NEXUS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS - UNIPROJECTS

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NEXUS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS


NEXUS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS  

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Title page                                                                                                  
Approval page                                                                                         
Certification                                                                                             
Dedication                                                                                                
Acknowledgements                                                                                    
Table of contents                                                                                       
Abstract                                                                                                     
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study                                                                                     
Statement of the problem                                                                                   
Objective of the study                                                                               
Research Questions                                                                               
Research Hypotheses                                                                               
Significant of the study                                                                              
Limitation of the study                                                                              
Definition of terms                                                                                              
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual clarification                                                                                     
Concept of environmental factors                                                   
Types of environment                                                                              
Factors of environment                                                                           
Meaning of academic performances                                                          
Kinds of academic performance                                                                         
Determinant factor of academic performance                                                      
Theoretical framework                                                                              
System & system theory                                                                                   
Cause and effect theory                                                                           
System theory                                                                                           
The theory of natural selection                                                                            
Review of empirical works                                                                      
Summary of literature                                                                              
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                                       
Population of the study                                                                             
Sample and sampling techniques                                                               
Research Instrument                                                                                 
Validity of research instrument                                                                           
Reliability of research instrument                                                            
Method of data collection                                                                         
Data analysis                                                                                           
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of data                                                                                        
Testing the hypothesis                                                                               
Research question one                                                                               
Research question two                                                                               
Research question three                                                                             
Discussion of findings                                                                               
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary                                                                                                   
Conclusion                                                                                                
Recommendation                                                                                       
References                                                                                                 
Appendix                                                                                                   

    ABSTRACT
This study investigated the nexus between environmental factors and academic performance of economic students in Ondo state secondary schools.
This study was a descriptive survey research design. The sample of the study comprises of one hundred and forty students in Ondo secondary schools. Questionnaire was the research instrument used for data collection.
Chi-square test was used to test the research hypotheses in the study, it was discovered that there was significant relationship between academic performances of student and home background. The study also reveals that school environment influence students academic performances. Also, the study showed that there is significant relationship between academic performance of students and socio-economic status of parents.
The study recommended that parent without education and those with low educational qualifications should endeavor to provide essential materials that will help in improving their academic performance and also send their children to home lesson after school hours. Also government should formulate policy such as scholarship for students from low socio-economic status and soft loans for the parents to enable such students to have equal opportunity to education as children from high socio-economic status.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Environmental factor before now have not been considered, as one of the factors that have link with academic performance in secondary schools, hence, it has little or no attention in educational discourse and consideration. But over the past decade, remarkable studies have indicated a correlation between the environmental and academic performance of studies. Environment play major role in the life of every individual whether students, teachers, employers and employee. Though some people are yet to believe that environment brings about better performance. Orlu (2013) in his article “environmental influence on academic performance of secondary school student”, Udoh noted some unhealthy practices in our schools. These include sitting of schools, inadequate facilities, poor ventilation, e.t.c. most of our schools have no ventilation under these vital conditions, the health of students and teacher may be adversely affected, which will in turn reflect on student performance. Education is importance for the development of society. The more educated the people of a society are, the more civilized and well disciplined the society will be
Egunsola (2014) noted that the family, being a powerful influence on the child and its importance as a primary agent of socialization, could in no doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the child depending on the climate in the family. The more the parent is involve in the process of imparting education to their children, the more the children might excel their academic career of the society. Egunsola (2014) noted that one of the task of education is to train young people to become useful members of the society and the training begin at home in the informal way.  The home of the child is the first place he/she enters when born into the world by parents. It has been assume that academic performance of students may not only depend on the quality of schools and teachers, rather the extent of parental involvement has a vital role to play in academic performance of their kids.
Fraisal (2014) noted the socioeconomic status of has a relatively strong impact on parental involvement compare to other factor, significant studies have suggested that socioeconomic status is one of the most stable aspect of socioeconomic status because it is typically establish at the early age and tends to remain the same over time. The strength of socioeconomic and parent involvement enables the children to achieve success at school.
The focus of this study is to examine a relationship between the extent of environmental factor on student and level of their academic performance.
Environmental factor may affect student development in area such as cognitive, language, and social skills. Research finding have show that continuous improvement of environment on the student education can improve academic performance of secondary school students. Educational opportunities for the children in this present economic expression has generated a lot of problem such as high cost of school fees, cost of educational material and provision of educational facilities. As a result of insufficient fund and economic instability, the continued investment in education industry is now assuming a social status dimension. The environment is a strong indicator to the aspiration and academic performance of students. This is because, most of the students sound education is not confronted with a lot of increasing difficulties as a result of home climate of which the socioeconomic background had a stronghold
          Most of our schools have no light, insufficient facilities, and no ventilation. Under these conditions the health of students and teacher maybe adversely affected, which will in turn reflect on student performance. Therefore for student to carry his learning effectively and efficiently, it is necessary that learning takes place in conductive environment.
          Hence Orlu (2013) noted that it is pertinent to critically look at the environmental factors that can help improve them and make some recommendation because the very heart of our education mission is the goal of improving academic performance. According to Egunsola (2014), the environment is the immediate surrounding in which the pupils find themselves, students have shown that environmental factors to a large extent affect both the physical and psychological potential of an individuals, this lead to the condition that many students failed to develop the potentials due to inadequate environmental stimulation. However there are some environmental factors which have contributed to this poor performance of student, which are home background, inadequate school facilities, mis-use of technology such as internet and school climate such as teacher- student relationship e.t.c. given this situation, the problem of this study therefore is to find out really if these are the main environmental factors that affect the academic performance of secondary schools students in ondo state.
Statement of the Problem
          Good education does not happen by chance. It is the product of effective teaching and learning coupled with the effort of the teacher, the school authorities. However, some research work have revealed that the performance of students is a joint effort of both the school authorities and of the parents in different environments.
          This call for further research  to find out;
1.     The nexus between environmental factors and academic performance of economic students in Ondo state secondary schools.
2.     The school environmental influence on student academic performance  in Ondo state secondary schools.
3.     What relationship had socio-economic status on the academic performance of economics student in Ondo state secondary schools.
          These  has recently became a cause for serious concern. It has been observed by the researcher that some students cannot read very well. Others attend as many as three schools within their primary and secondary school career due to constant failures. Private school proprietors tend to boost the population of their schools by admitting students without a testimonial or statement of result and award fictitious results to ensure the promotion of such students to the next class.
Objectives of the study
The major objective of this study is to investigate the nexus between environmental factors and academic performance of economics students in Ondo state secondary schools. It was specifically designed to;
(1)      Determine weather home background is responsible for high academic performance of economic students.
(2)      Examine how school environment influence students academic performance.
(3)      Determine if there is any significant relationship between socio-economic status and academic performance of economic students.
Research Questions
 In the course of this research, the following questions were used as guild;
1.     Determine whether home background is responsible for high the academic performance of economic students
2.     Examine how school environment influence students academic performance.
3.     Determine if there is any significant relationship between socio-economic status and academic performance of economics students.
Research Hypotheses
 Considering the research questions, the below hypothesis are formulated .
1.     There is no significant relationship between the academic performances of students and home background
2.     School environment does not influence student academic performances.
3.     There is no significant relationship between academic performance of economic students and socio-economic status of parents.
Significant of the Study
          The research student is important because it will enable students to be aware of the factors that can lead to their poor academic performance. The research study discuss the nexus between environmental factor and academic performance of economic student, so that, they can present or minimize those factors, by telling their parents the effect of marital instability on their academic performance. It will also help the teachers to give proper education to student on the effect of environmental factor on their academic performance. Student are the future builder of our nation; therefore if they are not given proper academic performance, they will continue to perform poorly and as a result of the goals of education as powerful tool for a nation will not be achieved. And again, parents will be aware that they have greater role to play for high academic performance of their children.
          The beneficiary of this research are students, parent, teacher, school authorities, government, principals, educational and curriculum planners.
Limitation of the Study
The limitation of the study is necessitated by the resources within the disposal of the researcher. These limited resources include lack of accurate information from students finance, time. The research is limited to Ondo state.

Definition of Terms.
          Nexus: a form of connection or means of connection between things like environmental factor and academic performance.
Home background: is the type of family, social position or culture that a student comes from.
Social economic status: refers to financial position of the family, in which a student is born into.
          Performances: the act of performing, carrying into execution or action; accomplishment, achievement, or how well or badly someone do something. The performance is in two forms, it can be good or bad performance.
 Environmental factors: this is an identifiable element in the physical, cultural, demographic, economic, political, regulatory, or survival, operation, and growth of an academic performance.
 School environment: a schools physical environment includes then school building and the surrounding.
Academic performance: knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by text scores.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter discuses the conceptual issues, theoretical issues, review of empirical studies and summary of literature
Conceptual Clarification
Concept of environmental factors