PREVALENCE OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG STUDENTS OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS - UNIPROJECTS

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PREVALENCE OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG STUDENTS OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS



PREVALENCE OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG STUDENTS OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
 The degree of indiscipline in schools nowadays has become worrisome that the norms and values of society has been battered. The school as an institution to transform and pass on the culture and value of society from one generation to another has now been filled with different kind of indiscipline acts among the students which include violence, truancy, prostitution, cultism, drug abuse just to mention a few. The existence and extent of drug abuse has been identified as one of the greatest problem in learning institutions (Faturoti, 2016). This affects various aspects of learning such as student’s discipline and interest in learning hence affecting academic performance particularly among secondary school students.
A drug may be defined as any illicit substance that when swallowed, smoked, sniffed or injected influences the function and operation of the body system. It is any substance other than food, which by its chemical nature affects the structure and function of a living organism. Lewinsohn (2007) defined a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning of people. Joseph (2016) defied a drug as chemicals tap into the brain communication system and disrupt the way nerve cells normally send, receive and process information.
Drug abuse is the use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically (Kuria, 2010). The use of alcohol, tobacco and other substances constitutes one of the most important risk–taking behaviour among adolescents and young adults in secondary schools (Oshodi, Aina & Onajole, 2010). Despite worldwide concern and education about psychoactive drugs, many adolescents have limited awareness of their adverse consequences. Most often the adolescents and young adult individuals start by experimenting with the so called “gateways drugs” such as tobacco, alcohol and marijuana.
Drug abuse can lead to a decline in the overall academic performance of a school. As a result schools may face declining retention rates and poor reputation. Schools with reputation of ‘drug abuse’ may attract students who engage in high-risk behaviors and may discourage prospective students who are looking for an academically vigorous institution (Muusya, 2015). Drug abuse remains a major health challenge all over the world (UNODC, 2005). Haladu (2003) describes drug abuse as excessive and persistent self-administration of a drug without regard to medically or culturally acceptable patterns. Odejide (2010) posited that a drug is said to be abused when its use is not pharmacologically necessary especially when it’s used in face of legal prohibition or when socially acceptable beverage is used excessively. Drug abuse may lead to organized crimes and disruption of normal academic programmes.
Oshikoya and Alli (2006) identified dependence and addiction as one of the major consequence of drug abuse, characterized by compulsive drug craving seeking behaviours even in the face of negative consequences. Maithya (2009) revealed that the common reasons for drug abuse amongst secondary school students are mostly out of curiosity and acceptance by friends (peer pressure). Nyki (2015) indicated that cannabis abusers are mostly young Nigerian men, including students, who have been deprived of parental supervision and warmth from infancy. Awoyinfa (2012) argued that the very high rate of drug abuse among students in secondary in Nigeria began from their childhood or early adolescence. At times youth, including students, who hawk for their parents, are themselves exposed to drug abuse. Despite the effort of many concerned bodies to curb this menace, many organizations and individuals still present these drugs as though they are harmless which often lure irrational secondary school students into drugs abuse.
Drug abuse is a matter of great concern to educational stakeholders, medical practitioners, sociologists, religious leaders, counselors and parents. It is a national and international sensitive challenge that needs urgent attention due to the alarming rate of involvement of the youth. Ajake, Isangedihi and Bisong (2009) pointed out that drug abuse constitute social ills that have been age-long problems in the secondary school system. Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010) opined that drug abuse has been identified as a serious constraint to effective teaching and learning process in the Nigerian educational system. Egbochuku and Akerele (2007) perceived stimulants, which are substances that cause an increase in the activity of an organ in the body, as chemicals that excite certain activities of the central nervous system.
          Oshodi, Aina and Onajole (2010) reported that despite worldwide concern and education about psychoactive substances, many adolescents have limited awareness of their adverse consequences. Social pressure and peer group influence are noted to be primary reasons for substance misuse. Aina and Olorunsola (2008) lamented that a substantial percentage of the national budgetary allocation is utilized for treatment and rehabilitation of people with drug use problems in Nigeria. In an attempt to control sleep or energise themselves, most adolescents and young ones start experimenting with tobacco, alcohol, ephedrine and other caffeinated substances such as Nescafe and red bull. Some of the reasons for the drug abuse among secondary school students include reducing pain, anxiety and tension, ignorance and misinformation, parental background, urge to commit crimes, peer group influence, isolation and loneliness. Drug abuse has become a threat to the lives and success of the youth. This is evidently a source of sorrow to the parents, guardians and relatives. It is also a big challenge to the whole nation.
Statement of the problem
Drug abuse is a social ill that is of public health importance. It is estimated that the average annual retail cost of psychotropic substances in Nigeria is more than USD $15,000, while alcoholic beverages, aside from spirit, generate more than USD $30,000 from sales to a consumer population of about 30 to 35 million people (Onoja, 2010). The alarming incidence of drug abuse among secondary school students as a contributory factor in the ugly confrontation between school administrators and students; parental use of substances has been implicated as a risk factor for drug abuse by secondary school students. There seem to be an increasing prevalence of drug abuse amongst secondary school students despite the efforts of concerned bodies to curb this menace. It was observed by the researcher that parents, peer groups and society at large contribute to the alarming rate of drug. And if the problems persist the effects will be too enormous to withstand for the parent, teachers, education planner, government at all level, education agency and students themselves. Thus, the researcher is stimulated to investigate the prevalence of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
Purpose of the study
          The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State. Specifically this is designed to:
1.     find out the commonly abused drug among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
2.     find out the extent of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
3.     find out if age influence rate of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
4.     find out if socio-economic of parent influence rate of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
5.     find out the difference  in the rate of drug abuse between male and female students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
Significance of the study
The findings of this study will be useful to the students, teachers, school administrators, government, society and curriculum planners.
This result of findings of this study will help all students to appreciate the need to abstain from taking drugs that are not being prescribed by the professional medical practitioners and enhance good healthy body among students.  Also, the study will further help to reduce the indiscriminate use of drug and abuse among secondary school students. The result of this study will serve as medium of orientation to the students in reducing the growing rate of drug abuse among secondary school students in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
The finding of this study will help the teachers to develop strategies and methods to monitor students within the school environment so as to prevent the occurrence of drug abuse around the school environment.
This study will create awareness for the government at all level and local community of the factors hindering the effectiveness of the approaches which attempt to curb drug abuse and, where possible, create opportunities to eradicate the problem.
The findings of the study will help the school administrators in the development of strategies that will reduce and combat the menace of drug abuse among the secondary school students.
Scope of the study
The study will cover the senior secondary school students within Akure South local government area of Ondo State on the prevalence of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State. The research will involve the independent variable of prevalence of drug abuse which include commonly abused drug, extent of drug abuse, age influence on the rate of drug abuse, socio-economic of parent and gender difference while the dependent variable will be secondary school students. The research instrument for the study will be a self developed questionnaire and two (2) research assistants who will be trained by the researcher will be used in administering. The analysis of the data will be done using descriptive statistics of frequency counts with percentage to analyse the bio-data of the respondents and inferential statistics of chi-square (x2) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) will be used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
Research questions
          The following research questions will guide this study:
1.     What are the commonly abused drugs among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State?
2.     To what extent is the drug abused among students of secondary schools?
3.     Does age influence rate of drug abuse among secondary schools students?
4.     Does socio-economic of parent influence rate of drug abuse among students in secondary schools?
5.     Does gender creates difference in the rate of drug abuse among secondary school students?
Hypotheses
          The following hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of significance:
1.     There will be no significant difference commonly abused drugs among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
2.     There will be no significant difference on the extent of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
3.     The age will not significantly influence rate of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
4.     The parent socio-economic status will not significantly influence the rate of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.
5.     The gender would not create significant difference in the rate of drug abuse among students of secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State.


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter is concerned with the review of relevant literatures on the prevalence of drug abuse among students of some selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State. This review will be carried out under the following headings;
·        Conceptual framework
·        Theoretical framework
·        Review of related empirical studies
Concept of drug
          Concept of drug abuse
Commonly abused drugs among students of secondary school
Extent of drug abuse among secondary school students
Age in relation to the rate of drug abuse among secondary school students
Socio-economic status of parent as predictor of rate of drug abuse among secondary school students
Gender difference in the rate of drug abuse among secondary school students
Implications of drug abuse on the academic achievement of secondary school students
Role of school health programme in reducing the rate of drug abuse
·        Summary of literature review