EFFECT OF COMPUTER BASED LEARNING ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOES IN EKITI STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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EFFECT OF COMPUTER BASED LEARNING ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOES IN EKITI STATE



EFFECT OF COMPUTER BASED LEARNING ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE


Cover page                                                                                    
Title page                                                                                        
Certification                                                                                     
Approval page                                                                                 
Dedication                                                                                       
Acknowledgements                                                                        
Table of contents                                                                             
Abstract                                                                                           
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study                                                                           
Statement of the Problem                                                                           
Purpose of the study                                                                         
Research Question                                                                            
Research Hypothesis                                                                        
Significance of the study                                                                  
Scope of the study                                                                                      
CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Studies on students’ performance in science                                              
Studies on use of computer learning strategies                                 
Studies on difficult subject among students                                               
Causes of these difficult topic integrated science                                        
ICT and science learning                                                                            
Theoretical framework of the study                                                  
Theory of anchored instruction                                                                  
Cognitive apprenticeship theory                                                                                       
Review of related empirical studies                                                  
CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                               
Population of study                                                                                   
Sample and sampling techniques                                                      
Data collection                                                                                  
Validation of the instrument                                                             
Reliability of the instrument                                                             
Administration of the instrument                                                               
Data analysis                                                                                    
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION            
Data analysis                                                                                    
Socio demographic characteristics                                                    
Analysis of hypothesis                                                                     
  CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                                                                          
Conclusion                                                                                                 
Recommendation                                                                                       
Suggestions for further research                                                                 
Reference                                                                                          
Appendix                                                                                         
 
ABSTRACT
The study is aimed at investigating the effect of computer based learning on students academic performance in integrated science. To carry out the study, three  research questions were   reviewed in line with the purpose of the study. three hypotheses  were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of the study was quasi-experimental design consisting of pre-test, post-test statistics were used the population of the study consisted of all students in secondary schools class one in Ikere Ekiti. 80 students were randomly sampled from  four secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti. Two schools consisted the sample for the experimental group while the remaining two schools were used for the control groups. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANCOVA. The findings shows that: students taught integrated science with computer based learning (CBL) performed significantly better that their counterpart. Gender had no significant influence on students performance. Based on the findings, the results further revealed that the use of CBL made the teaching and learning of integrated science meaningful. Recommendation were made which include, the Government should make effort in revisiting the curriculum with a view of incorporating the use of computer assisted instruction in teaching Integrated Science. The teachers should be trained to be computer literate. There should be adequate funding and provision of computers in our secondary schools for use in the teaching and learning process. And Teachers of Integrated Science    should be engaged in seminars and computer literacy workshops to keep them up to date of computer and its application in teaching. 


CHAPTER  I
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Nigeria  is becoming more sophisticated technologically. The industrial age gave way to information age, an info-tech era which is as vital as the water we drink because this has brought positive changes to the society, business, education and other facets of human life. In fact, the educational sector is not exempted from the benefit of participation in an information-rich computerized society. To keep to date with the emerging technological changes at the national, regional and global environments, our present educational system is continuously upgrading its resources through the modernization of the various elements of the system. Modernization can be pursed through the introduction of modern instructional aides and materials such as multimedia gadgets like computers, CD-ROM, TV, internet among others (Caday, 2004). Linn (2003) stated that information and communication technology had had a convoluted but ultimately advantageous impact on science teaching.
Computers offer exciting approaches to teaching that were not even dreamt of two decades ago, but the extent to which the educational potential of computer technology will be realized remains to be seen (Amara, 2006). Computer technology has caught the attention of many researchers and educators and computer-based instructional applications are considered effective alternative to traditional teaching method (Yushau, 2006). Research findings explicitly reported that science education and computer technology had created a meaningful partnership over the century (Flick & Bell, 2000). Thomas (2001) argued that very little was known about the use of computer in science classrooms and its effects on students learning. It is obvious that the current trends in research all over the world involve the use of computer facilities and resources to enhance students learning. This may be the reason why Handelsman, Ebert-May, Beichner, Bruns, Chang, Detloan, Gentile, Lauffer, Stewart, Tilghman and Wood (2004: 521) opined that “many exercises that depart from traditional method are now readily accessible on the web”, even though teachers did not use these facilities. They further showed that the interactive approaches to teaching significantly enhanced learning. Computer and Science are inseparable transformational tool for increased productivity, income generation and security awareness.
If the traditional methods are thought to be insufficient in educatingan individual who is supposed to have the contemporary skills, one of themost effective ways is taking advantage of instruction technologies,especially the computers (Altun, Uysal and Ünal, 1999; Yigit and Akdeniz,2000). Particularly, reasons like the un proportional change of the students and the teachers’ numbers, complexification of content due to the dataquantity, some applications’ importance that show the individual differencesdirect people to benefit from the computers in education ( Alkan, 1998;Usun, 2000).
With the use computers in education, a lot of terms have come into and gone out of use in education (Owusu, Monney, Appiah, & Wilmot,2010). The overlapping terms related to the uses of computer and associated technologies in science education are categorized into three by Bybee, Poewll, & Trowbridge (2008) as follows: learning about computers, learning with computers and learning through computers.
Big impact is placed on the computer-based science and education as well as ordinary science laboratories in the educational curricula in the world. One of the aims of the science and technology course is to train individuals capable of keeping up the fast developing and changing science world and capable of utilizing the recent technological discoveries in every field. As a result of the rapid development of the information and communication technology, the use of computers in education has become inevitable. The use of technology in education provides the students with a more suitable environment to learn, serves to create interest and a learning centered-atmosphere, and helps increase the students’ motivation. The use of technology in this way plays an important role in the teaching and learning process (Isman, Baytekin, Balkan, Horzum, &Kiyici, 2002). Liao (2007) found out that CBI had a positive effect on individuals by comparing 52 research studies carried out in Taiwan in his meta-analysis study.. According to Alessi & Trollip (2005), it is possible to divide educational software into five different types such as tutorial, drill and practice, simulation, educational games and hypermedia type. For effective and productive teaching, these techniques should be used with some classroom activities.
These are: presentation, demonstration, practice and evaluation of learning (Özmen, 2004). The use of computer technology enables learners be active in the learning process, to construct knowledge, to develop problem solving skills and to discover alternative solutions (Özmen, 2008). The computer-based Instruction makes teaching techniques far more effective than those of the traditional teaching methods as it is used for presenting information, testing and evaluation and providing feedback. It makes a contribution to the individualization of education. It motivates students and gets them to take an active part in the learning process. It helps to develop creativity and problem solving skills, identity and self-reliance in learners. CBI provides drawings, graphics, animation, music and plenty materials for the students to proceed at their own pace and in line with their individual differences. It serves to control lots of variables having an impact on learning, which cannot be controlled by means of traditional educational techniques (Kaili, 2000; Chang, 2002).
Due to the role of new and modern technologies in today’s world, many various opportunities can becreated for the process of education ubiquitously emphasizing on the training of teacher-based affairs totransfer on the student. The main purpose is how these approaches can make the process of learning towards the students effectively and how they can adjust their tasks based on the same issues through interacting along with facilitator instruments going towards the educational progression. The combination of technology in lesson plan is one of the most modern approaches for implementing the educationaltargets. In many countries the information technology and communications has the highest importance asa strategic case for supporting the coaches in learning planning and designing processes Zakeri, A.(2001).The appearance of computer and Internet has also the highest significant on the educational systems. One of these important ways can be subjected to the change of teachers’ role and learning approaches and navigations Seif, A.A. (2008). The world is rapidly changing facing with traditional learning methods with information of overcoming ability Krasely, G. (2004).Seif believes that in traditional educational planning or teacher-based educational activities and students play key role in this regard and the educational purposes are clearly specified in educational planning . Hiromi (2002) gives a new framework of this interaction bymentioning the interactions levels in relation to the traditional educational system including the interactions of students-students Abedi, J. (1993], students-teachers and content-student in a computer-based environment.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of poor performance in Nigeria today has been a source of worry to parents, policy makers, examination bodies, teachers and the nation as a whole. Efforts have been made by  Science Teachers' Association of Nigeria and individuals to avert this situation but they seem not to have yielded the desired results.
Research findings have shown that several factors militate against improved and effective academic achievement of our students in integrated science  and other Science subjects. These include the application of wrong and. ineffective instructional strategies in our schools. The above has hinder students from acquiring  Science Process Skills that will enable them comprehend  scientific concepts in order to excel in  examinations, thereby limiting their ability to live self reliant lives in the society after graduation from secondary school.
The problem of this study therefore is aimed at investigating the effect of computer based learning on students academic performance in integrated science among junior secondary in Ekiti State.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to find out effect of computer based learning on students academic performance in integrated science among junior secondary in Ekiti State.
Specifically, the study investigated
1.     If computer based learning instruction have effect on  students academic performance in in Integrated science
2.     The influence of students gender on students  academic performance using computer based learning in Integrated Science.
3.     The  influence of school location have any significant  influence on students academic performance using computer based learning instruction
Research Questions
The following research questions directed this study
1.     Does  Computer based learning instruction have effect on  students academic performance in in Integrated science?
2.     What influence will students gender have on academic performance using computer based learning instruction in Integrated Science?
3.     Would school location have any significant  influence on students academic performance using computer based learning instruction?
Research hypothesis
The following null hypothesis were tested
Ho­1 There is no significant difference in the academic performance of integrated students exposed to computer based learning instruction and their counterparts not exposed.
Ho2  There is no significant different in the academic performance of male students exposed to computer based learning and their female counterparts
Ho3    There is no significant in the academic of integrated science students in urban location exposed to computer based learning and their rural counterparts
Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized as many researchers in the fields have made useful observations towards its impacts on the fields of education and other human endeavour. Hung, (2007) asserts that the use of computer has improved students’ writing skills
The diffusion and use of computer in education is very important because it will lead to improvement in teaching and learning process. In developing nations, ICTs have brought a technological reduction whose utilizations and production have been somewhat limited but whose potentials diffusion hold a great promise in accelerating the performances of both the teachers and students in our educational system.
Scope of the study
The study is aimed at investigating the effect of computer assisted learning on students academic performance in integrated science. The study cover five selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti state