THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Most often, chemical concepts appears to be abstract in nature to the extent that most teachers of chemistry adopt the lecture method of teaching. Hence the need for the application of technology to the teaching of chemistry. This study was designed to examine the factors that affect the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools in Ekiti State. The study adopted an expost factor research design. The target population comprises of one hundred and twenty chemistry teachers public secondary schools randomly selected from the Ikere local government areas of Ekiti State. A type questionnaire on the factors affecting the utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry in secondary schools were constructed for this study. The reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained using cowbach alpha method. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage, mean and standard alleviation were used to provide answers to the research questions. The findings of the study revealed that the level of utilization of ICT by chemistry teachers in secondary school level is low. The findings also revealed that power supply, time, cost availability and accessibility are the major constraints to the utilization of ICT facilities in secondary schools. The findings also show that social and health problems caused by information overload does not affect the utilization of ICT by the teachers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Scope of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Definition of Terms
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 ICT and Education in Nigeria
2.3 Need for ICT in Education
2.4 Teaching of Chemistry Using ICT
2.5 Problems Inhibiting the Utilization of ICT in
2.6 Implementation of ICT in Secondary Schools
2.7 Appraisal of Literature Review
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Presentation of Socio – Demographic Data
5.0 DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Discussion of the Findings
5.4 Limitation of the study
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
1.1 Background to the study
There has indeed been a scientific revolution in the 20th century. This revolution has touched all aspects of life such as industries of all types – pharmaceuticals, chemicals, clothing, wood, medicine, agriculture and construction. Information and communication technology have already shrunk the world into a global village. In all, science has also been a key factor.
Science is the search for meaning or explanation of event in nature. Oguniyi (1986) as cited by Oladosu (2010), observed science as an attempt by human beings to organize their experience about nature into meaningful systems of explanation.
Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the working of our world, science enable man to explain how the world, events and objects around him originate, develop, operate or function (Olagunju 2003). It also helps him to predict how they will behave in future and also enable him to control behaviour of things around him, once he is able to develop the appropriate instruments for such control (Nwala, 1997).
The development in science and technology has been the most effective factors in enabling less developed countries to enter the mainstream of contemporary technology and commerce.
UNESCO Congress Report (1981), as cited by Lewis and Kelly (2007), emphasized that science and technology and their teaching in formal and non formal education of peoples lives and a priority objectives of cultural development.
Technology, according to Black and Harrison (2008) is the practical method which has enable human being to raise itself above the animals and to create its habitat, food supply, comfort and means of health, travel and communication to them, technology is necessary for achieving a wild range of human purposes.
Science education gives children awareness of technology and develop their personal experiences.
It is an essential vehicle to provide human resources development, modernization and overall development of countries (UNESCO 1981).
Science education also improves the education of future scientists and fosters a greater and more relevant understanding of nature and the finding of science among the population as a whole (Lewis & Kelly 2007).
The objectives of secondary education as stated by the Federal Government in the National Policy of Education (2004) is to equip students to live effectively in this modern age of science and technology. Hence the major goals of science education is to develop scientifically, literature individual that are concerned with high competence for national thought and actions.
The objective of science education as stated by Onwu (1993) cited by Olagunju (2003) includes the needs to prepare the students to.
i. Observe and explore the environment
ii. Explain simple natural phenomena
iii. Develops scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity.
iv. Apply the skills and knowledge acquired through science to solve everyday problems in the environment.
v. Develop self confidence and self reliance through problem solving activities in science.
In order to achieve these objectives, several strategies and resources have evolved ranging from human to materials including audio visual to catch the attention of learners during lessons.
The contribution of chemistry to human existence and development can be seen in the provision of secured and stable means of obtaining the basic necessities of life such as food, clothing and shelter (CESA, 2006). Chemistry has also contributed immensely to the socio economic development of the Nation in the following areas – employment generation, provision of raw materials for industries, research, foreign exchange earning, medicine and many more areas. This chemistry in general, involves investigation and understanding the substance that makes up our environment.
According to Okoronkwo (2009), chemistry has central role in science education providing the molecular alphabet for science. To him, chemistry interacts and overlaps with mathematic, physics, biology, geology, environmental science, engineering and other disciples. Hence, there is virtually nothing in the world that is not related to chemistry.
The importance of chemistry and chemistry education came up in a number of places, yet the fortunes are gradually dwindling year by year. The interest in teaching and learning chemistry has gone down so much, that one needs to take a look at the result of the students at both WAEC and NECO examination (Okoronkwo, 2009).
The desire for effective teaching of chemistry arose from the government, teacher and the stakeholders in education that an entrenched dogmatic approach to the subject was destroying its ability to adopt to change brought about by new discovering, new social and education needs.
Yinusa (1990) as cited by Ademejo (2010) stated that the rate at which science is advancing and its teaching procedures are being improved required that facilities should be flexible and adaptable has possible. Ajadi (2008) opined that teaching and learning are processes involving activities, inculating knowledge and patterns of interaction between teacher and learner, and between learner and learning materials. Therefore, effective teaching and learning at any level of education are dependent on the instructional strategies used which is the major factor responsible for the level of performance by the students.
Instructional materials or teaching aids are useful in any classroom situation because it is a devise used in bringing the outside world into the classroom.
Thorson (2000) says if students are to effectively contextualized what is to be learnt within a short time and limited space, a variety of made a approach must be used to present the information. Hence the major function of instructional material is enhancement of teaching and learning.
Towards the end of the 20th century and the dawn of the 21st century marks the era of information technology where computer is playing an important role (Olagunju, 2003). The need for computer technology and literacy in our educational system has become more relevant in recent years, in 1988, the Federal Government launched the National Policy on computer literacy at all levels of our educational system. At the secondary school level, of our education, Abimbade (1997) cited the following main curricular content areas.
i. Rudimentary knowledge about information system
ii. Information processing technologies and the role of computer in this regard.
iii. Exposure to the historical overview and the development of modern day computer and its basic component
iv. Knowledge about the uses to which computer are put in everyday life.
v. A basic appreciation of how a computer work
vi. Understanding the basic principle of operating a computer
vii. Hands on experiences using pre – programmed package which are relevant to the internet of the students as teaching aid in different subjects.
viii. Introduction to the concepts of different computer language and their application.
ix. Appreciation of problem solving methods and techniques as they apply to the computer programme design, coding and documentation.
Development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has therefore broken all national and international barriers and turn the world into a global village making information available to everybody, anywhere and at anytime (Abimbade, 1997).
Technology has found its way into the classroom in a dramatic manner to become part of teaching and learning processes in education especially in science education (Alese, Adetunnibi and Ogundele, 2009).
Technology, by its nature is concerned with the endless search for easier, faster and better ways of doing things in all sphere of human activities including communication and education. The basic concepts of the education system are being replaced as the challenges towards education cannot be solved anymore within the existing educational framework.
The paradigm shift to computer, especially when they are linked in network have the potential to change everyday classroom practice. The impact of the use of Information and Communication Technology, (ICT) in education will not only be for the actors involve in the learning processes but will also change the instructional infrastructure, relations and patterns of behaviour within the education system (Alese, 2007).
Information and Communication Technology, ICT, has fundamentally change the ways in which we measure, hardly data and access information. It does not only provide means to fulfill curriculum needs, it offers uniques opportunities to extend work in the classroom (Alese et al 2009). It was stressed further that when properly used, ICT afford insights, possibilities and efficiencies that are difficult to achieve in other way. ICT also extends pupils and efficiencies that are difficult to achieve in other way. ICT also extends pupils ability to exercise choice, work independently and make connection between their studies and wider world.
ICT improves students capabilities when they learn to organize complex information, recognize pattern, draw inferences, communicate findings and learn better organizational and problem solving skills.
ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology and is defined as a derives set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and create, disseminate, store and manage information.
The application of technology to teaching and learning ranges from the use of computers, the internet, broad coasting technologies (Radio and Television, and Telephone).
According to Alese (2007), ICT in education can be understood as the effective use of electronic computers and computers software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information for learning purposes.
The potential of each technology varies according to how it is used Haddad and Daxler 1995, identify five level of technology used in education as follow presentation, demonstration, drill and practice, interaction and collaboration.
Alese (2007) pointed out the main application of ICT in chemistry as;
a) Information resources
b) Data logging
c) Data based, spread sheets and graphical calculators
d) Stimulation and modeling
e) Publishing and presentation softwares
Jeans and Paddock (2005) are of the opinion that the use of ICT in education can be divided into three broad categories, namely computers, broadcasting (Television and Radio) as well as Distance learning.
This study will investigate the use of computer and computer software in the process of teaching as well as the factors determining the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools.
Computer managed instruction (CMI) involves the use of computer in scheduling courses or subject, space utilization, inventory and personal control, recording and reporting attendance school accounting, storage and retrieved of study of information, computation and reporting of marks and word processing. Computer stimulations is an advanced skills instruction which improved the interaction educational technologies with which students learn to organize complex information, reorganize patterns draw inferences and communicate finding and learn better organizational and problem solving skills.
Video disc system store video pictures, still pictures aid sound on disc that students can use in their studies.
These system can provide the interactive capabilities of computers and the motion picture capability of videos.
Use of Internet: The internet is a collection of computers, all linked together to share information worldwide, through the use of internet, students and the teacher can search for information, read newspapers or listen to news, send and received mails (E-mail) and do many other things.
Even though, ICT has been making tremendous impact on science education, the rate of adoption and utilization of ICT as a tool for teaching chemistry has not be encouraged. Horgan (1998) observed that despite that, much has been written about the value of ICTs in teaching and learning, studies have shown that successful integration of technology into the secondary schools depends not only on availability and access but also on the extent to which teacher embrace these technologies.
Hafkin and Taggart (2001) noted that factors which affect the use and non – use of ICTs by men actually be different from those that affect the use and non – use by women. Therefore, Hafkin and Taggart (2001) identify the following as the factor that can affect the use of ICTs in teaching:
i) Availability: As identify by Horgan (1998), the non – availability of most of the computer softwares has contributed immensely to its non – adoption and under utilization in most secondary schools. There are no computer rooms in some schools; those that have one or two computers are packed under lock in the principal’s offices. Ajayi et al (2009) revealed that ICT facilities where not available in secondary schools due to inadequate funding by the government.
ii) Access to ICTs Infrastructure: Most secondary school teachers do not have access to the computer and other equipments connected to the computer. Oyejola (2007) and Fakeye (2006) opined that accessibility to computer and the familiarity with information communication technology are function of the teacher background. This is due to the fact that most of the teachers are computer illiterates. Since they do not have knowledge of the computer and those that have the knowledge of the computer do not have access to personal computer or school computer because of financial constraint on the part of the teacher and the school.
iii) Lack of power supply: Irregular power supply (Okebukola 2000, Yusuf 2005, Ofodu 2007 cited by Ajayi et al 2009), will affect the utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry since ICT is made up of electronic devices or equipment. Hence, all aspect of teaching and learning using let for effective instructional strategy largely on the electricity supply or other means of generating electricity to power the equipments.
It should be noted that lack of regular supply of electricity by the government can jeopardize the flow of work with ICT in teaching. Also, fuel scarcity can hinder the adequate utilization of those equipments.
iv) Time: As identified by Hafkin and Taggart (2001), time factor is another constraint to the utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry because working on computer is time consuming. Since the normal lesson duration time is forty minutes and teaching using computer operation will takes more than time schedule for the teaching of subjects. Chemistry is also voluminous, teachers feels that working on the computer will waste most of their time and embark on the theoretical aspect of teaching chemistry. Also the fast response survey system (FRSS) contained in Nigeria National centre for education statistics (NCES) (2000), identified lack of release of time to learn how to use computer and lack of time in the class schedule for students to use computer as barrier that teacher encountered in using computer in the classroom.
v) Gender Barrier: This is also an important factor that can affect the effective utilization of ICT in secondary schools, since most of the secondary schools teachers are females. Considering the use of ICT in teaching, a lot of students (Lavatt and Blake, 2001, Selweyin, 2003; Sorenson and Stewart , 2004) have noted that there are disparities in the use of ICT between male and female teachers, it is generally believed that women are lagging behind men when it comes to the availability and accessibility and the used of ICTs, this is due to heave domestic responsibility placed on women and also some cultural beliefs which prevents young girls and woman from accessing and using ICTs.
vi) Computer literacy of the teacher: Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability a person has to use computer and technology efficiently. It can also be referred to as knowing how computers works and operate, the technical constraint as identified by Ajadi and Adeoye (2005), Mujibul (2007), is also a major problem of ICT utilization in secondary schools.
Okafor and Umonyang (2008) found out that most of the secondary schools teacher lack computer knowledge and information literacy which is a result of limited exposure and low level of awareness of ICT. Thos who claim to have the knowledge have poor access to the ICT so the knowledge is limited to the theoretical aspect of it rather than the practical aspect.
vii) Social and Health Problem: Social effects of ICT are manifested in increased tension and competition in the work place, lowered productivity, decreased benevolence to others, spiritual emptiness, longer working days and less leisure. More so, adverse health consequences of ICTs includes increase in teacher’s blood pressure, cardio – vascular stress and digestive disorders, memory difficulties, lack of concentration, headaches, stomach and muscle pain and weakened vision compound, the teachers problem as he or she spend much time on computer, R.O. Ekoko (2005).
Based on the foregoing and considering the role and use of ICT in the teaching and learning of chemistry at the secondary level of the educational system, there is the need to examine the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry at the secondary level of the educational system, there is the need to examine the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in Nigeria secondary school levels especially in Ekiti State.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The wide use of ICT in all walks of life and its attendant revolution in the teaching and learning process cannot be over- emphasized. Its integration between the teaching and learning process could make the work of teacher effective, meaningful and more accessible. Therefore, this study would be designed to find out the effect of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in selected secondary schools in Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions were addressed
1) What is the teacher level of ICT utilization in the teaching of chemistry?
2) What is the level of availability of ICT facilities for teaching chemistry in secondary schools?
3) How accessible are these ICT facilities, where available to the chemistry teachers?
4) Which of the following factors viz:
a) Power supply
b) Time factor
c) Social and health problem
d) Computer literacy of the teachers
e) Financial problems, hinder the utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry?
1.4 Scope of the study
This study investigated the effect of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government of Ekiti State. The study would involve thirty (30) chemistry teachers from ten (10) secondary schools.
1.5 Significance of the study
The rate at which poor results of chemistry is increasing has call for effective teaching of Chemistry in secondary. This is evident even in the just released West African Examination Council results for May/June 2014. The search for effective teaching of chemistry in secondary schools has led to the use of instructional materials which are useful in bringing the outside world into the classroom, which have paved ways for the information and communication technology in secondary schools.
This study further reiterates the usefulness of information and communication technology in the teaching of chemistry. Also the study is an eye opener to the curriculum designers in the area of suggestion, appropriate strategies for curriculum implementation.
Finally, the findings from this study will also enable the government to embark on the process of rapid computerization of public secondary schools both in the urban and rural areas as a way of improving the teaching of chemistry in particular and other science subject in general.
1.6 Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationally defined as used in this study.
1) Teaching effectiveness: This refers to knowledge and organization of the subject matter, skills in instruction, personal qualities and attitudes that are useful when working with the students.
2) ICT: Information and Communication Technology which enhances the use of computer and other electronic based facilities.
3) Utilization: This involve the adaptation and integration of ICT facilities into the teaching and learning of chemistry.
4) Factors: These are the determinants i.e. things that determine the success or failure of other thing. Utilization, it involve the adaptation of ICT facilities into the teaching and learning of chemistry.