THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND LEARNING OUTCOME IN MATHEMATICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
Background to the study
Mathematics has the ability to confuse, frighten, and frustrate learners of all ages. If a child has a negative experience in mathematics, that experience has the ability to affect his/her attitude toward mathematics as an adult.
According to Okereke  stated that mathematics is the science of things that have a pattern of regularity and logical order and finding and exploring the regularity. Mathematics is the foundation of science and technology and the functional role of mathematics to science and technology is multifarious, that no area of science, technology and business enterprise escapes its application. The importance of mathematics in the world cannot be over-emphasized. There is a general consensus among educators, that mathematics is an important and useful subject for development in every country. The use of mathematics has been with man even before the introduction of formal education; Sambo .
Besides its importance it is observed that mathematics is one of the most poorly taught, widely hated and abysmally understood subject in elementary schools. Students particularly girls run away from the subject. He further attributed students’ poor performance to factors such as the society view that mathematics is difficult, shortage of qualified teachers, lack of mathematics laboratory and lack of attractiveness and novelty in teaching method. The obvious question is whether students’ failure to learn mathematics can be ascribed to problems of curriculum, problem of teaching, or the student, or perhaps the combination of these; Carnine . There are many possible reasons as to why students fail in
mathematics. But most of the reasons are related to curriculum and methods of teaching rather than the students’ lack of capacity to learn; Jones, Wilson & Bhaswani .Various factors have been adduced for poor performance of students in mathematics. The interest of students in mathematics have been related to the volume of work completed, students task orientation and skill acquisition, students personality, shortage of qualified mathematics teachers, poor facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching Odogwu .
In making instruction interesting in learning mathematics, there is need to use methods/strategies and material/media which will make the learning of mathematics, active, investigative and adventurous as much as possible. Such methods also must be ones that take into account, learner’s differences and attitudes towards mathematics as a subject. Examples could be the use of programmed learning texts, use of concrete materials and other instructional devices, which are manipulated.To enhance self-esteem of learners, which will in turn improve attitude of such pupils, it is recommended that varying activities (game activities), which has been designed to contain mathematics problems ranging from easy to very difficult, should be used. This would go a long way to motivate such pupils towards further learning. When an activity is designed with its central feature being an admired situation, experience or individual, it would go a long way in motivating, pupils to learn mathematics. For example, in teaching addition at the primary school level, you could centre learning activities around foods like snacks (for example, I got two sweets from mummy and four from daddy how many sweet do I have and so on). All these suggestions would help to motivate learners towards learning. However, one strategy, which has been observed to bring about motivation of learners to learn mathematics, is the use of game based strategy; Aremu .
Moreover, individual characteristics such as intelligence, cognitive styles, and personality play an important role in learning and instruction as does the context of learning. Other research findings have shown that individual students’ characteristics variables such as motivational orientations, self-esteem and learning approaches are important factors influencing academic achievements. In the effort to improve students’ cognition and affective outcomes in mathematics and school learning, mathematics educators have continued to search for variables (personal and environmental) that could be manipulated in favour of academic gains. Of all the personal and psychological variables that have attracted researchers in this area of educational achievement, motivation seems to be gaining more popularity and leading other variables; Aire & Tella The issue of motivating learners is seen as an important aspect of effective learning. In fact psychologists believe that motivation is a necessary ingredient for learning; Biehler and Snowman . They believe that satisfactory school learning is unlikely to take place in the absence of sufficient motivation to learn; Fontana . These issues of motivation of students in education and the impact on academic performance are considered as an important aspect of effective learning. However, a learner’s reaction to education determines the extent to which he or she will go in education. The impact of motivation on education of mathematics of a child cannot be undermined. That is why Hall  believes that there is a need to motivate pupils so as to arouse and sustain their interest in learning mathematics. “Motivation raises question on why people behave in the way they do it”. An individual could therefore, from psychologists’ point of view, be seen as politically, socially and academically motivated depending on the motive behind his or her activities. Hence, this study intends to investigate the impact of motivation on student’s academic achievement in mathematics.
Statement of the Problem
It is generally assumed that motivation influences people’s attitude and performance at work. Teacher motivation is directly linked to the instructors’ desire to take part in the pedagogical process and interest in sharing their knowledge with the students. It determines their involvement or no-involvement in the teaching activities. Teachers put educational philosophy and objective into the knowledge they transfer to their students.
Perhaps, it is in realization of the importance of mathematics that it is made compulsory at primary and secondary levels of education besides admission into higher institutions and professional institutions. In Nigeria, students poor performance in mathematics have been attributed to lack of motivation,poor teaching methods, unqualified and inexperienced teachers, poor student attitude toward mathematics, poor learning environment and gender effect. It is against this background that the researchersinvestigate the role of motivation on student’s academic achievement in secondary school mathematics.
Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to find out the impact of motivation on students academic performance and learning outcome in mathematics among secondary school students in Lagos state. A case study of Ajeromi Local Government Area
The study intends to achieve the following objectives:
1. To determine the effect of motivation on academic performance of male and female students in mathematics.
2. To compare the academic performance of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics achievement test.
3. To determine if teacher motivation affect or influence student academic performance
4. To determine if principal leadership style affect or influence student academic performance
1.3 Research Questions
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions were raised in this study:
1. Is there any difference in the impact of motivation on academic performance of male and female students in mathematics?
2. Is there any difference in the academic performance of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics?
3. Does teacher motivation affect or influence student academic performance?
4. To what extent does principal leadership style affect or influence student academic performance
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the impact of motivation on academic performance of male and female students in mathematics.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics achievement test.
Scope Of The Study
This study will be carried out in some selected senior secondary school in Ajeromi Ifelodun local government area of Lagos state, the study will cover five selected secondary schools in the local government area.
Significant Of The Study
The result of this study will help all stake holders in education i.e (Parents, Teachers, Society, Student and Government) to pay their respective roles in relation to the issue of motivation.
The study will help government being the major employers of teacher are adequately and appropriately motivated to boost their performance.
Government i.e the educational administrator will be able to improve the teaching profession by providing basic facilities for school to encourage teachers in a conductive atmosphere.
The study will bring about elevation of the failing standard of education to encourage graduates, under graduates and student to have the intention of coming into the teaching profession not to feel with drawn to wards teaching as efforts are already course for an over view of teachers motivation.
The study will also help the parents and the society to contribute their quota as regards the issue of teacher’s motivation. This should build up the interest of parent and society towards making deliberate effort to encourage teachers in cash and kind, through the study, the society will be made better since the quality of education depends to a large extent on the quality of the teachers.
Teachers are nation builders, when they are motivated, they gladly give their best, putting their welfare into consideration will enhance their job performance.
Definition Of Terms
v Motivation:- It is the state that energizes, activities, moves, direct or channel behaviour towards a defined goal.
v Teacher Motivation:-This is anything done to make teacher happy, satisfy, dedicated and committed in such a way that they bring out their best at work.
v Intrinsic Needs:-Those are needs or factors naturally belonging to somebody. It is an interal motivator that stirs up an individual toward, self actualization
v Extrinsic Needs:- These are not naturally belonging to somebody. They are motivators that exist outside then that within them. These include monetary incentives and commendation.
v Job Satisfaction:-:- This is the efficiency at which a teacher does his job. It is out standing action displayed by the teacher in the course of carrying out an assigned task.
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