THE RELEVANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEO ON BASIC TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study was carried out to determine the impact of instructional video on basic technology student‟s academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the impact of instructional digital video disc on the academic performance of students taught basic technology. It also examine the impact of instructional video on the academic performance of male and female students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State. It consists of two research questions among which is what is the impact of instructional digital video disc on the academic performance of students taught Basic technology in junior secondary schools and two null hypotheses as a guide. Pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted. The population for the study is 22,226 junior secondary school basic technology students. One hundred and ninety three students were purposively selected for the study an intact classes were used for the two schools. This was divided into two (2) groups (A and B). Data collection phase lasted for six weeks, pre-test was given before exposing the students to the treatment variable. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer all the research questions, while t-test statistics was use to test null hypotheses one and two. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 (P=0.05). The analysis of the findings revealed among others that, instructional digital video disc has significant impact on the academic performance of basic technology students. It was also found that, there is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught basic technology with instructional digital video disc. The study revealed that, maintaining the use of instructional digital video disc in teaching by the teachers of basic technology enhanced teaching and learning thereby improving students academic performance. It was recommended among others that, there is need for curriculum planners to emphasize the importance of using instructional video when teaching basic technology by the teachers in secondary schools. Teachers in secondary schools should be encouraged by school administrators to use instructional digital video disc when teaching basic technology.
1.1 Background of the Study
Technology as people said is the bedrock of any nations, a nation without technology can never develop, the word „technology‟ has often been misconstrued to relate only to professionals, and the schools has found it difficult to give it an appropriate place in the curriculum God‟swill (2010) clearly shown that the development of technology begins from the society and end with the society and that is in every technology, the overall aim is to exploit the existing scientific and other knowledge for useful ends. In view of the central position of technology in academics and the social economic of the nation, poor performance in it can be catastrophic, not only to the students but also to the society at large. Deficiency in technology can be a great limitation to any nation and the people. Inspite of the importance of Basic technology in junior secondary schools, report from Education Research Centre (ERC) Kaduna Ministry of Education reveals that student‟s performance in basic technology has been generally poor. The result indicated that in the year 2010 only 42% passed the prescribed examination that is the education research centre examination at credit level, while 58% failed, also in the year 2011 only 39% passed at credit level while 61% failed. Ofili and Okore (2012) found that instructional video produced better learning outcome when used for teaching. The findings also revealed that male and female students performed equally better using instructional video package.
We are living in the era of science and technology where a child starts playing on a touch screen before he learns how to crawl. The power of technology has captured the
minds of this generation, this can be seen in the field of education, the technology of teaching students in this competitive scenario is the use of instructional materials like instructional video. In developed countries, teacher use instructional material and new technologies to facilitate learning, while in developing countries like Nigeria, research has it that 80% of teachers still make use of the conventional or traditional method of teaching to facilitate knowledge, this may look boring to the students after a while and the job of a teacher becomes only effective when he is able to pass knowledge to the students and the students is convinced by what is been delivered to them. (Ofili and Okoye, 2012 Pp. 18), in the same vein, Ogunleye (2000) states that the mind remembers three things, image, music and colour. The use of instructional video in the classroom has the power to help students grasp, visualize and explain difficult concepts. The key is for the teacher to use this technology effectively because some of the topics taught in basic technology may be abstract to the students, the use of instructional video will make it real and concrete. Ayogu (2000) laments that frequent use of lecture method for teaching in Nigeria does not provide for sequence of learning experiences. Ogunley (2000) reported that technology had not been effectively utilized for teaching and learning in most of the schools, therefore it has minimum impact on educational system. Educational technologists are of the view that audio and video instruction has high potential in teaching and learning situation (Abubakar, 2001; Yusuf, 1997.
The potential benefits of instructional video can not be underestimated in the contemporary world. Adams (1990) is of the opinion that video instruction is one of the
3most influential of all the media for teaching, Agusibo (2000) reported that instructional video has a strong influence on learning but most teachers seldomly use them because they are not aware of their effectiveness. This has led to the use of conventional methods of teaching which has not helped in anyway to improve student‟s performance. For teachers to be able to pass knowledge to the students effectively and meet up with their counterpart in developed countries, he needs to integrate the use of instructional video in his teaching (Kochnar 1995). 1.2 Statement of the Problem Over the years, the performance of junior secondary three students in education resource centre (ERC) examination in Kaduna states has been very poor. For instance, in the year 2010 only 42% passed the prescribed examination i.e. education resolve centre at credit level while 58% failed, in the year 2011 only 39% passed at credit level while 61% failed (Kaduna State Ministry of Education). This poor performance has been linked to many factors such as inappropriate admission policy into secondary school, negative attitude of students to the subject, inadequate coverage of syllabus on the part of the teachers, lack of adequate tools and equipment to teach basic technology in Junior secondary school. Cardenas (2008) opined that the use of instructional video to teach will help to concretize abstract thought in the minds of the students compare to the use of conventional or traditional method of teaching. Therefore, the study tends to examine the impact of instructional video on basic technology students‟ academic performance in junior secondary schools of Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Most people are very conversant with the traditional method of impacting knowledge to the students in the classroom. This practice could be boring to he students
4after a while and some of the topics taught to the students may look abstract to the students even when they are well taught by the teacher. Therefore, the absence of instructional media in teaching basic technology in junior secondary schools will not allow for optimal understanding, performance and achievement among students of junior schools in Kaduna State: Gulati (2008) opined that, there is evidence in research that instructional media can help students to learn and teachers to teach more effectively. This has revealed that the academics has moved more towards practical bases rather than being just theoretical. Cardenas (2008) states that every students can not understand everything that is verbally taught to them, so the use of media in teaching proves to be more interesting, creative and attractive. 1.3 Objectives of the Study This research investigated the impact of instructional video on basic technology students‟ academic performance in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State. Therefore, the study examined: i. The impact of instructional video on academic performance of basic technology students; ii. The impact of instructional video on the academic performance of male and female students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
This research provided answers to the following research questions: i. What is the impact of instructional video on the academic performance of students taught basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State?
ii. What is the impact of instructional video on the academic performance of male and female students taught basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State. 1.5 Null Hypotheses The following hypotheses were formulated for this research work: i. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught basic technology using instructional video teaching strategy and those taught using conventional method of teaching. ii. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students exposed to instructional video teaching strategy.
1.6 Significance of the Study
At the end of this study it is expected that the study may help to boost and add positive impact on the academic performance of the students and change students attitude to learning basic technology. Most students are used to the conventional method of teaching, they are not conversant with the use of instructional video or any other instructional materials, therefore, the outcome of this study may be an eye opener to the students and the teachers on the use of instructional materials to impact knowledge to the students. Practically, the findings of this work will help teachers to identify the modes of instructional materials that should be applied base on ability, age, level and their gender. It is also hoped that result of this study may help the curriculum planners to be able to plan well, organize well and integrate instructional digital video disc into the school curriculum. Academically, it is hoped that the findings of this study would add to the local literature in the school library. In addition, it is hoped that findings from this study
could encourage the school administrator to provide training for teachers on the use of instructional digital video disc and media that will facilitate learning. 1.7 Scope of the Study The scope of this study is the entire junior secondary school student in Kaduna State. The scope was further delimited to two Government Junior Secondary Schools in Zaria metropolis which were purposively selected for this study, they are Government junior secondary school Kwangila Zaria and Government Junior Secondary School Jama‟a. The topic metal work, hand tools was chosen as a concept taught to the students, this is due to the fact that it had been identified by teachers to be difficult topic because, it involves identifying different metal work hand tools which may not be readily available for the students to see and identify.