This research work will attempt to investigate the effects family background on the academic performance of pupil of Social Studies in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The background of the study is discussed, problems clearly stated, the purpose and relevance of the study also examined.  Four research questions were formulated.
Five primary schools were used for the study while a total number of (100) hundred pupils were used in the five schools selected.  Their teachers were also used.  Information gathering was done through the pupils self assessment questionnaires (SSAQ) and teachers self assessment questionnaires (TSAQ) administered from the respondents of the administered questionnaire that, children from educated and well – to – do families perform very well in the school.  Whereas those from illiterate and poor family background find it difficult to cope properly and do not really perform well.
Hopefully, the study would contribute meaningful to the clear understanding of the family background of students and its impact on their academic performance in school.

Title page                                                                              
Table of Contents                                                                            
1.1     Introduction                                                                           
1.2     Background of the study                                                        
1.3     Statement of the Problem                                                       
1.4     Purpose of the study                                                   
1.5     Research Questions                                                      
1.6     Research Hypothesis                                                    
1.7     Significance of the study                                                    
1.8     Delimitation/Scope of the study                                             
1.9     Definitions of Terms                                                     

2.1            Literature Review                                                         
2.2            Family Background and Academic                               
2.3            Parental Education and its Effect                                  
2.4            Parental Occupation and Status                                            
2.5            Parental Income and its Effect                                      
2.6            Family Size and its Effects                                            
2.7            Effect of Divorce on Academic                                               
2.8            Feeling of insecurity at Home                                       
2.9            Parental Attitudes, Health Condition                                    
3.1            Research Methodology                                                
3.2            Research Design                                                           
3.3            Population of the study                                                
3.4            Sampling and Sampling Techniques                             
3.5            Research Instruments                                                   
3.6            Validity of the Research                                               
3.7            Reliability of the Research                                           
3.8            Administration of the instrument                                
3.9            Data Collection                                                             
3.10       Data Analysis                                                               
3.11       Questionnaire                                                               
4.1            Result and Discussion                                                  
5.1            Summary                                                                     
5.2            Conclusion                                                                    
5.3            Recommendation                                                          

1.1            Introduction
Like in any society in the world of large, there seems to be the foundational causes of either success or failure in chosen carrier which span itself from the immediate family background of the individuals concerned.  So riches is the word of God.  The Holy bible which says in proverb 22:6 (RSV) “Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it”.  From the going we can infer that, it is what a man has he can give.  No wonder, why some elites and Professionals in the society ensure that their children take after their professional callings by importing such knowledge into them from their early life.
1.2            Background to the study
As social inequality can not be ruled out in any society completely, the family background of an individual determine the class to which he belongs in life straggliest.  This social stratification has effects on the educational performance of pupils of social studies in schools.
Investigation has revealed that pupils from low family background/pupils whose parents were in manual occupation/achieved at school and intelligence tests than pupils from middle class backgrounds due to the effects on their capacity to take advantage of schooling.  This similar condition is noted among pupils whose father were in skilled manual work or pupils from families in clerical or other lower, middle class occupations who perform less than those from professional and managerial background.
The most obvious influence of family background is the materials advantage associated with poverty, poor health and nutrition.  Poverty and inadequate care brings about feelings of insecurity, improvised living condition of pupil.  This poverty may be due to low income earning which effect determines the life style of an individual.  Such parents with low income are deprived of some basic needs of life such as good habitation and good health care.  Students from such homes are culturally and mostly academically deprived because the home foundation was not strong.
Douglas (1964) state that family background of pupils has effect on their academic and social performances in schools it is argued further that student from upper class home perform relatively better than those from working class home.
Thense Ktwon (1984) is of the opinion that this differences arises form the fact that family background, environmental factor and the genetic traits against which intellectual and social abilities develop are different.  The annual income of parents their educational and social status, their professionals and position within the society enhance or hinder their children’s education performance in social studies.
Accord to E.I. Wilkin (1970), family background of students largely influence their academic performance in social studies.  Sociologist have the belief that the social class which one belongs to large extent determines the type of education to be given to their children house hold duties.
1.3            Statement of the Problem
The problem proposed for this study, is to know the effects of family background on students academic performance in social studies.  The problems are as follows.
It has been observed from primary school pupils that academic performance in the recent time, that many fail for one reason or the other and while some have high grades, other pass with low grades.  This is due to inequality in student background.
It has also been observed that there are disparities in pupil level of interactions which could be attributed to their so call background.
Also observed that there was an inability of some pupils to afforded to buy necessary textbooks on social studies and been unable to participate in excursion, field trip, because of lack of financial capability to meet financial needs.
Moreover, some privileged or advantaged pupils continue their education into higher esteem, they become great achiever and philanthropists while others – who are disadvantaged or less privileged are at a bottom of the ladder.
The participation of pupils in clubs and societies is another area of inequality in the societies some participate in an international and national clubs, association and societies.  Some pupils mix freely with others, while some are shy and lonely.  The peer group influence is based on home background.
Therefore, since homes situation depends on the family background of parent which is determined by their level of education, occupation, income, life style, rearing attitude of mothers and altitude of life.  It can be indisputable sand that the family background contribute to the success or failure of pupils in social studies.

1.4            Purpose of the study
The study examined the effects of family background on academic performances in social studies.
The researcher was of the opinion that the knowledge of pupils family vis-à-vis their academic performances in social studies in Ikere Local Government might help teachers, guidance and counselors, principals curriculum planners and the government to be aware of some of the societal setbacks and find solution to them.  it is also hoped that the outcome of the study will be an eye opener to the parents so as to understand their deficiencies, the case and care for them.
1.5            Research Questions
For the purpose of this research work the foll0wing research questions have be generated.
i.                   Does parental attitude have any effect on the academic of their children in social studies.
ii.                 Does the occupation of parent affect the academic performance of their children?
iii.              Do pupils from high socio – economic background perform better than those from low socio – economic background.
iv.              Does the size of the family has any effect on the academic performance of pupils?
1.6            Hypothesis
i.                   There is no significance effect of the parental attitude on the academic of their children in social studies.
ii.                 There is no significance effect of the parent occupation on the academic performance of their children.
iii.              There is no significance effect of the parent from high socio – economic background and those from low socio – economic background and those from low socio – economic background on the performance of their children.
iv.              There is no significance effect of the size of the family on the academic performance of their children.

1.7            Significance of the study
It is generally hoped and believed that the solutions put forwarding the study would make great contributions to societies knowledge of educational phenomenal.  It would be extremely useful to the teachers especially social studies teachers.
It is expected that the findings will assist the parents guiding and school administration.  It could be a guide to curriculum planners and for virtually all organization that have relevance to students welfare.
1.8            Delimitation
The investigation was conducted in Ikere town and Ayede village in Ikere Local Government Area in Ekiti State.  It involved five primary schools namely:
1)                St. Luke Primary School, Ikere
2)                 St. Silas Primary School, Ikere
3)                L.A. Uro Primary School, Ikere
4)                L.A. Aafin Primary School, Ikere
5)                Community Primary School, Agbado/Oyo, Ikere
1.9            Definition of Terms
FAMILY BACKGROUND: The home is the expository forum for the child.  It determines ones attitudes, educational quality, morality rate, socio care, health care etc. At home, the child is exposed to informal education.  There is relationship among the members of the family.  One cannot live in isolation of the others.  Parental/family background may mean one or two things, it may refer to national or hereditary factors.
The parents have their legitimate roles to play for the upbringing of all family members and such roles include among others, feeling, protection, education, health care and social needs of the family for the purpose of this study, the family background of the students will be viewed as an influential factors in determining the academic performance of pupils in social studies.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This is based on the classroom performance of pupils in recorded tests, and examinations.
SOCIO – ECONOMIC STATUS: The social and economic position of an individual or a family in any given society is determined largely and educational occupation, income and criteria for social class.
STATUS: This refers to the prestige or esteem that a person commands.  For example, a pastor in Church has a higher status than an ordinary Church member.
LOW SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS: This means parents that are poor and they cannot make both ends meet.  They cannot afford to buy some electrical gadgets due to their low level of income and their low level of education.
INEQUALITY: This means an uneven distribution of materials and other power such as academic achievement.
SOCIAL BACKGROUND: This means all influencing factors in the home such as cultural, materials and economic, motivational and emotional factors and parental altitudes.  The term is used in the present study to refer to the level of income and education of respondents.
HIGH SOCIO – ECONOMIC STATUS: This mean parent that are affluent and are well to do.  They have high social and economic position and socially oriented.  They can afford to buy some electrical gadgets in their homes e.g. Television set, Computer, Radio sets and Telephone.


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