effects of drugs and stimulants abuse among Secondary School Students

Background to the Study
             A drug can be defined as any chemical solid liquid or amorphous substance derived from plants, animals or mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some desirable effects.
             Also, drug can be defined as a substance which by its chemical nature has an effect to open the body of higher various system (the mind). The effect of drug could be positive or negative.
             Since the early times, herbs, leaves, and plants have been used to heal and control diseases. The use of drugs itself doesn’t constitute any danger, because drugs correctly administered have been a blessing (Falco 1988) as cited by Sambo (2008) viewed that “chronic use of substances can cause serious, sometimes irreversible damage to adolescent’s physical and psychological development.” The use of drugs can be beneficial or harmful depending on the mode of use.
           Cajetan I. , Ignatius O. and Chinagorom Onwunaka stated in their research that the main drugs that the students who took part in their study used include analgesics, stimulants, anti-malaria, alcohol, worm expellants, nasal decongestants, sleeping pills, laxatives, and anti-biotic, and their main source of drug information included print media, television, radio and peers.
            Drugs were introduced into Nigeria by soldiers returning from the Second World War and since then it has been spread among political thugs, criminals, and adolescent population. However, drugs use in Nigeria began attracting the attention of researchers in late 60’s Borrofka, (1996).
Positive Effect of Drug
Drug when properly used or taking into living organism, produces the desired result, and may modify one or more of its functional parts; it is usually prepared by the medical practitioner. Such drugs or substances are either of vegetables, animals or mineral origin. They could be prepared for the human body that produces the desired results into the treatment of disease and ailment.
Negative Effects of Drug (Drug Abuse)
The negative effects of drug is also referred to as drug abuse. Drug abuse is therefore defined as excessive consumption of a drug by any individual. Drug abuse results when there is self injection or from the approved medical usage –drug abuse in involved in the following:
1.     Excessive use of drugs and use of unpressurized drugs.
2.     Uses of hard drugs.
Excessive use of drugs and use of unpressurized drugs:
This is when an individuals takes in drugs without following the current perception of the doctor.
Use of hard drugs:
Hard are capable of affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or stimulating the central nervous system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at large.
          According to Agwusike (1990) drug abuse is the use of drugs above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the original prescription.
          Adi also defined drug abuse as self-treatment of physical ailment which could result from ignorance.
           Adolescents prefer an autonomous and independent life that is free from adult control, thereby engaging in various delinquent acts (drug abuse, rape, robbery, cultism and vandalism) that are dangerous to the home, community, school, and the nation. The impact of drug and stimulant abuse among adolescence has been a stigma of moral decadence, violence, thuggery, assault, madness and murder.
         Drug use is a consequence of interaction between complex circumstances as individual predisposition, personality traits, family and peer influence and the role of an individual in the society (Davies, 1994). Surveys (Wright, 1995, Ogel, Tamar, Evren and Cakmak, 2000; Gel, Tamar, Evren 2001; Read, Wood, Davidoff, McLacken and Campbell, 2002; Igwe and Ojnnaka, 2010) suggest that in both in and out of school adolescents, the socially acceptable drugs like alcohol and cigarettes are commonly used. Psychological dynamics influencing drug use identified included peer pressure, lack of self-confidence, reduction of stress and frustration, curiosity and search for excitement, experimentation and conduct problems while social factors include poverty, family problems and social acceptability of local alcoholic drinks like palm wine ( Freud, 1953: Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2008, Ndu, Olarewaju & Somoye, 2009).
          Proper drug use means taking in medication in the right dosage and continuing the medication on the advice of a professional. Drug abuse is the misuse of illegal substances. Some medication makes the user feel good, since they target certain nerve track in the brain, known as pleasurable pathways. The person may “be high” and wish to experience it again. Drug such as cocaine stimulates the path of the brain that releases dopamine, which gives the person a feeling of well being and happiness (Seraphim 2005) when such drugs become a habit, they can be destructive to the user, as the pleasurable pathway starts to run off.
            Secondary School Students are at risk population for substance-related problems (Simons, Gaher, Correia, Hansen & Christopher, 2005). The consumption of alcohol, legal and illegal drugs in the Secondary School population tends to be growing (Simons, Gaher, Correia, Hansen & Christopher, 2005; Read, Wood, Davidoff, McLacken & Campbell, 2002) and has become a source of worry in many countries. The passage from Junior Secondary School to Senior Secondary School is usually marked by an increment in frequency of opportunities for peer interaction and in importance of the role of peer norms.
                      Direct (or active) peer influences, explicitly focus on getting a person to drink. Also, peers through their own actions, may provide information about which behaviors are accepted and admired, which is considered appropriate in a given social context and therefore what behaviors are likely to lead to social acceptance and reinforcement. Each of these indirect influences set the stage for anticipated social reinforcement (Bosari and Carey, 2001).
            Drugs and stimulants abuse are responsible for the high rate of drop out in our Secondary Schools. It is realized that students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State uses drugs and stimulants. These drugs are available in drug stores and provision stores and illegal areas such as hideout and so on; where the students can easily buy them. The menace of drugs and stimulants abuse has eaten deep into the fabrics of our society; however, with effective counseling programs, the problems can be tackled through campaign against drug abuse by government and other relevant authorities. Drug control counseling centers should be established in every community, and qualified health counselors should be employed in helping drug addicts by given them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system. It is in the realization of the above that this research aims at the following objectives.
           An estimation tracking the prevalence of drug use among adolescents seems to be very important while some data indicate decrease in alcohol abuse among adolescents in recent years; it is not the case with other drugs, especially with cannabis and over the counter drugs, including these labeled prescription drugs (National Institute of Health, 2005; Wright, 1995). However, it could be basically difficult to estimate the number of Secondary School Students using drugs and perhaps a survey.

          The use of drugs for pure curatives purpose should be discouraged in schools. It has effect not only on the children but also to cure or rehabilitate the victims.
           Vandalism, Hooliganism and act of thuggery that characterize the students presently are a matter of concern to school administrators, parents and guardians.
(A) The effects of the use of these substances is not particular to the users only but also to the society at large. By way of example, Indian hemp or Cannabis is blamed for almost every deviance in adolescents especially in less developed societies.
(B) Sports administrators ascribe hooliganism and thuggery in sports to drugs abuse among spectators majority of who are adolescents.
(C) Psychiatrist believes that in Nigeria, drugs such as Indian hemp precipitate erotic behavior among our youths. 
(D) School administrator see drug addiction as one of the factors behind rebellion, indiscipline and even fallen of standard of education in our Schools. It is also responsible for the high rate of dropouts in our secondary schools.
         Specifically, this research work is indeed to find out the effect of drugs and stimulants on the academic performance and general behaviors of students.
           The main objectives of the study are to know the effects of drugs and stimulants abuse among Secondary School Students in Ikere Local Government Area. However, the specific objectives are;
(i)                To identify and examine the various types of drugs and stimulants used by Students in Ikere Local Government Area.
(ii)             To identify areas where drugs are procured.
(iii)           To identify the ways by which the drugs affect the students academically and discipline wise.
(iv)           To suggest possible solutions to the problems of drugs and stimulants abuse in Secondary Schools.
          The research will contribute to the Existing literatures on drugs and stimulants abuse at the Secondary School level. It will open parents, teachers and principal’s eyes to various ways to which their wards abuse drugs and solutions can be found to the problems.

          This research project is limited by the number of students to be used. The research is going to be centered on post primary school students. This is because primary school pupils hardly take drugs.
1.     Are secondary school students involve in the use of drugs?
2.     Are male secondary school students abuse drugs more than female secondary school students?
3.     How do you get involved in drug usage?
4.     How do you normally obtain the drug you take?
(1)   Drug: It is any substance which affects the individual mood and perception or may modify one or more of his functions.
(2)   Drug Abuse: This is a situation when drugs are frequently used without the Doctor’s prescription.
(3)   Stimulants: These are substances which have the capability to stimulate or to spur one’s mortal or body activities, are found in food, drinks like tea, coffee and other beverages.
(4)   Drug Addiction: Drug addiction is a behavioral pattern of compulsive drug. The security of its supply and a high tendency to release after withdrawal.
(5)   Psychotropic Drug: These are divided into two groups’ i.e. the hard and soft drugs.
(a)  Hard Drug: They are drugs that are liable to disable the individual as a functioning member of the society inducing severe emotional and physical dependence. Examples are cocaine, heroin, morphine, petroline e. t. c.
(b) Soft Drugs: These are drugs which produce a lesser degree of dependence than the hard drugs. There may be emotional dependence; examples are Indian hemp, alcohol and tobacco.

            This presents the review of related literature under the following sub-headings.
(1)   Concept of drug abuse.
(2)   Drugs commonly abused.
(3)   Types of drug abused and theories of drug abuse.
(4)   Causes, signs, and symptoms of drug & stimulant abuse.
(5)   The detrimental effects of substances abuse.
(6)   Marijuana smoking among secondary school students.

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