THE IMPACT OF I.C.T IN THE TEACHING OF HEALTH EDUCATION AMONG THE HEALTH STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. - UNIPROJECTS

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THE IMPACT OF I.C.T IN THE TEACHING OF HEALTH EDUCATION AMONG THE HEALTH STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.



THE IMPACT OF I.C.T IN THE TEACHING OF HEALTH EDUCATION AMONG THE HEALTH STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.
ABSTRACT
As Nigeria is striving hard to play a leadership role in Africa, particularly in the period of pragmatic and competitive science and technology, there is an urgent need to pay more prominent attention to the improvement of teaching and learning particularly in Nigerian educational sectors. This entails the adoption of information, communication technology (ICT) in the institution. The ICT is an invaluable intervention of this modern time. Its inherent attributes such as accuracy, high speed performance, reliability and capability to store very large amount of data have made it possible for its applicability to all human endeavours including teaching, learning and research in educational institutions. This study is specifically set out to critically appraise the role of information, communication technology as a change agent for teaching and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti Campus in Ekiti State,



CHAPTER ONE
Background of the Study
Teaching and learning in the 21st Century is becoming increasingly reliant on new technologies. Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide an excellent vehicle for engaging students in learning, it have become key tool and had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live. ICT’s impacts on education (e-learning) in general have been established.
Information and communication technology means different things to different educators and researchers hence there are various views and definitions of ICT. Yusuf (2007) described ICT as an electronic technology used for accessing, processing, gathering, manipulating, presenting and communicating information. He emphasized that when ICTs are employed in education, they can accelerate, enrich and deepen basic skills in reading, writing, arithmetic and the sciences beside motivating and encouraging students to learn as they become more independent and responsible for their learning. According to Obanya (2002) information and communication technology is a broad concept that has to do with the harnessing of the process, the methods and the product of electronic and communication related technologies (and other related resources in today’s knowledge – driven society), for enhancing the availability, the spread and efficiency of a set of programmed activities geared towards the achievement of clearly defined goals. Nwakundo, Oguejiofor and Nwankwo (2006) views ICT as a tool that comprises electronic devices which are utilized for the information and communication needs of institutions, organizations, students and individuals. Such electronic devices include computers (software and hardware), networking, telephone, video, multimedia and internet.
Information communication technology (ICT) is a programme that has changed many aspects of the way people manage information and communication. If one is to compare such fields as medicine, tourism, business, law, banking, engineering and architecture with ICT, The roles of information Communication technology during the past two or three decades have been enormous. The way these fields operate before is different from the ways they operate at present. According to Kennedy and M.E Naught (2000) that when one looks at education there seems to have been less influence and change than other fields have experienced.
The use of information technology in classrooms allows schools to expand their markets, respond to the business and environmental requirements, support cross cultural and cross functional teams of students to engage and work together and allows faster and more practical cooperation between lecturers from various nations while maintaining the targeted level of quality delivery of knowledge in education.
The use of information technology in the classroom can allow more time and space flexibility for lecturers and students to use the educational materials. It can also allow for continuous testing of students of the contents of such materials, and allow the students more freedom in taking initiatives, learn on their own, be more creative, and individually study at their own pace.
According to Ubogu and Ossai (2007), the introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated a new age in educational methodologies, thus it has radically changed traditional method of information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering contemporary learning experience for both lecturers and students.
As a tool for addressing challenges in teaching and learning, technology has the capabilities for delivery, management and support of effective teaching and learning. As a change agent, it is capable of changing the content, methods and overall quality and quantity of teaching and learning, thereby reducing teachers’ workload and ensuring constructivist inquiry-oriented classroom. Moreover, ICT a central force in economic and social shifts that has technology skill critical to future employment of today’s students. Thierer (2000) pointed out that the role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy. Experts in the fields of education have agreed that, if ICT is properly used, it holds great promise to improve teaching and learning in addition to shaping work-force opportunities.    Thus, this study set out to critically appraise the role of information communication technology as a change agent for teaching health education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Statement of the Problem
Information Communication Technology (ICT) roles as instructional resource for the teaching of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti Campus is a noticeable improvement among the institutions and academic output. It is noted that uses of ICT equipment in teaching of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti Campus does not only assist the Lecturers in carrying out their job effectively but also render qualitative service output to the entire academic community  of the Nation.
Purpose of the Study
In spite the introduction of modern ICT equipment, this research work will look deeply in the impacts of ICT on the teaching and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti Campus. Finally, it is the objectives of this research work to fish both the relevance and problems of ICT in the teaching and learning of Health Education in UNN, Nsukka in the Era of modern Information communication Technology.
The General Purpose of the Study
The major aim of this study is to:
       i.            Study the relevance of ICT in the effective teaching and learning of Health Education among students of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 
     ii.            To find out the problems of ICT in the teaching and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 
  iii.            To suggest an improve channels to effective utilization of ICT in the teaching and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka.   
Significance of the Study
This study Shed light on the roles of information communication technology in teaching of health education students at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The following benefits are also considered:  
i.                   It will enhance student’s achievement. The effectiveness in the use of information communication technology will provide support for customized educational programs to meet the needs of individual learners.
ii.                 Use of information technology communication will develop ability of teachers to reason properly, to solve problem, to communicate effectively, to be able to negotiate "outcome, to manage time, project management and collaboration and team work.
iii.              The use of information technology has changed school administration in several ways. Lecturers know how to type their own test. Now Lecturers are expected to know how to use word processors and have their tests done in a proper format.
iv.              Several teachers noted that there is a move toward recording grades and attendance electronically. Lecturers are expected to check their e-mail, and a lot of things that used to be done at a staff meeting are now done via e-mail.
v.                  It contributes to the fields of knowledge researchers and Educational planners in the area of Health Education courses and information communication technology will find it useful in their research.
vi.              It will help the Governments, Ministry of Education in Nigeria, Students and readers to understand those benefits that Information Communication Technology embodies which we have neglected with in the past.
vii.            It will go a long way to create an avenue for more academic research which will benefit the society in term of producing competent Health graduates.
However, these advantages are hindered by the presence of several challenges that arise from the use of various information and communication technologies, including the need for expensive infrastructure and large startup costs, finding qualified instructors, and the lack of face to face instruction, which may diminish the students interpersonal, social, and communication skills. These issues are further intensified in developing countries due to the lack of a complete infrastructure including the main building blocks such as financial resources, human resources, information recourses and technological resources. The level of Health Education in developing countries is rather low and Nigeria is not an exception.
Therefore, it is crucial to find ways to speed up the educational process of its citizens and one of the venues could be distance learning and computer based technologies, which could lead to a cheaper process and yet as effective and as efficient. However, to date most of the implementations took place in developed nations and there is an urgency to test the environment in a developing setting (Rose and Straub, 1998, Dahawy et al, 2002).
Furthermore, information now plays a vital part in the lives of individuals, organizations and institutions and information literacy is the key to the optimum use of information. The state of education and skills emphasized the importance of ICT and information literacy as vital components in the development of life skills, workplace skills and citizenship.
          This research work will help the Governments, Ministry of Education in Nigeria, Students and readers to understand those benefits that Information Communication Technology embodies which we have neglected with in the past. In understanding this on the side of the government, it will allow them to rethink and work towards real implementation of it thereby creating a room for the rapid growth and development of the education sector of this country. At the other hand, it will go a long way to create an avenue for more academic research.
Research Questions
In view of this study, the following research questions have been formulated to ascertain how ICT could have be a catalyst to effective use of information by students.
1.              What types of ICTs are available to Health Education Students for use?
2.              To what extent do Health Education L students make use of ICT?
3.              What are the reasons for Health Education Students use of ICT in education?
4.              What are the problems Health Education Students face with the use of ICT?
5.              What are the solutions preferred to the problems face with the use of ICT by Health Education Students?
Research Hypotheses
1.     Modern ICT facilities are not adequately available in Nigeria Colleges of Education.
2.     Lecturers in Colleges of Education in Nigeria do use ICT facilities in teaching and learning of Health Education.
3.     There is a great significant relationship between usage of Modern ICT facilities and Lecturers’ productivity as reflected in students’ academic results
Scope of the Study
The scope of this research work focused strictly on the roles of information communication technology (ICT) in teaching of Health Education among UNN students in Nigeria. This work will lead us to the evolution of ICT in Nigeria and also examine how the academic field (teaching and learning) is fairing in this Era of Information Communication Technology.
Limitation to the Study
On the course of this research, the following problems were encountered, like short time frame. Financing problem, scarcity of information or data, etc. this is due to mainly, the wide scope of this study which emphasizes on a complexity of numbers of Universities of education in Nigeria. Now, the implication is that the short time frame mapped out for this research work posed a problem of assessing these programs as whole, but that doesn’t threat the authentication and quality of this work.
Again, enough financing of the accomplishment of this work became a problem in the sense that gathering information was costly, the researcher needed enough money to gather them.
Assumption of the Study
By explaining how the Information Communication Technology affects the students’ academic performance in Health Education Courses, it’s important to note that many scholars had carried out significant research work on the topic. It is assumed that the validity of the findings is based prominently on the following assumptions;
1.     That everything used pertaining to the materials and information on this research is obtained from the right sources.
2.     That the respondents provide reliable information during the course of research investigation. 


Definition of Terms
1.     Information Communication Technology (ICT): is generally refers to ‘computers and computing related activities’. Computers and their application play a significant role in modern information management, other technologies and/or systems also comprise of the phenomenon that is commonly regarded as ICTs. According to UNESCO (2002) information and communication technology (ICT) may be regarded as the combination of ‘Informatics technology’ with other related technology, specifically communication technology. Informatics refers to the science dealing with the design, realization, evaluation, use and maintenance of information processing systems, including hardware, software, organizational and human aspects, and the industrial, commercial, governmental and political implications of these.
2.     Information: facts or details that tell you something about situation person events.
3.     Communication: It is the transmission of information or idea. From it means the use of mechanical arts and applied science e.g. Engineering.
4.     Education: Is what prepares an individual to accommodate and to contribute positively to the development of his/her society.
5.     Computer: It is an electronic device that accepts data as to give information as an output.
6.     I.C.T: Information Communication Technology.