THE EFFECTS OF PARENTS – TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL - UNIPROJECTS

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THE EFFECTS OF PARENTS – TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL



THE EFFECTS OF PARENTS – TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL  

ABSTRACT
This study examined the Parental attitudes and child’s behavior a case study of selected Primary Schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. One hundred pupils (100) were used in the research and data was collected through questionnaire. The questionnaire were analysed and interpreted using simple percentages. Based on the result of the research work, it was revealed that the parental attitude contributes to the growth or development of the child, the way and manner which children are being brought up at home and the attitude of the parent toward the child determine the child’s behavioural outcomes on the basis of the findings, it is recommended that parent should serve as a good role model and great motivator by showing good example for their children to follow, parent should have interest in the behavioural attitude of their children. lastly, parent should try as much as possible to take care of their children and provide for their educational needs
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title                                                                                       Page No
Title page                                                                                           
Certification                                                                                     
Dedication                                                                                        
Acknowledgement                                                                          
Abstract                                                                                           
Table of contents                                                                          
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study                                                               
Statement of the Problem                                                               
Purpose of the Study                                                                      
Significance of the Study                                                               
Limitation of the Study                                                                  
Research Question                                                                          
Definition of Terms                                                                        
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual of Attitudes and Behavior                                       
Parental Love that Determine Child’s Behavior                        
The Method of Parental Love: Encouragement                                                              
and Limitation                                                                                   
The Depth and Stability of Parental Love                                               
Parental Attitudes towards Reading                                             
Parental Behaviour and Reading                                                  
The Purpose of Parental Love: How should be                                           
 Children Raised                                                                         
Parental Versatile Roles                                                                 
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                              
Population of the Study                                                                 
Sample and Sampling Technique                                               
Research Instrument                                                                                  
Validation of the Instrument                                                         
Reliability of the Instrument                                                         
Method of Administration of Instrument                                    
Method of Data Analysis                                                               
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Results                                                                                              
Discussion                                                                                        
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                                                                          
Conclusion                                                                                      
Recommendation                                                                            
REFERENCES
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
            Primary school education is widely accepted as the first level of education system where formal education begins. It is seen as very important because it ensures that children acquire basic literacy skills and that they are taught to think critically. It is available to all citizens in every country of the world. This is the reason for the huge investment and involvement of governments of all countries of the world in its administration and processes. In Nigeria, primary education is recognised as the education given to children starting from the age of 6 years to 11 years plus. It runs for a period of six years, and its objectives include developing basic literacy, numeracy, communication skills, adaptation to changing environment and transmission of the culture of the people to younger generations. It should be noted that to fully realise the goals and objectives of this important level of education, efforts and resources must be pulled together by all concerned stakeholders who include government, relevant and concerned organisations as well as parents especially. It is for this reason that the Federal Republic of Nigeria stated in National Policy on Education (2004) that the involvement of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals, parents inclusive, is welcomed.
Parental involvement in public schools has been documented as academically beneficial by educational researchers, supported politically, and valued by many educators and individuals in the general public (Gonzalez-DeHass and Willems, 2003). Hung (2007) and Mwaikimu (2012) both agreed that parental involvement is a way of making the educational system more self-governing, developing more power at the local level and allowing for greater accountability by schools to the society. Moreover, they acknowledged that in general, society needs to increase its level of educational involvement, and that this starts with the support by the parents. Dodge et al. (2002) have noted that parents and family members have much to offer the school in terms of support, insights and skills.
Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million, 2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).
The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the educational outcome of students. The number of PTA has been increasing drastically. Parent Teacher Association can be identified as very important variable that have potential directly or indirectly on student academic achievement (Olatoye and Ogunkola, 2008).
Looking at the quality of products that Nigeria’s primary schools turn out, it appears the quality of education received by the students is low in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development there-by making the primary school system ineffective. Omoregie, (2006) lamented that the primary education which is the pivot of the entire educational system in Nigeria is fast loosing relevance, as it is not fulfilling the national objectives as set down in the National policy of education.
The academic performance of primary school pupils could be attributed to several factors but this study is restricted to the effect of parent – teachers association (P.T.A) on educational development of primary school. It has been noticed is some areas that schools head teacher do not involve the parents in the administration of the schools for fear of being criticized. It appears in some cases, parents are no longer allowed to participate in school programmes and parents are no allowed to visit their children in school regularly to how they fare. All these  tend  to  make  the  parents  handicapped  in  assisting the  school  in  the  provision  of  qualitative  education  to  its students.
According to Cotton and Wikelund (2001), many benefits are accrued for the school and for parents themselves when parents become involved in their children’s school activities. They maintained that, school personnel benefit from the improved report that generally accompanies increased parents’ involvement.
This rapport is often expressed in parents’ increased willingness to support school with their labour and resources furing fund-raising activities or special projects. Beside,  Hicks and Sammons (1992) and Hillman and Mortimore (1995) had showed in their various studies that parental presence in the school activities and participation in committees’ event and other activities all had positive effects on achievement
Adewumi (2002) also submitted that active parent involvement and positive home-school-community relations have been shown to positively influence effective schooling and students’ achievement. Ajayi (1999) also posited that, effective administration of schools could be hampered where the PTA is not performing its roles as expected. Also, Ajayi (2008) posited that, the school and the community are interdependent and interrelated and for the relationship between them to be meaningful, worthwhile and productive they must be willing to assist each other to achieve their respective goals in atmosphere of love, mutual trust and cooperation
Statement of the Problem
Primary education has been widely accepted as the first and most important level of education. It is for its importance that governments all over the world as well as Nigerian government invest massively in it. This is why the Nigerian government also welcomes the involvement of private individuals, organisations and most especially parents in its administration and implementation. Despite this, it seems that many things are wrong with primary school education in Nigeria in the areas of availability of instructional materials, curriculum implementation and administration. This could be because parents of primary school children are not actively involved in primary education. It is based on this background that this study investigated the effects of Parents – Teachers Association (P.T.A) on educational development of primary schools. Parents’ involvement in primary school education in the areas of provision of instructional materials, curriculum implementation and administration. An examination of involvement of parents of public primary school education in these areas would lead to valuable suggestions and proposition of practical steps that could be taken to improve primary education in Nigeria.
Purpose of the Study
The purposes of this study are:
1.       To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in achieving its goals.
2.       To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic performance of students in the primary school.
3.      To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit the parents’ involvement in the academic process of students in primary school
4.      To investigate the extent of parents’ involvement in school administration and its effect on the development of primary schools students.
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.
In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.
Scope of the Study
This research work focuses on the effects of Parents - Teachers Association on educational development of primary schools in some selected primary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This research work covers all public primary schools students in the aforementioned Local Government Area. However, four public primary schools will be used as case study.
Limitation of the Study
          Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public primary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State as the title suggest.
Research Questions
1.       Are there any difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?
2.       To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affect their performance in primary school?
3.      What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of students in primary school?
4.      To what extent does parents’ involvement in school administration affect the development of primary school students?
Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationally defined below;
Government: A group of people governing a state or the national at large
            Teacher: A person who teaches, especially in a school
            Parent: A father or mother of children
            Schools: Is an institution for education acquiring
Parent-Teachers Association (P.T.A): An organization, which attempts to bring parent and teacher together in the interest of the wards