INFLUENCE OF PEER AND PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON CAREER CHOICE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ADO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of parent and peer on students career choice among secondary students. The purpose of this study is to find out how parental occupation influence career choice among secondary school students, explore the influence of parental social-economic status on career choice among secondary school students. Relevant literature were revealed.
Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population for the study consisted of both parent and students of Ado Local Government Area. One hundred respondents were sampled using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from the sampled subject. Validity of the instrument was established by given the drafted questionnaires some test export and project supervisor by their correction and suggestion. The reliability was adjudged established. The scores generated were analysed using frequency count and percentages.
The study revealed that parental occupation influenced positively the career choice of the students in that parents whose occupation was prestigious and senior attracted their children to follow in suit similar careers. Parents who also facilitate educational tours related to their careers positively influenced career choice of the children.
The study concluded that ways which could be used to influence positive career choice among students included parental encouragement based on academic ability, personality traits regardless of the social economic status as well as parental occupation. There are students who have inborn talents which may not be related to the occupation of the parents. Also students should be educated on subject combination as well as job market for their respective careers. The study made the following recommendations Schools should employ career counselors to guide students with regard to their abilities and talent. Parents should not force careers on children based on failed ambition. Universities and colleges should orient secondary school students on subject combination and career prospects. Career tours should be encouraged without regarding the academic ability of the students. Natural talents and abilities should be early identified by the school and the student be properly nurtured.
Background to the Study
The modem era has made career choice a complex science, this is coupled with the advent of the information technology, expansion post industrial revolution and increased job competition. In the ancient times apprentice was a common practice in a family that is family business were handed over to the younger generation. Thus, from a tender age a child was exposed to family business with the aim of taking over in the coming years. For instance a son of blacksmith was destined to become a blacksmith. Wattles (2009) asserts that it is common for a person to be richer as long as she or he has dues skills and knowledge this is because of industrialization and post industrialization effects.
It is important for young people to make a good career plan in the modem world this can be done by carrying out an exhaustive career research before making a final career choice (Wattles, 2009). According to Bandura (2001) each person chosen a career path is influenced by a myriad of factors such environmental features, personal beliefs, social-economic issues and educational achievement. Hewitt (2010) notes that factors that affect the type of career chosen by a student are either intrinsically of extrinsically propelled or both. Many students are fueled to make career choice by their parents, friend, and race background, level in school, science subject’s selection or even available job opportunities.
In the recent years research studies (Sebald, 2009, Gadassi & Gati, 2009) have examined parental expectations and career selection of students. There is a regular research finding that indicates that the aspirations of the adolescent is influenced by the aspirations that the parents have for them. Sebald (2009) notes that the conscious of subconscious influence of the parents determines the career path of a student extensively. This happens with regard to the careers that the students are exposed to and the implications that the parents have from such exposures. Studies of Figler & Bogler (2007) indicate that mothers are more influential than fathers with regard to career decisions and aspirations of their children.
Hakim (2012) carried out a study and found out that mothers were major influential people with whom daughters looked up to in career prospecting. The study used the questionnaire to collect data and some of the questions that were structured to the respondents were opinion related whereby respondents were required to agree or disagree with statement such as “my parents encourage me to make own personal career choice. Both the parents and the students gave similar answers. Majority of the students discussed career planning with their mothers than their fathers.
According to McQuerrey (2010), students require guidance to make the right career choice. A positive or negative parental influence shapes the career of the student. There are many students who idealize the career of their parents as they grow up. One can look up to a father who is a doctor and get influenced to pursue a similar course. Parents at times may intentionally or unintentionally push a child towards a certain career path. This happens most of the time in family owned businesses where parents expect their children to take over the company. Others apply pressure to strive for particular high profile careers. Fisher & Griggs identifies six factors that were likely to influence the career of a student;. parents, peers, teachers, ethnic gender expectations, high school academic experiences and self-efficacy and negative social events.
Career Choice is gaining new importance for employment in a new knowledge. According to Dondo (2013) most Kenyan schools do not have careers guidance programs/ departments. It is not clear what factors determine career choice decisions for students but such career choice are left to students. Dondo further asserts that in most Kenyan secondary schools the careers guidance and counseling teachers are not only ill equipped for career guidance for lack of relevant training but also have other pressing duties to attend to.
The parents and the peers are the closest people that students may confide in regarding careers. Some student’s may influence others to follow their career path. Also parents, especially those in high end careers may influence their children to follow a particular career because they have “links’ and are well conversant with the market needs. Limited studies have been done .Regarding the parents and peer influence on career choice of students in the public secondary schools. This study found it necessary to investigate the influence of parents and peers on students choice of career.
Statement of the Problem
Decisions related to career choice ought to be carefully made with the help of career coach professionals as it affects the life every students. Taking early career decisions in life helps young adolescents to derive satisfactions and fulfillment in life. This contributes positively to the society and national development. Students who fail to make the right career choice suffer from unhappiness, society disapproval and hard tasks in coping with life challenges. A study by Weinger (2000) and Hakim (2012) indicated that parents who are involved in the career development of their children impact them positively. Enlightened peers also contribute to effective career choice among students. The young ones should be guided into better career choices that match their capabilities. With such findings from other studies it is effective to examine how parents and peers influence the choice of careers. This is because there are limited studies on how the parents and peers influence career choice among public secondary students in Ado-Local Government.
Purpose of Study
The intent of this study was to investigate the influence of parent and peer on students career choice among secondary students.
Specific objectives are;
- To find out how parental occupation influence career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State
- To explore the influence of parental social-economic status on career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State.
- 3. To determine the influence of parental support on career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State.
- To determine how peers pressure influences career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State
- To identify measures to be put to influencing positive career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State
- 1. How does parental occupation influence career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State?
- 2. How does parental social-economic status influence career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State?
- To what extent does parental support influence career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State?
- 4. How does peer pressure influence career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State?
- Which measures can be put to influence positive career choice among secondary school students in Ado local government Area of Ekiti State?
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of significance to the following
To students, the findings of the study will benefit the student in understanding the importance of making a decisive non-biased career choice so as to avoid future regrets. The students will understand how both the parents and their peers may willingly or unwillingly subject them to right or wrong career choice.
The teachers will benefit from the study findings as they will understand the role played by both peers and parents in career selection. Thus, they will gain an insight on how to handle peer pressure influence as well as to advocate the importance of student autonomy in career selecting.
The findings will help parents in comprehending their role in guiding students to select life careers. The parents may understand the impact of their actions whether done consciously or unconsciously on student career choice. The findings may thus motivate parents to encourage student autonomy with clear guidance on career selection.
The Joint Admission Board is responsible for putting students in various careers in public university at times they consider the academic grades as opposed to the ability and passion of the student in career matters. The study findings may thus assist them and other education policy makers in placing students in their respective careers.
Scholars who may be interested in career related studies may find the findings beneficially with regard to reference. Study gaps may also be explored further by future scholars.
Delimitation of the Study
Career choice of secondary school students is influenced by many factors some of them include, career counselors, level of exposure among other factors. The study was delimited to; parents and influence on career selection among secondary school students in Ado Local Government Area. The study will also be delimited to five (5) public secondary school students in Ado Local Government Area.
Definition of Key Terms
Academic skills: the ability to comprehend knowledge taught in schools
Blue collar jobs: work involving manual labour
Career guidance: directing students on the right career paths
Career modeling: shaping students to fit into a specific career choice
Extracurricular activities: non-academic work which student participate while in
Parental pressure: forceful influence of parents on students’ career selection
Parental Support: parents who support the career decision of their children without influencing them
Parental Economic status: the social economic level of the parents in the society
with the ability to access all major basic needs
Peer pressure: forceful influence on students’ career selection by peers/friends