TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Historical Background
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.2 Core Concepts of TQM
2.3 TQM and Organizational Culture
2.4 TQM and Human Resources Management
2.5 TQM and Manufacturing Company
2.7 Five Dimension of Customers Requirement
2.8 Total Quality Management and Performance2.9 Total Quality Management and Quality
Improvement versus Cost
2.10 TQM and Quality Control and
2.11 Management Theories and Practices
Contribution to TQM
2.12 Benefits of Total Quality Management
2.13 Phase of TQM
2.14 The Ten Commandment of Product Management
2.15 Why Join the TQM Train
2.16 Summary of Knowledge Derwed
From Literature Review
3.1 Sources of Data Collection
3.2 Data Collection Instrument
3.3 Sample Size
3.4 Administration of the Questionnaire
3.5 Analysis of Data
4.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Analysis of Data
4.4 Testing for Hypothesis
4.5 Discussion of Result
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
for Further Studies
5.2 Summary Of Findings
5.4 Recommendation To Management
5.5 Recommendation For Further Studies
First propounded by a Greek philosopher, that man seeks to minimize his satisfaction and will this patronize products that provide him with the best satisfaction’.
The concept and philosophy of total quality management is becoming well known and is now widely embraced as an effective strategy for organisation effectiveness.
Total quality management (TQM) is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of a product through ongoing refinement in response to continues feedback. It is based on quality management from the customer point of view.
Total quality management (TQM) can be applied to any type of organisation. It is originated in the manufacturing sector and has since been adopted for use in almost every type of organsiation imaginable including school, highway maintenance, hotel and churches.
Total quality management (TQM) is a customer focused performance enhancing tool in which can be applied to any type of Manufacturer Company. It balances the diver’s elements of business (leadership strategic planning, human resources development and management processes management information system (MIS) employee’s external customers and stakeholders) and aligns then to achieve excel but business results.
The term that feature prominently in the above definitions is “CUSTOMER SATISFACTION” Total quality management is a philosophy that focuses attention on the satisfaction of the customers need as the customer is the focus of everything that the company engages in whether external customer for end product or internal customers who are within the organisation.
The customers’ importance cannot be overemphasized in any production or service oriented company.
According to Wilson 1993 of Xerox corporation who said “it is the customer and the customer alone who will ultimately determine whether we succeed or fail as a company services the customer is the responsibility of all Xerox employee’s”
The customers preference and requirement should be continuously assessed and analyzed through an effective research to determine or anticipate the trends in the customer taste. Based on the conclusion drawn from research findings, products/service can be classified and modified in form of branding, packaging, quality improvement etc. to meet or surpass the customers’ needs.
Customers’ preference and requirement may relate to speed of delivery of product/service conformance to specifications, reliability of service, quality of support service etc.
Total quality management (TQM), aim at ensuring continuous improvement in the operations, so that the right product in the right quality with the right quality at the right price reaches the customers.
It is important to note that for any company (organisation to address customers needs and improve it effort to satisfy these needs, it must become process oriented i.e need to focus on it processes. Process orientation will require a significant change in the thinking of most managers. This is because prior to now, managers have essentially been trained to think in terms of individual actions and objectives. However, companies are essentially made of People, Processes, System and Strategic. Anything done as a company is accomplished through steps and actions, which are components of processes. In order effect positive and productive changes, it is necessary to examine issues of holistic view point rather than on an individualistic basic.
A process can be this defined as a service of actions which take an input and turn it into an output that satisfies the need of both internal and external customers.
A measure of performance plays an important role in the functioning of any organisation. They are used as means of improvement of setting overall performance for highlighting the potential means of improvement of targets and of providing incentive to individual and areas of profitability, employee loyalty stakeholders satisfaction and assurance of sustainal growth and earning.
Total quality management (TQM) is certainly the key to success of business organisation.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The term total quality was used for the first time in a paper by Feigenbaum at the first international conference on quality control in Tokyo in 1969. In the 1980 to the 1990s a new phase of total quality control and management began. This became known as Total Quality Management (TQM). It developed as a catch all phase for the broad spectrum of qual;ity. Focused strategic programme and techniques during this period became the centre of focus for the western quality movement.
As a preclude to the definition of TQM other concept existed before its Orihin. Akpell (1996) TQM a tool for organisation excellence, Nigeria institute of management magazine state that “management tool such as management by objective (MBO), strategic management, Target management , organisation and method, work study which were prominent on the business scene at one time or the other were swept off by position of pre-eminence by TQM.
Total quality management (TQM) brings together customer service, product quality, productivity and cost reduction in a new and powerful combination and possesses it now revolutionary and unique features such features include the following.
Ø The ability to generate impact outside the confines on a manufacturing company, TQM has evolved as a management concept out of the need by companies for continuous quality improvement and critical importance of increased in profitability and as competitions becomes very stiff.
Ø The ability to reduce dramatic improvement in manufacturing
Ø The special recognition of the customer internal and external as a linch pin in business resulting in the alignment of all business processes (technical, administrative, human resources development, Financial auditing e.t.c) to satisfy the customer.
Ø The inversion of organizational pyramid where employees in
leadership position give up their command and control role for the more powerful role of coaching, supporting, enabling and empowering the internal customers to deliver quality.
There is no business today that can afford to ignore customers and the competitors. Therefore manufacturing company that focus on the quality of service grows faster sometimes twice as fast as the competitors in the market. This, the above factors gave rise to TQM in Nigeria since most manufacturing company operate in a volatile business environment where survival against all odds is the watchword.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The study of TQM is at great importance in the manufacturing companies because if they do not perform as they should, the whole economy would be adversely affected as non- performance due to non- implementation of appropriate TQM strategies lead to distress.
The advert of TQM is a management tool used by manufactures to contribute immensely to professional service, quality delivery and tremendous improvement to aggregate manufacturers’ profits. This problem statement can be made to read this ‘how does TQM impact in manufacturing company.
While significant volume of research work on TQM could be found on other sectors of the economy especially in manufacturing company only few exists in the financial sector. An employee that is not properly oriented or grossly dissatisfied with what obtains in his work[lace could easily cause a dysfunction to the entire system. Regardless of the study he is expected to look into the following areas.
i. What TQM is all about
ii. Nigeria bottling company plc management policies and
practices in respect of TQM philosophy.
iii. The TQM approach adopted in Nigeria bottling company plc.
iv. The relative effects of the polices and practices on the company/organisation.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are to
i. Identify the manufacturing organisation policy with a view of
determining the comprehensiveness in terms of scope and level of TQM adopted
ii. Determine the extent of management and employee’s commitment to TQM philosophy.
iii. Cover the level and degree of satisfaction by manufacturer customers.
iv. Finding the adequacy of resources committed to the programme
v. Analyse, discuss and examine the effectiveness of TQM in the enhancement of organizational performance taking into consideration mutual satisfaction of all principal actors in the process.
vi. Determine to what level has TQM been able to increase productivity to the achievement of the manufacturing objectives.
vii. Provide useful suggestion on the need for adoption of appropriate TQM ideal with a view of achieving better performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Questions to guide this research study include:
i. Does total quality management (TQM) lead to increased performance?
ii. Is there any relationship between Total quality management and employee performance.
iii. To what level is an employee involved in decisions making prior to the adoption total quality management.
iv. Is Total quality management comprehensive in term of people process and product/ service?
v. To what extent is the management committed to the programme?
vi. Does manufacturing activities solicit feedback on total quality management from employee and customer alike?
vii. Has the manufacturers encountered any contracts on implementation of total quality management.
viii. What level of resource is committed to the programme?
ix. How close is manufacturing companies in achieving its strategic mission and objectives?
x. What is the level of commitment and support from management top down?
xi. Does total quality management (TQM) bring about increased profitability
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
On the course of this research, two set of hypothesis will be subject to critical test and analysis.
Ho: The manufacturing organisation does not have a TQM policy.
Hi: The manufacturing organisation has a TQM policy
Ho: TQM does not reduced the cost of bad quality
Hi: TQM has reduced the cost of bad quality
Ho: Individual managers does not work together to achieve the organisation goal
Hi: Individual managers’ work together to achieve the organisation goal
Ho: Subordinate are not friendly in carrying out team assignment.
Hi: Subordinate are friendly in carrying out team assignment.
Ho: Quality is not a serious business in a manufacturing company.
Hi: Quality is a serious business in a manufacturing company.
Ho: Employees does not try as mush as possible to curb necessary waste.
Hi: Employees as try as mush as possible to curb necessary waste.
Ho: Customers are not satisfied with the organisation product
Hi: Customers are satisfied with the organisation product
Ho: Service/ product delivery has not enhanced customers’ loyalty
Hi: Service/ product delivery has enhanced customers’ loyalty
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will identify the impacts of TQM on manufacturing company leading to mutual satisfaction of all their prospective customers in the relationship moreover the findings of this study could be explored as inputs for planning and in the formation of relevant policies concerning employees in the organisation and other business concerns. The effects of this is that improved performance can be ensured from employees translating into higher returns on investment (ROI) thereby ensuring the going concern status and continued existence of the organisation.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work will endeavour to focus on Nigeria bottling company plc, some of its branches and as well as head office and departments.
The findings of the study may be generalized to the total quality management (TQM) adopted by other organisation within and outside the manufacturing industries. Nevertheless, it will give an insight into the problems and prospects of effective as well as efficient total quality management 9TQM) implementation and management by other companies nationwide.
The study will also be limited to the employees of the organisation and management. And the intention of the study is to carryout, among other things, the following:
i. The effect of current total quality management (TQM) approach being adopted.
ii. The effect of the past approaches to the survivals of the manufacturer
iii. The attitude and acceptance of top level management towards total quality management (TQM).
iv. To what extent has total quality management (TQM) been able to aid the manufacturing industry to achieve it objectives.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limitation is a constraint from time and the liability to retrieve some vital information from the management and other high net worth customers.