EFFECTS OF SELECTED SCHOOL VARIABLES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI, EKITI STATE - UNIPROJECTS

Latest

TO GET COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL, CALL US ON 07064961036 (CHAT WITH US WHATSPP), 08068355992

CHAT

EFFECTS OF SELECTED SCHOOL VARIABLES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI, EKITI STATE



EFFECTS OF SELECTED SCHOOL VARIABLES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI, EKITI STATE
ABSTRACT
This research studied the effects of selected school variables on students’ academic performance in Biology in some selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, Ekiti State.  Survey design of the descriptive research was used to elicit information on the research topic.  Three hundred students from five selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti were used as sample.  Therefore, sixty (60) respondents were selected from each school using multi – stage random sampling technique.  The researcher designed self structure questionnaire for the study used for the research variables.  The reliability of the instrument was established using test – re – test method.  Reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained.  Data collected from section ‘A’ of the instrument was analysed descriptive statistics frequency counts and percentage while chi – square (x2) was used for the testing all hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.  This study showed that methods of teaching, teachers qualifications and school environment are the factors that influence the students academic performance in Biology in selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, Ekiti State.  Recommendations were made that appropriate teaching methods that will suit the stated objective should be applied and teachers should be exposed to short term course such as seminars and workshop to enhance their knowledge about their area of specialization, recommendations were made on how to improve the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                   
CERTIFICATION                                                                       
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                        
DEDICATION                                                                                 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                             
ABSTRACT                                                                                    
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                          
LIST OF FIGURES                                                                         
LIST OF TABLE                                                                      
LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                           
CHAPTER I:       INTRODUCTION
Background of the study                                                                           
Statement of the Problem                                                                          
Purpose of the study                                                                        
Significance of the study                                                                        
Scope of the study                                                                                     
Research questions                                                                          
Research Hypotheses                                                                       
Assumptions of the study                                                                      
Definition of Terms                                                                          

CHAPTER II:     REVIEW OF LITERATURE                              
Conceptual framework                                                                    
Method of teaching                                                                         
Teachers’ qualification                                                                     
School environment                                                                          
Theoretical framework                                                                     
Review of related empherical studies                                                  
CHAPTER III:    METHODOLOGY
Research design                                                                             
Area of the study                                                                       
Population of the study                                                                  
Sample and sampling techniques                                                     
Instrument for data collection                                                          
Validation of the instrument                                                           
Reliability of the instrument                                                            
Administration of the instrument                                                     
Data analysis technique(s)                                                              
CHAPTER IV:    PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
OF RESULTS                                                                                  
CHAPTER V:     DISCUSSION OF RESULTS,
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS      
Discussion of results                                                                        
Summary of the study                                                                     
Conclusions                                                                                  
Implications of the findings                                                           
Recommendations                                                                                    
Limitations of the study                                                                 
Suggestions for further studies                                                                  
REFERENCES                                                                               
APPENDICES                                                                                

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1:               Conceptual framework on students academic performance
Figure 2:               Theoretical framework on students academic performance.

LIST OF TABLES
Sample and sampling techniques
Table 1: Descriptive analyses on sex difference
Table 2: Descriptive analyses on qualification
Table 3: Descriptive analyses on experiences
Table 4: Chi – square statistics on method of teaching
Table 5: Chi – square statistics on teachers qualification
Table 6: Chi – square statistics on school environment





LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A:                  Questionnaire on Effects of selected school variables on students academic performance in Biology in some selected secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Appendix B:                  Reliability statistics using person’s product movement correlation (PPMC)
Appendix C:                  Letter of introduction to collect data/information to carry out experiment for the study
Appendix D:                  List of schools used for the study.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of his/her teachers.  The most important factor in improving student’s achievement in Biology is by employing seasonal qualified teachers in all schools.
Abe and Adu (2013), Okuruwa (1999) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance.
Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of student’s achievement in science and Biology.  It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in science and Biology, this report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary schools.  Such qualification include, but are not limited to the postgraduate certificate in Education (PGDE).  The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.ED) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE).
In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carryout instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer to those who are academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.SC, B.A and so on, while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education Edu and Kalu (2012).
They hold degrees like, B.ED, B.SC.ED, B.A.ED and M.ED and so on.  On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and student’s academic achievement.
For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teachers’ qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State.  The researcher found so significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and student’s performance.  While Adeniji (1999), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (1999) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with student’s cognitive achievement in Biology.  Coonery (1990) opined that students do not understand Biology when it is taught by an ineffective teacher.  Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher’s quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, class size and learning situation.  George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in Biology to teacher’s qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors.  In teaching Biology, Adesina (1982) and Fafunwa (1985) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.SC in Biology, many other teachers would be confronted with problem of teaching secondary school Biology syllabus effectively.
Hence Lussa (1985) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possesses.  He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do no have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals.
In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education: such professionally qualified teachers may according to the federal ministry of education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories. Mkpa (1987) regarded the trained teacher as someone who under went and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution or in a planned programmed of training.  Among such training may include principles and practice of education as well as be exposed to an observed period of intership either after or as part of the period of training people who fall within this category should under normal circumstance be able to fulfill the various functions expected of teacher within and outside the four walls of the classroom.
Furrugia (1987) perceived a professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of his/her country.  Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand student’s abilities to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she lives.  He/she should be able to assist students to reach their full intellectual and social potentials.
According to Adieze (1986) non qualified and non – professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers.  He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for.  T he comparison of student’s scores in biology achievement test based on teacher’s qualifications becomes necessary in order to know if formal teaching methods has any significant effect teaching methods has any significant effect/influence on student’s performance in biology or not.
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to be educators, government and parents.  This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country.  All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria.  Adebule (2004), parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired divided.
Poor academic performance is a performance that is adjudged by the examine/testee and some others significant as falling below an expected standard poor academic performance has been observed in school subject’s especially biology among secondary students.  Academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and parents, its effect are equally grave on the society in terms of death of man power.  In all spheres of the economy and politics.  Education at secondary school levy is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation toward higher knowledge in tertiary institutions.
It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be achieve a more rapid economic, social and political, technology, scientific and cultural development in the country.
The national policy on education (2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the society and equally of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real marginal disabilities.
The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels.
However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school to students because of their low retention parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement motivation and the likes Aremu and Sokan (2013); Aremu and Oluwole (2001); (2000).
Falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non – use of verbal reinforcement strategy, others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about students performance that could damage their ago, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupil’s academic performance.
Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning of biology depends to a large extent on teachers’ own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students.
However, a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teacher’s qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others.  While the parent study sought to determine the effect of teacher’s qualification on secondary school student’s performance in biology.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to find out how the selected school variables can be used as predictors of students academic performance in Biology in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
The research work will be carried out in other to critically examine the following:
i.                   To find out whether methods of teaching has an effects on academic performance of the students.
ii.                 To find out whether teachers qualification has an effects on academic performance of the students.
iii.              To find out whether school environment causes poor academic performance of the students.
Significance of the study
          The study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data for useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare of students.
The findings of this study will also generate and provide data on effects of school variables on student’s academic performance.

Scope of the study
This study will look into the effects of selected school variables on student’s Academic Performance in Biology in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
The study will cover all secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti, in Ekiti State.  The research will involve dependent variable of students academic performance in Biology and independent variable of method of teaching, teachers qualification and school environment.
The research will involve three (3) research assistant who will be trained by the researcher will be made use of.  The research instrument will be self – structured questionnaire and the analysis of the data will be done by using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages of analyse the demographic data while inferential statistics of chi – square (x2) will be used to test the hypotheses at P0.05 level of significance.
Research Questions
Specifically, this study therefore attempts to find answers to these research questions;
1)                Does method of teaching have an effects on academic performance of the students.
2)                Does teachers qualification have an effects on academic performance of the students.
3)                Does school environment causes poor academic performance of the students.


Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will be tested tested at P = 0.05 level of significance in this study:
1)                Teaching method will not significantly have an effect on the academic performance of the student.
2)                Teachers qualification will not significantly have an effect on academic performance of the student.
3)                School environment will not significantly causes poor academic performance of the student.
Assumption of the study
          The researcher assumes that the factors influencing the teachers qualification as determinant of students performance in Biology of secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State have not been included in the literature review by the previous researchers.
Researchers have been considered generally on teachers qualification as a determinant of student performance in Biology.
Definition of Terms
1)                Methodology: This is the means or strategies employed by teachers in attempt to impact knowledge to the learners.
2)                Teacher: Teacher is a person that impact knowledge on a student or a person whose job is teaching.
3)                Poor academic performance: Is a performance that is adjudged by the examiner/tested and some other significant as falling below an expected standard.