AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF BROKEN HOMES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STAT - UNIPROJECTS

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF BROKEN HOMES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STAT



TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                              i
CERTIFICATION                                                                                                ii
DEDICATION                                                                                            iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                        iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                     vi
ABSTRACT                                                                                               ix
CHAPTER ONE                                                                                      
1.0 Introduction                                                                                          1
1.1 Background of the Study                                                                      1       
1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                     10
1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                        12
1.4 Research Questions                                                                              12
1.5 Research Hypotheses                                                                                     12
1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                      13
1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                               13
1.8 Limitation to the Study                                                                        13
1.9 Definition of the Terms                                                                        14
1.10 Organization of Chapters                                                                             15
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework                                              16
2.1 Introduction                                                                                          16
2.2 Effects of Broken Marriage on children’s Academic Performance                 17
2.3 Effects of Broken Marriage on School Going Children                        19
2.4 Perceptions of Children with Single Parents                                         23
2.5 Academic Achievement among Pupils of Divorced Families                24
2.6 Comparisons of Children from Divorced and Two-Parent Families     25
2.7 Factors Affecting the Children’s Academic Performance and Socialization Processes in the Family                                                                                     26
2.7.1 Types of Family and Students’ Academic Performance                              26
2.7.2 Family Size and Position in the Family                                             26
2.7.3 Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status                    27
2.8 Factors Affecting the Children’s Academic Performance and Socialization Processes in the Family                                                                                     27
2.8.1 Types of Family and Students’ Academic Performance                              28
2.8.2 Family Size and Position in the Family                                             28
2.8.3 Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status                    28
2.8.4 Parents’ Marital Quality, Parent-child Relations, and School Adjustment
2.8 Family Disruption and Children’s Academic Functioning                             29
2.9 The Long-term Effects of Divorce                                                        30
2.10 Importance of the Home                                                                     31
2.10.1 Socialization of a Child                                                                             31
2.10.2 Child’s Care and Protection                                                            32
2.10.3 Emotional and Social Support                                                                  32
2.10.4 The Need for Love and Security                                                      33
2.10.5 The Need for New Experience                                                                   33
2.10.6 The Need for Praise and Recognition                                                        34
2.11 Conceptual Framework of the Study                                                  34
2.12 Summary                                                                                            35
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology                                                                         37
3.1 Introduction                                                                                          37
3.2 Research Design                                                                                   37
3.2 Area of Study                                                                                                 38
3.3 Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques                                              38
3.3.1 Target Population                                                                              38
3.3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques                                             38
3.3.3 Sample Schools                                                                                 38
3.3.4 Primary School Low Academic Achievers Sample                                      39
3.4 Data Collection Techniques                                                                  39
3.4.1 Documentary Review                                                                        39
3.4.2 Questionnaires                                                                                   40
3.4.3 Interview                                                                                           40
3.5 Validation of the Study Instruments                                                    41
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques                                                                              41
3.7 Ethical Consideration                                                                           42
3.8 Summary                                                                                              42
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation of Findings, Analysis and Interpretation                                   43
4.1 Introduction                                                                                          43
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents                                                      43
4.2.1 Sex of Respondents                                                                           43
4.2.3 Education level of Respondents                                                                  44
4.3 The Teachers’ Perceptions on the Effects of Broken home on Children’s Academic Performance                                                                                      45
4.3.1 Awareness on the Effects of Broken home on Children’s Academic Performance                                                                                               42
4.4 The Perception of Children on Broken home Effects of their Status on their Academic Performance                                                                                      45
Table 4.6: The Perception of Children on broken home on Academic Performance
4.5 The Community Members’ Views on their Role in Minimizing the Effects of Broken home on Pupils’ Academic Performance                                          53
4.6 Summary                                                                                              55
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations                          57
5.1 Summary of Findings                                                                           57
5.2.1 Recommendations                                                                                       58
5.2.2 Recommendation for Further Study                                                  59
REFERENCES                                                                                         60
APPENDICES                                                                                           68

 ABSTRACT
          This study investigated the influence of broken homes on academic performance and personality development of the adolescents in Ekiti state with particular focus on the Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. In carrying out the study, three null hypotheses were tested. The sample for the study consisted of two hundred (200) adolescents randomly selected from four public senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The instrument used for data collection was a self – developed questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using both independent t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistical methods. The results were held significant at 0.05 alpha levels. The results revealed that there is a significant difference between single- parenting and academic performance of the adolescents, there is a significant difference between parental socio- economic status and academic performance, there is significant relationship between adolescents from broken homes and academic performance.
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CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                            INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The family is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and socialization from parents and other significant persons in the family. Agulana (2000) pointed out that the family lays the psychological, moral, and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. Structurally, family/homes is either broken or intact. A broken home in this context is one that is not structurally intact, as a result of divorce, separation, death of one of parent and illegitimacy. According to Frazer (2004), psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken homes, divorce and parental deprivation. Such abnormal conditions of the home, are likely to have a detrimental effect on school performance of the child he asserts.
Life, in a single parent family or broken home can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families are faced with challenges of inadequate financial resources (children defense find 2004). Schults (2006) noted that if adolescents from unstable homes are to be compared with those from stable homes, it would be seen that the former have more social, academic and emotional problems. Rochlke (2003) is of the opinion that the family and its structure play a great role in children’s academic performance. Levin (2001) states that parents are probably the actor with the clearest undimentionals interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show the marital instability brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration obviously, these manifestations act negatively on a child’s academic performance.
Johnson (2005) asserts that children of unmarried parents separated families often fail and are at risk emotionally. However, this may not be completely applicable in all cases of broken homes. Some children irrespective of home background or structure may work hard and become successful in life. Moreover, Ayodele (2007) stated that the environment where a child finds himself/herself goes a long way in determining his learning ability and ultimately his academic performance in school. The influence of sex (gender) on academic performance has also been an issue of concern to most researchers. This is because ‘gender’ appears to have some powerful effect on learning.
According to Fauto-Sterling(2005) and Friedman(2005) suggest no significant difference in cognitive ability between males and females. Although research results vary widely the following conclusions have been drawn. Males are more abstract learners, females have more anxiety about study success, males are more instructive, and females are more analytical and organized (Bielinskia & Davison 2003). Okoye(2008) postulated that sex differences may have little or no effect on academic performance, rather, he submits that eventual achievement by learners is predicted more on personal effort than sex variable.
However, the overall picture suggests that males and females may learn differently. In the same vein, socio-economic background is another factor that may affect academic performance of students. This background refers to the parent’s educational attainment, occupation, level of income and social class placement. When a child’s needs are not properly addressed, his learning ability could be affected due to lack of motivation.
Generally, the home has been identified as an overwhelming factor affecting students’ performance academically. It would appear, then, that broken homes may present a very serious danger to the emotional, personality, and mental adjustment of the young adolescent. This impinges on students’ academic achievement. Other variable to consider in this study is the personality development of the child. We define personality as the sum total of the man or woman, as he or she impresses other men and women. We must learn what part personality plays in the three main areas of human life activities: love and marriage, career, and social relations. According to Freud, the personality is a trinity consisting of  ego and superego. The id is a reservoir of psychic energy and the source of the human instincts. It furnishes the power that sustains a person’s activities.
 The ego is a special part of the id which keeps the individual in touch with the outside world, and finds outlets for the expression of his instincts. The superego is a kind of moral censor which passes judgment on the individual’s strivings according to the standards which he has acquired from his parents. It makes him feel guilty when he goes against those standards, and proud of himself when he lives up to them. According to Jung, the personality consists of six parts: the ego, the personal unconscious, the collective unconscious, the persona, the anima, and the shadow.
The ego requires little explanation. It is what is more generally known as the conscious mind. It is made up of conscious perceptions, memories, thoughts and feelings. The personal unconscious consists of experiences which have been repressed or forgotten, but which can under certain circumstances be recalled. The collective unconscious is a storehouse of ancestral memories which is common to the whole race. The personal is that side of ourselves which we choose to display to society.
The personal is thus a mask which often hides the true nature of the personality. The anima is the feminine side of a man’s personality. Its counterpart is the masculine side of a woman’s personality, which is known as the animus. The shadow is the animal side of man’s nature. In Jung’s view the personality looks not only backwards to its racial past, but also forwards to a goal, which is the development of a unified whole known as the self. The self or psyche, according to Jung, has four basic functions, which are present in every individual. These are thought, feeling, sensation and intuition. Thought seeks to understand the world on the basis of a true-false evaluation; feeling apprehends it on the basis of a pleasant-unpleasant evaluation; sensation perceives things through the senses; intuition perceives them through an inner awareness. Jung (1900) says that the personality reveals two attitudes. They are introversion and extraversion.
The introvert is influenced by what he finds within himself. The extravert takes his bearings from what lies outside himself. The essence of Adler’s theory (1998) of personality is the doctrine of a creative self, which asserts that man makes his own personality out of the raw materials of heredity and experience. Adler’s conception of the nature of personality thus coincides with the popular idea that man can be the master, and not the victim, of his fate. Alder says that the individual’s style of life or law of movement is an expression of his total personality. The style of life is the individual’s characteristic way of reacting to the situations that confront him in life. It is pertinent therefore, to understand the basic principles of development and personality development. Personality development is the developing a personality cult so as to create a strong positive impression about self with the targeted group, or in general; and more pertinent aspect of such personality are to maintain and prove in a long run.
The basic principles of development according to Lawes and Eddy (2006) have outlined four basic principles of child development. These are:
1. Children differ greatly in their rate of development, one may develop rapidly another much slowly.
2. A child may vary in his own rate of growth: at some time during his childhood, he may develop rapidly; at others he may be making little progress.
3. Different aspects of growth may proceed at different rates, for example, mental growth may not be as rapid as physical growth.
4. Despite the different rates of growth, each child passes through the same stages in the same order, for example, each crawls before he walks, speaks before reading, etc.
It therefore, calls for social development of the children in school. Children need to be helped to achieve satisfying social relations with their peers and adult members of the community. Piaget (2000) has distinguished three stages of social development in children- Egocentric. (This is the first stage where the child is impervious to social stimulation from without), Social communication (at this stage the child makes a conscious effort to enter into real social communication) and the Reciprocity and mutual respect between persons. Piaget observed that in the children he studied, the sequence of these stages of social development varies with different socio- economic groups, cultures and sometimes gender. The school and the home must provide conditions favorable for social development of children to excel in their academic pursuit.
Children should be assisted to achieve socially acceptable pattern rather than the repression of their emotion for emotional feelings and expression in life. So far the researcher has examined the influence of broken homes on academic performance and personality development of adolescence, but who is an adolescent?
It could recall that adolescence is a transitory period between childhood and adulthood. During this period, an individual is seen neither as a child nor as an adult. Hall(1904) claimed that adolescents are characterized by emotional instabilities and hyper-activities, which cause them to experience storms and stress. Erickson (1965), opined that identity formation creates tension in the
adolescents to the extent that some of them become confused about their personality. According to Brown, Berriel and Russel (2006). Adolescence refers to the period of growth between the ages 12 and 21 years which shows very rapid social expansion. It is the era of peer group when the child spends most of his days with others of his age.
It is the “transition period” from childhood to adulthood. It can be likened to “a bridge” which children have to cross in order to get to the final stage of human development because it is often characterized by significant physical and physiological changes. The period of adolescence between two extremes in the continuum of human growth and, developmental stages (childhood and adulthood) often puts the youngsters in dilemma of how to meet the society’s expectations. Coping with adolescents in Nigerian schools demand a thorough understanding of the peculiarities of this age group which according to Durojaiye (1972) is an era of identity crises when the young person begins to ask such question as “Who am I? Where am I?
Crow and Crow (1962) on the other hand refer to children at adolescence as the “terrible teens”. They need the help of understanding adults in coping with the various physiological and psychological changes that they experience which give rise to a host of other problems. The period of adolescence is very important to the development of an individual. Any laxity on the part of parents’ in assisting and guiding the adolescents may result in academic backwardness and development of unwholesome behavous, the foundation of what a person becomes in the society is laid in the home and at the initial stage of life.
Parents therefore have important roles to play in ensuring that the youths acquire the appropriate social, psychological, moral and academic development. They are required to be alive to their responsibility in providing sex education for their children at home. However, the school through the Parents Teachers Association could assist in enlightening parents on their roles in helping adolescents experience a smooth transition into adulthood.
Academic performance is the seen as the knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subject. To indicate such achievement, test scores or marks are assigned by the teachers. It is the school evaluation of the classroom work on the basis of the grades awarded.
Academic performance according to Akinboye(2004) is of two types i.e positive and negative (poor) performance. Habits, family background, perseverance, attitudes, interest all these affect academic achievement in school. He concluded that if these variables are modified and attitude changed positively, then the level of individuals’ academic performance would improve.
The home is the primary institution for children, home as perceived by Abdulganiyu (1997), Christe (2009), defined home as a place in which an individual or a family can rest and store personal property. The family can therefore, be looked at as a social group characterized by common resident, economic, cooperation and production. When a child is born, the family is the first primary group with which they come into contact. Transmission of social values of right and wrong, what is morally and religiously accepted or condemned by the family, it follows therefore that by the time a child attained five to seven years of age he must have learnt what are his rights, obligations and roles within the society.
However, the background of a students go along way to determine his/her individuality. As the child enters schools, he/she will start manifesting different attitudes and expectations. In addition they may be of the same age group, developed at different rates and so may be able to cope with the intellectual and social task of the school in varying extent. However, a home can either be stable or broken. A stable home is one in which both parent (mother and father) lives together with their children, while a broken home is the one in which one or both of the parents are not living together with the children. It is the level at which the home operates that determine the academic achievement of a science students in school. Broken homes been it unstable can influence the achievement of a science students academically.
Also, children that have suffered from neglect or lack of love ( in a broken homes) are known to be psychologically imbalanced to face the realities of life. When there is disunity in the family, or a difference between a mother and a father, the child is caught in the middle and will be at disadvantage. According to Blackby (1999). Adequate research need to be conducted in this direction to ensure smooth transition of children from early stages to adulthood.
The child’s home and his family offer the best education since his parents serve as teachers. The parents lay the foundation for the desired social, moral, emotional, spiritual and intellectual well-being of the child. The training received from home is of greatest importance in his/her total personality formation and his/her academic achievements as a primary school pupil. It can also be observed that the pattern of life in the home (stable or broken), the economic and social status of the family in the community and many other conditions that give the home a distinctive character can influence the achievement of student in school.
Abdulganiyu (1997), added that research have shown that children differs in various ways as a result of variables of their home background such as socio – economic status, parental attitude to school and child rearing practices. These home background variables are also found to be positively related to children’s academic achievement, more especially primary school pupil that need care and love.
Similarly, Giwa (1997), have investigated the factors within the students home background or family that affect their performance s in school, variables such as socio – economic status, family size, birth order, parental attitude, child rearing practices, parental absence or presence have been found to affect social and intellectual learning experiences of children in schools. This is so because children are born with some psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as need for love and security, the need for new experiences, the need for praise and recognition and the need for responsibility. Many of these needs are not offered to the children of broken homes which will influence their performance in science. The extent to which these needs are met during the formative years of children between birth and the age of six or seven is the extent to which they enter school. This equipped them or ready to deal with the social and emotional aspects of schooling.
Based on the observation above and in line with the assumption that economic and social future of many children in most localities is being undermined by cultural practices that promotes widespread divorce amongst couples and brought unnecessary hardship to the growing children.
It is pertinent at this juncture to point out in spite of all the needs expressed as to be met by the students most especially primary school pupils, this research also has intended to seek for how much primary school pupils is affected in academic achievement, either as a result of his home been stable or broken.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
While literature on the relationship between broken homes has focused on school going children’s drop out, it is silent on the role of teachers and community members in minimizing the negative effects on off broken marriage on school going children. Because the increasing rate of dropout has affected the government and family social economic abilities, it is important to consider teachers and community members’ role in minimizing the effects of broken marriages on school going children. This study intended to fill this gap in the literature. Studies such as those of Andrew1981; Harold et al., 2007; Cummings & Davies 1994; Turner & Koplec, 2006) were done in USA with a focus on nuclei family. Not much has been done in Nigeria where most families still have the elements of communal and extended families.
          There is a global awareness of the Importance of the home environment on pupil academic achievement. In Nigeria, most home are not intact as a result of issues of incompatibility of the couples, death of a parent and the quest for the oversea trips to make more money, and at times marital infidelity. This has resulted in the separation of couples and children. In some states in the federation, this is quite clear, in that most young ladies abandon their homes, and embark on oversea trips with a view to making money. Some men, who travel abroad, abandon their homes and would not communicate with the families back-home so children from such homes are in dilemma, especially in terms of adjustment. Chador (2008) notes that the environment in which the students come from can greatly influence his performance in school. The effects of broken homes may impact greatly on the internal organization of the family and by extension; effect a child’s emotion, personality and academic achievement. Bearing in mind the role of the family in a child’s education, the failure of the family to perform its duties could hinder the child’s academic achievement. Any nation that is desirous of advancing technologically will no doubt ensure that the future of her future leaders (the pupils) is well guided, protected and guaranteed.
Finally, a single parent faces doubled responsibilities requiring time, attention and money of the parent. Hence, less attention is paid to the education of the child. The teachers commonly describe children from single parent as more hostile, aggressive, anxious, fearful, hyperactive and distractive than children from intact family (Nwachukwu, 1998). A lot of scholars have beam their search light to investigate the effect of broken homes on the academic performance of students in primary schools. What makes this study unique is that the issue of broken homes are prevalent issue in the study area, and this development has affected the performance of the pupil in study area, most especially the primary schools. Thus, this study is set out to find out whether the effect of broken homes on academic performance of primary school pupils in Ekiti State, with particular reference to Ikere local government area. Therefore, this study sought to provide answers to the following questions:
(i) What is the primary school teacher’s perception on the effect of broken homes on academic performance of pupils in primary schools?
(ii) What are the causes of broken home among parents in Nigerian society? (iii) What are the strategies that can be employing in solving the menace of broken homes in our society?


1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives were to:
i.       Examine primary school teachers’ perceptions on the effects of broken homes on children’s academic performance.
ii.     explore the causes of broken homes in Nigerian society and the effects on academic performance of pupils in primary schools
iii.   Explore community members’ views on solving the effects of broken homes on pupils’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
This study was guided by the following research questions:
(i). what are the teachers’ perceptions on the effects of broken homes to children’s academic performance?
(ii) What are the causes of broken home among parents in Nigerian society? (iii) What are the strategies that can be employing in solving the menace of broken homes in our society?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following three hypotheses were generated for testing in this study.
Hoi : There is no significant difference between the teachers’ perceptions and the effects of broken homes on children’s academic performance
Hoii: There is no significant difference between the causes of broken home among parents and pupils academic performance.
Hoiii: There is no significant relationship between the strategies that can be employing in solving the menace of broken homes and the pupil academic performance in primary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study
The purpose of this study is to carry out research on possible causes of broken home and its consequences on the academic performance of  primary school pupil in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. This is with a view to suggest ways of minimizing and overcoming the problem.
As known by all educators,  home play very significant role in child personality formation and socialization, broken homes are identified as one of the factor that undermined the socialization process at home, which consequently affect the performance of student. If the concern of education is to look after socialization process of the child as well as his intellectual development, then this research work would be of great importance to parents and educators that absence of one or both of the parents affect children academic performance. The role of family  to come with solution of ensuring stability in the homes for the betterment of growing children and the society at large is very essential here.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope and time frame of this research study encompasses the effect of broken homes on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools. The study would be carried out in some selected primary school in ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
1.8 Limitation to the Study
Factors contributed in affecting the researcher’s comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out this study includes, scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature, some questionnaire administered were not returned and most of the respondents failed to respond to some important questions and other tasking  engagements and the fact that the crisis was still occurring at the period of research The above challenges would be overcome through persistence and the need to excel in the course of carrying out this study. Relevant stakeholders would be contacted to get relevant information that are required to carry out the study
1.9 Definition of the Terms
Monogamous marriage: This is type of marriage where the norms retractable individual to one spouse at a time.
Polygamous marriage: This is the type when the norms permit plural father. This is a man marrying two or more, wives at a time. Polygamous on other hand is on woman marrying two or more husband.
Family: Family is a close and friendly community of people with common origin and interest which are linked by blood relative (consequently) or by legal bound or by marriage.
Marital problem: This is a situation whereby a couple cannot live peacefully or does not have access to enjoy their matrimonial home for a period of time due to some circumstance.
Broken home: This is a separation of a couple as a result of inadequate behaviour to each other.
1.10 Organization of Chapters
The study comprises of five Chapters. The chapter one centers on the introduction, which includes background to the study, statement of problem, significant of the study, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope of the study, definition of terms and organization of chapters. Chapter two contains the literature review and theoretical framework. Chapter three examines the research methodology, where sampling method, study area, data analysis would be considered. Chapter four looks at data presentation and interpretation. Lastly, chapter five deals with the summary, recommendation and conclusion.