Background to the Study
A home is defined as the house, flat or apartment that an individual lives in with his/her family. Family is defined as any two people who are related to each other. This includes genetic connection, adoption, marriage or by mutual agreement. The nuclear family comprised of married couple with their biological or adopted child/children living together in one household. This type of nuclear family is referred to by social scientists as an “intact family (home)”, signifying that the family has been through a divorce or separation by death of a member (Conkline, 2006). Broken homes are defined as one in which one of the partners looses his/her spouse by death separation, divorce, desertion or single parenting (Conkline, 2006). Deborah (2002) sees broken homes as a situation where two spouses separate leaving the children to the hazard of the society.
Broken home is a home torn apart Broken homes occur when husband and wife separate from each other through either natural causes (death) or by human cause (divorce), leaving the care and responsibility of the children to one parent. Divorce could be temporal or permanent. It is temporal when there is still hope of coming together after the relevant laws must have been put in place. This is to ensure that issues that created the temporal separation are settled. But if the divorce is permanent, it means there is no hope of coming together. Divorce has to do with either one of the partners quitting or saying “bye bye” to his/her spouse as a result of infidelity, pride, superstition, religion, disagreement, in-laws interferences, alcoholism, and disrespect for one another or bulling (violence). According to Johnson (2006), twenty-nine percent (29%) of women who had ever been married or had lived with a man in common law relationship, had experienced at least one episode of violence/bulling by a husband; such relationship are more likely to end in disaster, rather than peaceful atmosphere.
Death is natural cause  of why homes tear apart. It is unpredicted phenomenon that has gone beyond any body’s control. It can occur as a result of war, illness, accident, and through natural disaster such as flooding, earthquake, and plane crash or bomb blast. Single parent families are result of divorce (Wadworth, 2002). Unfortunately, the growth in the number of children born into broken homes is increasing by the day especially in Nigeria (Nwachukwu, 2008).
Over the years, the investigation of the factor that influence academic performance of student have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists, researcher and school administration in Nigeria (Wiseman 2003). This is because of the public outcries concerning the low standard of education in the country and unbaked graduates being produced from our universities (Imogie, 2002). Poor family structure (broken home) due to either natural cause or divorce is one of the factors responsible for the poor academic performance of student in secondary schools (Wiseman, 2003).
Broken home has more impact on the academic performance of student in schools in urban area than in remote villages. This is because those students from broken homes in the cities are affected by change of school due to inadequate financial resources or poverty, poor study habit and low self concept. Parents from broken homes are usually found in low status jobs because they enter work place early with few skills and little or no experience. They begin parenting in poverty and likely to remain in poverty which has an impact on academic performance of their children (Dowd, 2007). Fatherlessness constrains students to poverty; students whose homes are headed by father are six times better than students whose homes are without parental care (Murphy, 2002). Students from broken homes in remote villages have nothing to challenge them. The existence of extended family will not allow them to feel the impact of poverty as those in the cities. They have much to occupy them like farming and petty trading and so on.
The environment (location) in which the students come from can greatly influence his/her performance at school (Ichado, 1998). However, the findings on gender difference in children’s responds to marriage separation (broken homes) have been contradictory. Some researches point to more adjustment problem for boys in broken homes or families than for girls (Guidubaldi and Perry, 2005). While Farber (2003); Kinard and Reiherz (2004) observe negative effect on girls than boys. In terms of crime, boys are affected by divorce very deeply than girls.
Children belonging to lower socio-economic group after divorce experience greater hardship. These hardships translate into adjustment problem.
Family separation has more impact on younger children’s academic performance than the older children (Hetherington, 1999). The reviewed literature indicated that there is an awareness of the importance of the home environment (family) on the students’ academic performance. The home has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic state.
Statement of the Problem
In our society generally student academic performance is very poor. If there further investigation we will notice most of these students are from broken homes when  the caring rate for them is very poor. Such pupils do not have bearing. At times their fees would not be part, you always see these pupils everywhere. They are not expected such students  always play beyond control in school and so many factor are responsible for their academic performance. This kind of students find it necessary to cope academically due to one reason or the other some of them are exceptional children(genius) but for the simple fact that they have little or no care, many are not well fed.
          The statement of the problem is therefore stated thus, to what limit do broken homes causes by separation divorce or death of parents affect children or student academic achievement. The children social life could also be affected because they became a problem to their society juvenile delinquency, introvert, behavioural disorder etc. that is a sociological deficiency.
Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this research work will be to determine the effect of broken on pupils academic performance in Ondo West local government area.
The specific objective will be to;
1.     To examine the effect of broken home on pupils academic performance
2.     To find out how absence of one or both parent influence pupils academic performances in school.
3.     To find out whether there is significant differences in academic performances of pupils from broken home and those from stable home.
4.     To Explore the perception of children in broken marriages and the effects of their status on their academic performance
Research Questions
1.     To what extent does broken home affect pupils academic performance
2.     Does absence of one or both parent influence pupils academic performances in school.
3.     Is there any significant differences in academic performances of pupils from broken home and those from stable home.
4.     What are children’s perceptions on the effects of broken marriage to their academic performance?
Significance Of The Study
          The research will be useful to parent young couple and school age children and pupils in Ondo west  in particular and other part of the country as a whole. The study will expose the society to the problem encountered by couple in the marital life. In addition, it will provide solution to the problem of psychologically depressed and frustrated children or pupils from broken homes.
Scope Of The Study
          The study will  covers Ondo West Local Government Area as a case study on the effect of broken homes on pupils academic achievement. The study will be  limited to five  selected primary School in Ondo West Local Government Area
Research design
           The researcher  will used survey design of the descriptive type of research for this study. The researcher will considered that this type of design will be  suitable for the study because it will allows a wide coverage within a limited time. In a survey study, the researcher will selected the sample from the segment of population, for an exploratory study to enable her to have a representative opinion of the characteristics of the subjects.  
Population of the study
the population of this study will comprises of all the pupils in five selected secondary schools in Ondo West Local Government Area
      Sample and sampling techniques
         The sample for this study will comprised of one hundred  twenty respondents. The sampling techniques that will be  used for this study will be simple random sampling techniques.. The sample  will cuts across  twenty teachers and one hundred pupils in five selected primary schools in Ondo  local government area of ekiti state

Instrument for data collection
             The instrument that will be used for this research work is a questionnaire  named effect of broken home on pupils performance (EBHPP). It will be  designed by the researcher along with the variables under study and the question it contains will be drawn  from the  research questions.

Validation of the instrument
           The face and content validity of the instrument will be done by the researcher’s supervisor and two other experts in the field of ENGLISH DEPARTMENT. The corrections pointed out will be effected in the final draft of the questionnaire.  
Reliability of the instrument
         The reliability of the instrument will be carried out on 20 respondents who did not form part of the final subjects that will be used for this study at two-week interval. The test-retest method of reliability will be used to test for the reliabiltity  
Administration of the instrument
            A letter of introduction will be collected from the school through the Head of Department (HOD) which will be taken to the selected schools. The administration of the questionnaire will be done by the researcher. The researcher will distributed the questionnaires to the respondents. Adequate time will be  given to the respondents to respond to the questionnaire. Completed questionnaire will be collected on the spot.
Data analysis techniques
          The data gotten from the study will be subjected to statistical analysis of frequency counts and simple percentage                          

You may like these posts