THE EFFECT OF VISUAL AIDS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY - UNIPROJECTS

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THE EFFECT OF VISUAL AIDS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY



THE EFFECT OF VISUAL AIDS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY 

TABLE OF CONTENT
                                                                                 Page No
Title page…………………………………..                           
Approval page ……………………………..                          
Certification         ……………………………….                         
Dedication…………………………………                         
Acknowledgement         …………………………                     
Table of content……………………………                                 
Abstract ……………………………………                           
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction                                            
Background to the study …………………..                                  
Statement of the study …………………….                                 
Purpose of the study ………………………                                  
Significance of the study…………………                          
Research questions ……………………….                     
Research hypothesis ……………………...                        
Delimitation of the Study ………………...                   
Definition of terms         ……………………….                    
CHAPTER TWO: Review of related literature                             
Definition of Visual Aids ……………….                     
Teaching with Visual Aids ……………...                     
Classification of Teaching Aids        …………                      
The role of Teacher in the Use of Visual Aids…          
Advantages of the Use of Visual Aids …..                   
Summary of the Review Literature………                          
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology
Research Design ………………………                              
Population and Sampling Techniques…                             
Research Procedure ……………………                       
Validation of the Research Instrument...                        
Method of Data Analysis……………..                         
CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
Data Analysis…………………………                           
Discussion of Findings ………………..                              
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                 
Summary ……………………………..                               
Conclusion……………………………                          
Recommendations ……………………                               
REFERENCES …………………….                                         
APPENDIX I ……………………….                                     
APPENDIX II ………………………                                                            
  
ABSTRACT
This study focused on the effect of visual aids on the academic performance of senior secondary school students’ in Biology in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Three research questions were raised for the purpose of effectively carrying out the study, questionnaires were structured to elicit information from students in two schools from the aforementioned local government. 30 students were randomly selected from the two schools fifteen from each schools divided into group A and B, group A were taught with varieties of visual aids necessary for th topic while in case of group B no teaching aids was used. It was revealed from the analysis that students’ from group A performed better than students’ from group B. It was thus further recommended by the researcher that it is necessary for government and school authorities to provide adequate funds for the acquisition and preservation of visual aids. Also, the use of “chalk- talk” method in teaching biology should be fairly minimized and give room for the use of essential modern visual aids as it is in the advance countries at this computer age.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Education, according to Coombs (1970) consists of two components. He classified these two components into inputs and outputs. According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined.
The place of science in the development and fuifillment of the needs of any country is not in doubt. For instance, major advances in science and technology have helped nation to promote efficiency. Self reliance and the overall wellbeing of humanity through inventions/ innovations in telecommunication, transportation, health, agriculture etc. (Oyediji, 2010). Simpson and Anderson (2016) had put the picture on how science affects our lives in this form.
          Science affects every aspect of our lives: what we eat and what we wear, what we so as work, what we do as play, what we think and what we feel, even how we are born and how we die. Few moments in our lives are untouched by the products and processes of science.
Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1995) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (2008) also added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, inadequacy of books as well as arouse students interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves.
In Nigeria, the National policy on Education (FRN, 2004) clearly spells out the objectives of science teaching from pre-primary to the tertiary level. Specifically, at the secondary level it entails equipping students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology.
The global change in science curriculum arising from knowledge explosion and new wave in science and technological development demands for qualitative science teaching. According to Oludipe and Lasis (2006) the change calls for the provision and utilization of resources which tend to enhance the effective teaching and learning of science. Resources materials are all the materials, objects and aids that can be used in helping children to learn. Achimagu (2006) classified resource materials into classroom/laboratories equipment/chemicals and textual/audio visual materials. For the purpose of this work, resources for science teaching are classified into material and human resources. Human resources refer to science teachers and laboratory attendants. While material resources play an integral role in the teaching and learning of science as they serve to stimulate thinking, make learning enjoyable, interesting, exciting and concrete.
          Jekayinfa (2001) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching biology i.e. pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models.
Gbamanja (2003) opined that the use of materials in teaching could make learning more practical, applicable and meaningful. Citing Hoban (1999), he went further to stress the fact that resource materials are things that;
1.     supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless word responses of pupils
2.     Make learning more permanent.
3.      Have a high degree of interest for the learner.
4.      Offer a reality of experience which stimulates self-activity on the part of pupils.
5.      Develop a continuity of thought.
6.      Contribute to growth of meaning and, hence to vocabulary development.
7.     Provide experiences not easily obtained through other materials and contribute to the efficiency, depth and variety of learning.
Materials resources remain useless if there are no qualified teachers to put them into use. Thus, the science teacher is an indispensable human resource who has a vital role to play in the utilization of all other resources.
Jekayinfa (2001) said that selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a course or a lessons, helps in-depth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach biology. He advocated the use of pictures which will help children in grounding their thought and feelings. He said that pictures are used as alternatives to real objects where it is impossible to show students the real objects, and they do serve effectively in tan imagined activities.
The use of visual aids in teaching is a modern technique in teaching and learning processes. Visual learning materials can be quite effective in enriching the classroom exprience for students by enabling them to observe situations and processes which are otherwise difficult to portray inside the classroom. (Katsioloudis, 2007). There is an extensive evidence in the literature to support the claim that the use of digital visual materials either static images or video in the instruction process can raise students’ attenion levels and can also significantly improve their performnance in retention and comprehension tasks (Hoban & Ormer, 1970; Katsiolondis, 2007) such evidence exists across all grades of schooling (ranging from middle school all the way up to university eductaion) and in  almost all curricula, although science education seems to have received the greatest amount of research attention (Katsioloudis, 2007).
There is a general consensus among both researchers and practitioners that visual materials are effective in the classroom only when used as a supplement and not as a substitute to basic teachning tools like textbooks, blackboards and the teacher’s voice (Hoban & Ormer, 1970). However the issue of how to use visual materials to play this supplemental role so as to maximize their peclagogical impact is still a subject of debate and reserach (Su, 2009). The issue is particularly pertinent for schools in devleoping regions where such aids are just begining to find their way into the classroom, while the standards of teaching in the schools remains below par.
     Visual aids are tools that help to make an issue or lesson clearer or easier to understand and know (pictures, Models, Charts, Maps, Videos, slides, real objects e.t.c) Cartier (2011). The reasons for accepting Biology as a discipline to be taught by the use of visual aids are not farfetched.
     Science generally seems especially suitable for visual (Cartier, 2011) because;
       i.            It increases the amount of knowledge transferred to learners  at a specific time
     ii.            It reduces the work of labour of teachers in their transferring of knowledge of learners
  iii.             Students can learn in their own with it
  iv.             It gives schools an opportunity to do some desirable things which otherwise are not possible or feasible which can be handled more easily and effectively.
It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum without the teachers as implementing factors the goals of education can never be achieved. In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (1981) school should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified teachers, libraries which are adequate should also be provided for schools scarcities of these, According to Coombs (1970) will constraint educational system from responding more fully to new demands.
In order to raise the quality of education its efficiency and productivity, better learning material are needed. Knezewich (1975) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan, and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort.

Statement of the Problem
     The study is to investigate the correlation between the use of visual aids and the rate at which the students improve in their performance, the study is to be carried out using some selected secondary schools in Ekiti-State, this can be accomplished by finding answers to these problems.
a.     Do students understand and perform better academically when taught with visual aids
b.      What is the impact of visual instructional materials on the rate of academic performance of students in Biology.
c.      Can visual aids stimulates students interest
d.      How can they be utilized in improving students’ academic performance in Biology.
Purpose of the Study
     The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of visual aids on academic performance of senior Secondary School students in Biology in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Significant of the Problem
          As it is known that teaching aids are one of the important teaching facilities and they are essential during teaching, tthey facilitate and make easy to learn, teach and present a theme easily; Visual aids may provide the chance to learn visually and are more effective and easy for human beings. During teaching with visual aids and models students try to recognise it or know its functions and try to have its interpretation, to understand its use, they compare it with their pre-concepts assimilating the new phenomenon and seeking to know about it. Hence it is good to activate the students or keep them active for elicting in teachning and learning process. But most of the teachers do not use enough visual aids as teaching materials. This may cause barriers to teaching and learning process and directly affects the learning outcomes. This research want to find out teachers views about the visual aids use during teaching and learning.
          Because it should explore those teachers views, who do not believe the importance of visual aids or some other factor affecting it. The other factors investigating is male and female according to experience and two different locations. In addition to that the most important problem is that there is no research about this specific topic (visual aids) in the country. If my study shows positive results, some teachers may be convinced to use it and their use may contribute to good achievement of education.
Finally this work will be of immense benefit to inspectors and supervisors of education. It will furnish them with the number of educational visual aids available in schools and the extent to which they are properly utilized so that the biology teacher will be efficient effective and dedicated to work by imparting meaningful and positive learning into the students.
Research Questions
From the stated objective the following research questions were raised;
1.     Is there any significant difference in the achievement mean score of Biology students in school with adequate material resources and achievement mean score of students with inadequate material resources?
2.     Is there any significant relationship between availability of visual aids and academic performance of students in Biology?
3.     Is there any significant relationship between the use of visual aids and the achievement in Biology?
Research Hypotheses
From the stated objective the following hypothesis are to be tested:
       i.            There is no significant difference in the achievement mean score of biology students in school with adequate material resources in biology and score of student with inadequate material resources in Biology.
     ii.            There is no significant relationship between availability of visual aids and academic performance of student in biology.
  iii.            There is no significant relationship between the use of visual aids and the achievement in biology.
  iv.            There is no significant difference between the academic performance of student taught with visual aids and those taught without visual aids.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is limited to the effect of visual aids on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Biology, two (2) Senior Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State were used as sample for the purpose of this study due to time frame and financial constraint of the researcher.
Definition of Terms
It is important that one describes and defines the term specially used in this project in order to ensure total clarity of all terms:
Visual Aids: Visual aids are any specifically prepared drawings illustration, model, motion, pictures, filmstrips or other devices that will expedite learning develop other meanings cultivate appreciate and stimulates interest in learning through the use of sense of sight or vision
Achievement: The act of finishing attaining and to carryout success fully a given task.
Academic Performance: It is the display or evidence of knowledge scholastic achievement of skills develop as shown by the scores in an examination
Pre-Test: Test administered before the post-test treated of the topic. It is usually given before the teaching process to know the background knowledge of the learner concerned       
Post-Test: This is administered after the treatment of the topic. It is usually given at the end of the learning and was designed to know the achievement gain of knowledge in the treated topic
Senior Secondary School: The last three years spent under the second tiers programme of secondary school education of the 6-3-3-4 system.