senior secondary school in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo  State.

Significance of the Study

The outcome of the research will help educational planners, school administrators, teachers, policy makers, parents or guardians and all stakeholders to have a clear understanding of some fundamental issues related to girl-child education in Ondo  State and Nigeria in general.

The findings of this research could enable parents to be more enlightened on their responsibilities towards female education. It is also hoped that this would in-turn enhance Female Education which will lead to their contributions to the development of Ondo  State and to participate fully in developing herself, siblings, husband, home and the whole nation and would not be misused, harassed, subjected and maltreated. In order word it would enable parents who have a view about education for girl-child to have a rethink and their negatively about girl-child education changes to positively.

The findings would provide a framework upon which our national development can be depended upon and also provide a paradigm shift for the nation, that women could make meaningful contribution beyond their primary role of nursing and performing home chore.

It would also reveal the truth beyond doubt that women indeed can be role models in all sphere of national reconstruction and that empowering women has value added that is far rewarding than any other investment known in the world because when you educate a woman you are empowering a nation.

In addition, researchers would equally benefit from the study as the information provided in this study will serve as a stepping stone to those who want to carry out research in areas related to the study.

Finally, the study would add to the existing body of literature in girl-child education and provide resource material for researchers in the area study.

          Operational Definition of Terms

Attitude: This is the response of either approval or disapproval of a class of people or individual towards a particular aspect of life.

Early marriage: this explains the reason and strong desire to give out before time a young girl for marriage without putting their age into consideration

Girl-Child:- Girl-child is a feminine gender of the two genders of primary and junior secondary school age who is between the age of 6years and 16years whether disabled or not.

Ignorance: this is explained as the lack of knowledge experience of information about the importance attached to Female Education  

Illiteracy: this is the inability of the girl child in this case to read and write or understand simple instructions.

Poverty: this is a state of not having access to money or resources and because of that, anything could be done without considering the consequences of individuals in question

   UNICEF: United Nations Childern’s Fund

     SDG: Sustainable Development Goals

      ETC: Et cetera

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