COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SS3 STUDENTS IN BOARDING AND DAY STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
1.1 Background to the Study
Globally educating a nation remains the most vital strategy for the development of the society throughout the developing world (Aikamanand Unterhatter, 2005). Also, the National Policy on education (2004) stated that, education is an instrument “per excellent for effecting national development”. Many studies on human capital development concur that it is the human resources of a nation and its capital or natural resources that ultimately determines the pace of its economic and social development. The principal institutional mechanism for developing human resources is mainly from secondary and tertiary training (Nsubuga, 2003). Since education is an investment, there is significant positive correlation between education and economic-social productivity. When people are educated their standard of living are likely to improve, since they are empowered to access productive ventures, which will ultimately lead on an improvement in their livelihood. The role of education therefore, is not just to impact knowledge and skills that enables the beneficiaries to function as economic and social change agent in the society but to impart values, ideas, attitudes, and aspirations important for national development.
The straight forward linkage in education is through the improvement of labor skill, which in turn increases opportunities for well-paid productive employment. This then might enable the citizens of any nation to fully exploit the potentials positively.
In Nigeria formal education is based on six years primary and six years secondary education, vocational technical and academic courses are offered through post primary education and training institution. The educational system particularly secondary education is still centrally managed by teaching service commission (TSC) while primary education is managed by state Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB). After the introduction of the policy of Universal Primary Education (UPE), the enrolment in primary school increase substantially, and the selection of learners into secondary school is becoming competitive. In addition the competiveness, especially in high values added and knowledge base sectors of the economy depends on knowledge, skill, value and completeness associated with abstract reasoning, analysis, language and communication skill and application of science and technology through secondary education schooling (Lewin, 2006).
However in Nigeria there are so many factors influencing the academic performance of students in secondary schools in order to acquire the required skill that will make them useful for themselves, the society they belong to and the nation at large. Some of the factors are home environment, that is, the socio-economic status of the parent and the area of residents; school factors which includes teachers’ character, leadership style, teaching/ learning facilities, students’ character, school environment and the school programs. The activities the students engage in after classroom learning also have great influence on students’ academic performance. Most students often battle with this factors and it is sometimes make improvement in academics performance a more dream for some while few students achieve it. This is obvious when their performance are been measure through the formative and summative education test conduct by class teachers or subject teachers, to evaluate students mastery of course content and provide grade for students and parents state test are design primarily to measure progress at the school or school districts level. In particular, graduation test are used to determine whether a student’s has maser the minimum content and competencies required to receive a high school diploma, an example of graduating test is West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Education Council (NECO).
To help the students improve their academic performance, our educational system in Nigeria has witness active participation by the stake holders in education which includes: The government, non-governmental agencies, communities, and individuals (parent and guardians). The secondary school was plan by the stake holders in such a way that it will be easy for the student to learn and achieve his goals and objectives. The systems, each of this system has its importance and benefits which can help the students to achieve the broad aims of secondary school as stated in the national policy on education (2004) which is to prepare the individual for useful living within the society and higher education.
Boarding school is a school where all or some students study and live during school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers and or administrators, they are usually called boarder.
Day students are those students that attend school for about 8 hours a day and return to their parent each day, they are usually called day boys and boarding while some schools practice both day and boarding while some specify on one that is day or boarding.
For proper analysis of students’ performance in day and boarding school this research work comparative analysis on academic performance of day and boarding students in secondary schools will focus on schools that practice both day and boarding so that we can determines it there is any difference in their performance despite learning under the same learning conditions.
Furthermore, it will consider the benefit of one over the other and how it has contributed to increase in performance of students in secondary school. This will be based on post graduating evaluation test i.e. WAEC to see the performance of day and boarding students in it, thereby determines if there is any differences.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The performance of SS3 students in secondary school is low and findings has shown that there are lot of factors contributing to the low performance, some of the major factor is the child environment that is where he stays and interact, this can either have positive or negative effect on the child achieving the set goals and objectives of the educational system. Base on this, this research work will focus on how this problem can be solved by considering how been a boarding or day SS3 students can affect the academic performance of the students.
Hence this research work will make a comprehensive analysis of the academic performance of day and boarding students in Ekiti State.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
This study is aimed at carrying out a comparative analysis on the academic performance of SS3 students in boarding and day students in secondary schools. Specifically, the objective is to:
- find out how been a boarding or day student can improve performance of students in external examination;
- examine the factors that contribute to academic achievement or otherwise of been a boarding or day student;
iii. identify the advantages of each and look at areas of improvement.
1.4 Research Questions
- Will there be significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 students in boarding and day schools?
- Will there be any significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 students in boarding and day in single sex schools?
- Will there be any significant difference between the academic performance of boarding and day students in mixed school?
- Will there be any significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 students in boarding and day schools in Ikere Ekiti?
- Will there be any significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 student in boarding and day schools in 2009, 2010 and 2011.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 day and boarding students.
- HO:There is no significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 day and boarding students in single sex schools.
- HO: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 day and boarding students in mixed schools.
- HO: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 day and boarding students in Ikere Ekiti.
- HO: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of SS3 day and boarding students in 2009, 2010 and 2011.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of SS3 students’ academic performance should not be over emphasized in the accomplishment of educational goals and objectives which is for the benefit of the individual and the nation at large.
The findings in this work will help us to determine how been a day student or boarder affect the performance of SS3 students.It will also help parents to know how they can improve the academic performance of their children. Policy makers too will also see ways they can put in place policies that can enhance performance of students.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study is based on making comparative analysis of academic performance of SS3 student in boarding and day secondary schools.
The area where the study will be carried out is Ikere Local Government, Ekiti States. A school that practices both day and boarding will be selected from Ikere Ekiti.Three (3) public secondary schools will be selected.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Secondary School: This is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage.
Boarding school: Boarding school is a school where some or all the students study and live during the school year with their fellow students and possibly teaches and or administrators. They return home during break or weekends.
Day school: It is a school where the students resume in the morning and leave at a particular time each day e.g. (8.00am – 2.00pm) the students are called day boys or day girl. They spent most of their childhood and adolescent years with their parents.