FOOD SANITATION: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIMITING FOOD BORNE INFECTION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AREA - UNIPROJECTS

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FOOD SANITATION: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIMITING FOOD BORNE INFECTION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AREA



FOOD SANITATION: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIMITING FOOD BORNE INFECTION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AREA
ABSTRACT
This research work is focused on the potential role for limiting food borne infections in the food service area.
The samples comprised four different canteen within the college premises which were selected from canteens in the study area.  Answers were sought to causes, effect, and possible suggestion to control the causes of food borne.
Based on the findings, the following recommendation and made to prevent contamination in the canteen.
1)                Practicing good personal and food hygiene
2)                Proper handling of raw and cook food
3)                Safe keeping of raw food and reheating of left over food with correct temperature.
4)                Using clean water for preparation and cooking of foods
5)                Improved food processing techniques
6)                Proper disposal of household refuse.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Food sanitation is one of the series of ways which are designed to prevent the contamination of food and keeping it safe to eat.  Numerous nations have specific laws in place concerning food sanitation, along with lengthy lists of recommendations, from public health agencies the practice of food sanitation is especially important to people in the food industry, at every step of the supply chain from workers in the fields to waiters at restaurants but home cooks also need to observe the basics of food sanitation for safety.  From the moment that food is harvested to the time that it is eaten, it is vulnerable to cross contamination with bacteria and other substances which could be harmful.  They key to food sanitation is keeping food safe and clean.  With all of the handless observing personal hygiene to avoid introducing harmful elements to food and complying with food sanitation.
Recommendations concerning safe holding temperatures for food, safe cooking temperatures, sterilization of cutting boards, and other implements and so forth, should be strictly adhere to.  At home, common sense precautions like keeping foods frozen or refrigerated before use, washing foods before consumption, washing hands before handling food, cooking or reheating food thoroughly, and using separate cutting boards for meats and vegetables are often sufficient to keep people from getting sick.  Certain foods may require additional precautions, people making foods with raw fishes and meats, for example, need to select their ingredients carefully at the store and handle them with special care because bacteria will not be eliminated through cooking.  In the commercial food industry which prepared packaged foods, and meals in restaurant, food sanitation can get extremely complex.  A single mistake along the sanitation chain could make numerous people sick.  For example, if someone failed to wash his or her hands after using the restroom and then prepare delicious boxed salads for customers, these customers could get sick from bacteria on the leaves of the salad greens.  Out breaks of food borne illness due to poor food sanitation are a recurrent problem in many regions of the world.  Failure to process foods properly has led to sickness from peanut, butter, spinach, hamburger-meat  and many other basic stapes.  Out breaks have also been traced to restaurants roadside food stands, and many other locations where food is sold or traded.  Even institution like churches and community bake sales are not exempt at from food sanitation issues.  It is important for people to remember to use handling precautions every time they come into contact with food.  If you prepare or handle food that will be eaten, you must be sure you meet the highest standards of sanitation and make sure the foods is safe to eat.  These standards and especially important if you work in a food services operation.  Also they are just as valid in your home kitchen, backyard barbecue, or at an office. (www.rawfoodsexperts.com., www.thefsc.co.uk.).
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to find out the:
1)                Perception of the customers about the waiters (servers) in the canteen
2)                Effect of food borne micro – organisms on food
3)                Various ways of practicing hygiene and sanitation to limit food borne infections in the canteen
4)                Possible causes of food borne diseases
5)                Possible suggestion on the control of food borne disease.
RESEARCH QUESTION
1)                What are the perception of customers about the waiters (servers) in the canteen?
2)                What are the effect of food borne micro – organisms on food?
3)                What are the various ways of practicing hygiene and sanitation to limit food borne infections in the canteen?
4)                What are the possible causes of food borne diseases?
5)                What are the possible suggestion on the control of food borne diseases.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher is faced with a lot of problem while conducting her research on this project work problems encountered by the researcher we include:
Limited time available for the research.  As a result of this she is unable to cover the broad areas of the research topic because of other academic assignment.  There is also a financial constraint against the researcher, there is not enough money available for the researcher for effective runnings during the research, there is no enough money to travel round to the food agencies and to browse the internets as expected while the researcher was going on hence, it has been limited to the campus area.
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited to customers who has patronized the available canteens in the college premises.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most food handler believe only maintaining the cleaningness of simple food hygiene.  But in the real sense of it, personal hygiene is even more important than the food hygiene.  Because the problem caused by attitude of handler can be more hazardous than it’s main object food.  Therefore there is need to make attitude of the food handler suitable to the consumers, other causes for instant are that most of the canteen who are illiterate contributes to the problems.  If the environment of where the food is prepared is not well kept while the hygienic condition of the handler is not considered it results to food hazard and food poisoning.  Although cases of food poisoning are not regularly reputed in restaurant, it is a fast mat food poisoning is on the increase in the developed and developing countries, not withstanding any attempt of improving food hygiene standard in highly demanded.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The possible benefits to be derived from this study will be useful to the family, units, community and country as a whole.  There is need for proper hygiene and sanitation in the canteen so that the risk of infections disease could be solved.  The significance of this study is to educate the masses on the danger of improper hygiene practices in the canteen and the need for proper sanitation in various home.  The extension workers could integrate the findings of this study in their programme and use them to plan programmes designed to help food seller and families in evolving and adopting effective hygiene practices in the canteen.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
FOOD: Food is any substance that is taken in by man or animal either solid or liquid which functions to repair worn out cells, synthesis tissues, aid growth and protect from contacting diseases.
FOOD BORNE ILLNESS: Illness caused in the body system as a result of taken contaminated food or food that is not well prepared.
TOXIN: A poisonous substances they may be found in food
VIBRIO: A bacteria some of which are associated with diarrhea disease.  Vibrio is found in fish and seafood.
FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS: are disease causing micro organism found in food, usually bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoa’s and viruses.
CROSS CONTAMINATION: The transfer of harmful substances or diseases causing micro organisms of food by hands, food contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food, are not cleaned, and then touch ready to eat foods.
BACTERIA: Living single cell organisms that are carried by water, wind, insects, plants, animals and people and survive on skin, clothes and human hair.
FOOD SAFETY: Refers to the conditions and practices that at preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and food borne illnesses.
INCUBATION PERIOD: This is referred to as period between the time when a contaminated food is consumed and the appearance of the first symptoms of illness.