EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
Purpose of the study
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Descriptions of data gathering instrument
Validation of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Method of data collection
IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Suggestion for future research
This study focused on the evaluation of factors affecting teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in secondary schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government Area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State. The findings revealed that there no adequate facilities in the school for effective teaching and learning. Parent’s attitudes towards Agricultural Science as a subject is another factor militating against the effective teaching and learning of Agricultural science, because they use to discourage their children toward offering the subject. It was also gathered that lack of interest in Agricultural science by students is one of the factors affecting teaching and learning of Agricultural science in secondary schools. Implications of the findings were discussed and a number of recommendations made on how to make teaching and learning of agricultural science in the secondary schools more effective and rewarding.
Background of the Study
Agriculture is the science, art or occupation concerned with cultivating land, producing crops, feeding, breeding and raising livestock, farming. Agriculture is the simplification of nature’s food webs and the rechanneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption. To simplify, agriculture involves redirecting natures natural flow web is the sum provides light to plants.
The importance of agriculture as a vocational subject to students in secondary schools and the entire human race cannot be disregarded as it prepares them to become responsible and dependable people in the society. It is such an education that makes people to be self reliant and self employed.
Teaching and learning of agricultural science had been given a thorough research by many researchers. Teaching can be defined as the impactation of knowledge. According to Akinpelu (1992), teaching is a body of actions intended to induce learning. He further defined teaching as the conscious and deliberate effort by a matured or experience person with intention that the student will learn or believe what is taught on a rational basis. According to Oyinloye G.O. (1995) teaching is defined as activities undertaken by a more experienced and knowledgeable person in order to make others learn. He further pointed out that teaching involve influencing someone to change ones attitude on the basis of new skills, knowledge and appreciation. However, learning on the part of learner is very important because it can either be positive or negative depending on what was disseminated.
Learning according to Franz (1939), involves, and in reality consists of a modification of instinctive or reflex responses.
King (1972) defined learning as a permanent change in behavior resulting from the conditions of practice.
However, learning is thus generally accepted and defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior which occurs at a result of practice or experience.
Teaching and learning of Agricultural science as a subject does not only take place within the wall of an institution but also in our everyday engagements. It also involves practical’s.
From a layman’s point of view, agricultural science as subject is seen as a simple and very easy subject, most people see it as just production of crops and animal that are useful to man, but the concept of agricultural science means the art and science of production of plant and animal that are useful to man, that is, agricultural science is an art at the same time it is also a science. Some techniques are involved in Agricultural practices. There include seed rate, planting distance, diameter of the ridges, the climatic and soil requirement, diseases and pest infestation among others, similarly, other like animal production and the technicalities involved, agricultural economics, management and practices needed to be taught to the students.
Agricultural science does not only provide food for the masses but also serves as one of the major sources of national revenue and principal foreign exchange earner. Agricultural also serves as a source of gainful employment. How ever Okpara (1982), suggested that our National development effort must be one where agriculture has a clear and unequivocational priority both in theory and practical in our secondary schools today, the realistic approach towards making the teaching and learning of agricultural science attractive to both teacher and pupils has not been made.
Inspite of government numerous effort like establishment or more agriculture schools, encouragement of university to run agricultural education programme and training of agricultural education teachers with government emphasis and directive on farming and the teaching of agricultural science in the schools should have expected a very transit change in food production and farming activities but that has not been the case. This is mainly due to problems associated with the teaching and learning of agricultural science in the secondary schools.
According to the national policy on education, the objectives of secondary schools are to prepare students for a useful living in a science and technological oriented society and to equip students with the skills necessary for copping with the demand of higher education. In pursuit of these two objectives, the policy describe agricultural science as a core subject not only at the junior but also at senior secondary school level.
Statement of the ProblemsFOR COMPLETE PROJECT CALL 07064961036
Purpose of the Study
There has been much reports on the poor image of agricultural science in secondary schools. Some people attribute this to youths unwillingness to study agricultural as a profession.
Some still claim that teachers of agriculture fail to arouse the interest of students towards the study of agriculture, while some maintain that the pogramme implementation coupled with lack of necessary infrastructures are the cause.
The objectives of this study are to determine:-
1. Whether agricultural science were taught in all schools that responded to the survey.
2. To evaluate the attitude of Irepodun / Ifelodun Local Government secondary school students towards learning of agricultural science.
3. If secondary schools in the local government have special laboratories for agricultural science teaching.
4. Agricultural science teachers in the local government enjoy consultant service from the specialist in agriculture.
Significance of the Study
Nigeria with all her agricultural potentialities cannot produce enough food for her populace and enough raw materials to sustain her home industries. This problem can partly be solved by a redirection of youths towards agricultural education being the centre nerve for the development of any country. However, the vehicle that carries development is the teaching profession, and it is entrusted in the hands of teachers. It is necessary to find out how learners perceive effective teaching and the factors affecting teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State. This will be useful to education administrators and teachers so that teaching and learning of the subject can be made more effective.
Hence, the outcome of this study will be an possible area of assistance which could enhance students better performance in the subject, and could also provide some information to help the students overcome their problems in agricultural science.
The following research questions were raised and it is hoped that the answers to these questions will be useful for the study.
1. Are all schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government has agricultural science teacher?
2. What are the attitude of students in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government towards learning of agricultural science
3. What are the agricultural science teaching facilities present in the schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government
4. To what extent do the teachers of agricultural science in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government undergo retaining programmes.
Assumption of the Study
The study covered some few schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun local government area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State.
This study is limited due to time and financial constraints thus making it possible for a large sample to be used for the study.
Limitation of the Study
The researches were based on evaluating the factors affecting teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government area of Igede Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Definition of Term
Agriculture: Raising management of crops and animals for the purpose of man’s use
Evaluation: Evaluation can be defined as both quantitative and qualitative description of an object plus value judgment. It is also a process of determining the extent to which an instructional objectives are achieved by the learners.
Teaching: The act, process, or art of the impacting knowledge and skills.
Learning: The activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study.
FOR COMPLETE PROJECT CALL 07064961036