DETERMINATION OF THE ACID VALUE OF SOME MARKETABLE VEGETABLE OILS - UNIPROJECTS

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DETERMINATION OF THE ACID VALUE OF SOME MARKETABLE VEGETABLE OILS



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                             
Certification                                                                                     
Dedication                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of content                                                           
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                           
1.1            Historical Background of vegetable oil                         
1.2            Cultivation of Vegetable Oils                                       
1.3            Climatic Condition                                                  
1.4            Soil                                                                                
1.5            Water availability and quality                                      
1.6            Economic importance of vegetable oil                                    
CHAPTER TWO
2.1            Fats and oils                                                                           
2.2            Properties of fats and oils                                             
2.3            Analysis of fats and oils                                                         
2.4            Functions of fats in the diet                                        
2.5            Sources of fat and oil with diet                                               
2.6            Fat content of some foods                                            
CHAPTER THREE   
3.1     Title                                                                           
3.2     Aim                                                                         
3.3     Materials                                                                  
3.4     Apparatus used                                                          
3.5     Theory                                                                          
3.6     Method                                                                         
3.7     Observation                                                                            
3.8     Results                                                                        
CHAPTER FOUR  
4.0     Discussion and Conclusion                                           
REFERENCES                                                                   


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Historical Background of Vegetable Oils
Vegetable oils originated plants and some cash crops.  We can manufacture vegetable oils from either palm kernels, coconuts, Groundnuts, melons or soya beans e.t.c. vegetable oils are derived from these plants which are consumed in relatively small quantities as a side- dish or a relish with sample food. Most vegetables are leaves, roots or stems of herbaceous plants although flowers, calyces, immature seeds or fruits may also be consumed as vegetables. Nutritionally, vegetable oils are good source of vitamins, protein, minerals, fibres and they form part of the composition of some of the important dishes in the tropical area.
In Africa, three major classes of vegetable are consumed (a) those that are gathered from the wild such as baobab leaves, leaves of purslane (portulaca) (b) indigeneous vegetable oil which are gathered but are also cultivated, such as Amarathus, (c) imported vegetable species which are cultivated. Only those vegetables included in the latter two categories have been known, this selection should not, however, be construed as dimishing the importance of gathered vegetable oils.
1.2     Cultivation of Vegetable Oils
(Planting of vegetable crops like palm trees, coconuts, melon and groundnut): palm tree and coconut trees are cash crops and they are mainly grown in forest zone of the country while the nuts are mainly grown in savanna zone of the country like melon, and groundnuts. Most of these vegetables plants are propagated by seeds some can be nursed before transfer to permanent site. The soil requirement are dry- loamy soil, while that of melons and groundnut are well developed in loamy soil. Melons and groundnut s can be classified into the group of annual crops, but in case of coconuts and palm trees they are cash crops. But most of these crop seeds are extracted to vegetable oil through extraction processing.
1.3     Climatic Condition
1.                 Rainfall: Both the total annual amount and the monthly distribution should be considered carefully in selecting the site of growth. Many crops are sensitive to excessive water in root zone and the rainfall patter is therefore likely to determine the range of crops which can be grown. Some crops are save raly damaged due to periods of prolonged wet weather. Where the wet season is limited and there are either one or two distinct dry periods, irrigation may be required to provide the soil water necessary for normal growth.
2.                 Temperature: This is another major factor affecting growth of many vegetable but one which cannot easily be modified in any practical manner. Those crops which are either sensitive or tolerant to high temperatures should be selected for local prevailing conditions.
3.                  Topography: of an arwa has important relation to temperature and temperature variation which occurs at elevations over 800-1000m is beneficial to many crops particularly leaf crops.
4.                 Day Length: is also important factor which has to be considered in the selection of some introduced or exotic types of vegetables, particularly those which originated in sub tropical or temperate regions. Many of these are adapted to day lengths longer than the 12-13 hours which is typical of most areas and it is therefore necessary to ensure that only cultivate which respond to relatively short days, or are day- length neutral are grown in most tropical regions.  
1.4            Soil: a soil analysis, used to determine the reserves of chemical nutrients in soil is more difficult and has normally to be undertaken by a government soil analytical laboratory.
1.5            Water availability and quality: The quality of available water for irrigation is very important, first, the chemical content should be considered as it may affect the total salt level of the sample, rendering it too saline for irrigation purposes. Brassicas are relatively salt tolerant, where as cucubits, for example, are not. There may be specific chemicals such as boron, present in sufficient proportions for toxicity problems to arise with susceptible crops. Sediments or other materials such as algae in suspension may blocks the fine outlets sprinklers, spray lines, or trickle systems,.  
1.6            Economic importance of vegetable oils:
i.                   Source of income, vegetable oils are mainly produced for domestic uses, people do buy oil and generate money from the sales.
ii.                 Source of foreign exchange, this can also generate fund for the country through buying and selling, it may be through the process of international trade.
iii.              Source of food: people do consume and eat vegetable oils directly as part of dish composition.