TEACHER’S CAPABILITY AND LEADERSHIP STYLE AS THE DETERMINANT OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Background to the Study
The teaching profession has traditional based it claims to professional status on criteria similar to those who defined the ancient profession of social science as the case of economics. Teaching is said to be as old as life itself. This is because individual from birth have not been able to and still cannot, survive without some level of training, instruction guidance or directive from their biological parents, guidance or relatives Adeyemi (2008)
Leadership in any organization implies the action and interaction with persons and things with a view to attain a specific objective. It is the ability to plan, control, direct and co-ordinate the activities of school involving both human and material resources for the achievement of school goals (Adenounmu, 2006). It is a process through which persons or groups intentionally influence others in the attainment of group goals. Leadership is generally defined as the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly toward the achievement of objectives. This concept can be enlarged to involve not only the willingness to work but also the willingness to work with zeal and confidence. It is the functional behaviour of a leader in relation with subordinates to facilitate the accomplishment of group goals. (Adenounmu, 2006)
In this regard, leadership is the ability to get things done with the assistance and co-operation of other people within the Institution. Adeyemi (2004) supported those views and remarked that leadership involves a guide that directs activities of individuals in a given direction in order to achieve the goals of the organization. These views were however contrary to the arguments made by Ibukun (2007) who defined leadership as a projected feeling from one individual (the leader) towards others (followers) for the purpose of realizing group objectives. In this regard, leadership could be seen as the process of influencing the activities of an organization toward goal setting and goal achievement. As such, it must be stressed that any meaningful and useful definition of leadership must contain some elements such as a group to be led which must have a set of laid down objectives, there must be conscious attempts to influence the behaviour of others within the group and there must be willingness of subordinates to carry out the action (Akerele, 2007).
The term ‘academic performance’ has been described as the scholastic standing of a student at a given moment. It refers to how an individual is able to demonstrate his or her intellectual abilities. This scholastic standing could be explained as the grades obtained in a course or groups of courses taken (Owoyemi, (2000). Commented on the scholastic standing of students and argued that performance is a measure of output and that the main outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their experiences within the school’s system. Thus, in determining academic performance, Daniels (2000) emphasized the use of grades in examinations and reported that grades could serve as prediction measures and as criterion measures.
Academic performance therefore is largely identified by a range of statistical indicators. STAN, (1992) supported this argument and reported that performance is the level of attainment of a person in an examination, that is, how an individual is able to demonstrate his or her abilities in an examination. Performance has been regarded as a measure of educational output (Adeyemi, 2006). This fact buttresses Obemeata’s (1992) argument that the performance of students in public examinations in many Nigerian schools has been poor as a result of shortage of teachers, inadequate funding of schools and the broad secondary school curriculum. Supporting these findings, Animashaun (2002) expressed that this poor performance of students has been a great concern.
Adeogun (2001) opined that the quality of the educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without human resources may not to be able to achieve the goal and objectives of the educational system. Adesina (2002) also noted that teachers are the major indicator and determinant of quality education. Highly professional teachers, who are dedicated are needed in schools. It has been established that there is high correlation between what teachers know and what they teach. Thus the ability to teach effectively depends on the teachers knowledge and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. Teacher effectiveness is impeded if the teacher is unfamiliar with the body of knowledge taught and the teachers’ effectiveness is subject specific. The implication of this for teachers is that they must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. The teacher whose understanding of topic is thorough use clearer language and they provide better explanation than those whose background is weaker. The way the students perceive the teachers in terms of their (teachers) knowledge of content of subject matter may significantly affect the students academic performance.
A non-challant attitude of some teachers to work, has been attributed to poor academic performance of students. According to Eggen and Kauchak (2011), positive teachers attitude are fundamental to effective teaching. They identified a number of teachers attitude that will facilitate a caring and supportive classroom environment, they are: enthusiasm, caring, firm, democratic practices to promote students responsibility, use time for lesson effectively, have established efficient routines, and interact freely with students and providing motivation for them. Fisher et al (1990) also noted that high level of learning occur and learners feel good about themselves and the materials they are learning when teachers use instructional time efficiently. The way teachers outreach with students influences their attitude toward school and their academic performance. How students perceive their teacher attitudes to teaching in the classroom will be measured in this study Qualification, Teaching experience and Teaching skills are variables noted to have effect on student academic performances.
Ehindero and Ajibade (2000), asserted that “students, who are curious stakeholders in educational enterprise, have long suspected and speculated that some of their teachers lack the necessary professional qualifications. That is, skills, techniques, strategies required to communicate concepts, ideas, principles in a way that would facilitate effective learning.” They believed that these deficiencies contribute significantly to the growing rate of failure and subsequent drop out of students in secondary institutions.
Statement of the problem
The dwindling performance of students of secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria in senior secondary certificate examinations in Economics has been a major concern to stake holders in education. Many reasons might have accounted for this. Among this is perhaps the observed style of leadership used by school teachers. (Adeyemi, 2010). Common observation in the school system in Ekiti State, Nigeria shows the different types of leadership style used by teachers’ of schools. Some teachers’ seem to be autocratic in their leadership style (Adeyemi, 2010). Some perhaps tend to be democratic (Akerele, 2007). Some on the other hand seem to practice the laissez faire leadership style (Ige, 2001). These leadership styles tend to have some effect on the management of the school either positively or negatively.
The problem of this study therefore is to determine what relationship exists between teacher’s leadership style and students’ academic performance in Economics, and to determine if teachers Attitude have effects on students’ academic performance among Economics students in some selected secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Objective of the study
The major objective of this study is to investigate teacher’s capability and leadership style as the determinant of economics students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Ekiti state, Using selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti as a case study.
The specific objective is
- To determine the impact of school leadership style on students’ academic performance in economic
- To determine the relationship among teacher capability and leadership style and Economics students’ academic performance
- To determine Attitude of Economics teachers on students’ academic performance
- To assess the capability of their selected leadership styles in attaining the school objectives.
- To identify teacher’s qualities on students’ academic performance in economics
- To recommend appropriate leadership styles to be used that can facilitate the performance of the students
- What impact does school leadership style have students’ academic performance in economics?
- What are the relationship between teacher’s capability and leadership style on Economics students’ academic performance?
- Does Teachers’ Attitude have effect on economics students’ academic performance?
- Does capability of their leadership styles help to attain the school objectives?
- Do teachers’ qualities have effect on students’ academic performance in economics?
- What are the appropriate leadership styles that can facilitate the performance of the students?
The following hypothesis are formulated to guide the study
H1; There is no significant relationship between school leadership style and the students’ academic performance
H1: There is no significant relationship among teachers’ capability, leadership style and economics students’ academic performance
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings from this study was to benefit the teacher by providing information on those factors that affect performance of students in their schools. Secondly, it is hoped to help the policy makers in general to assess performance of the head teachers with a view of promoting only those who have high organizational ability and good in achieving high academic performance.
That the research will aid economists in formulating leaderships skills that will enhance the academic achievement of students in economics classes and examination. The study will also help policy maker and curriculum planner in the educational instruction of economics in secondary schools in Ekiti state as well as to foster discipline and proposal classroom organizations and management for effective learning.
Finally, the information gathered from this study was to provide more literature for further studies in the field of school administration.
Scope of the study
The study is aimed at investigating teachers’ capability and leadership style as a determinant of Economics students’ academic achievement. The study is carried out in five randomly selected senior secondary schools in Ekiti State. The study was limited to school Principals, teachers and Economics students selected from schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
Definition of terms
Teacher–Someone who attempts to shape or mould the behavior of another person (student) through instruction and practical examples.
Academic qualifications–Educational standards achieved.
Teacher leaders: teachers who are leaders lead within and beyond the classroom, identify with and contribute to a community of teacher learners and leaders, and influence others towards improved educational practice.
Leadership: Leadership is the ability to inspire or influence others towards the leader’s goal.
Capability: A capability is the ability to perform or achieve certain actions or outcomes through a set of controllable and measurable faculties, features, functions, processes, or services.
This study assessed teacher capability and leadership style as the determinant of economics students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools of Ekiti state.
Many studies have been carried out by different authors and researchers on different aspects of leadership. To further the basis for this study, emphasis is going to be laid on the following sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- The Concept of a Teacher
- The Concept of Teacher Leadership style
- The concept of School Leadership style
- Leadership roles of teachers
- Teacher leadership attributes
- Concept of Student Performance
- Theoretical framework
- Empirical framework
- Summary of literature