FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MASS FAILURE IN PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN THREE SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE - UNIPROJECTS

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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MASS FAILURE IN PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN THREE SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE


FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MASS FAILURE IN PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN THREE SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                i
Certification                                                                                      ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgements                                                                 iv
Abstract                                                                                  vi
Table of contents                                                                     vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                             
Background to the Study                                                                 
Statement of the Problem                                                                 
Purpose of the Study                                                              
Significance of the Study                                                                 
Scope of the study                                              
Research Questions                                   
CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW       
Introduction
Historical background of accounting
Concepts of principle of Accounting 
Objectives of principle of Accounting 
Methods of teaching principle of Accounting 
The roles of instructional materials in teaching principle of Accounting
Teacher’s attitude as its effects on student’s performance, students learning attitude and its effect on their performances
Factors responsible for mass failure in accounting
Empirical studies
Theoretical framework
Summary of literature review
CHAPTER THREE              
Research design
Population of the study
Samples and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Data analysis techniques
CHAPTER FOUR
Descriptive analyses
Discussion of Findings                                                           
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of the study                                                            
Conclusion          
Suggestion for further studies
Limitation of the study                                                           
Recommendation                                                                    
References                                                                              
Appendix A: Questionnaire                                                    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
It is  true  that  many  students in Accounting Education today do  not  have  secondary  school  background  in Accounting unlike Mathematics, Economics, “English, Government and so on therefore, they tend to have a negative attitude at the very beginning of the course at the  university and assume  that  accounting  is  a  very  difficult  course.
Students   negative attitude toward accounting, considering it a difficult subject.  This  is usually  manifested  by  their  poor  performance  and  high  rate  of  failure  in  Principles  of accounting. 
          Since principle of Accounting has come to stay in Nigeria secondary school the factors that affect students’ performance in the subject becomes a necessity.
Factor that enhances academic performance among learners according to some findings is gender. That is to say that there are indications of gender bias in examination performance i.e. male tend to perform higher than females in examination due to certain extraneous factors ( Kabir 2009), In the same way to maintain the view that past performance was found to be related to future performance. This is also by Kalil (2008) where he maintained that students past performance in ‘0’ level examination was found to be related to their future performance The concept of learning environment is very broad and its effect on learning cannot be over-emphasized. Akinboye et al (1981) maintained that the physical environment is complex; its effects on learning are also complex. In the physical environment there are forces such as temperature, pressure, and humidity which affect individual and consequently his learning. He further stressed that learning is a product of an individual’s interaction, with his environment. This position maintained that, a conducive environment is necessary for effective learning.
          As for education in school to be effective the environment needs to be conducive to learning, allowing the pupils’ space and time to interact within the learning and teaching process. Creating and maintaining stimulating learning environment can be achieved through effective and classroom organization, interactive and whole school displays and a climate if innovation. It is important to note that good learning and teaching displays in classrooms and corridor reflecting a broad and balanced curriculum which is well matched to the needs of the pupils.
Therefore, if a good a well maintained learning environment is ensured, the students will appear to perform better and produce good result. But most of the schools in Ekiti State do not meet the entire requirement for effective learning environment particularly in rural areas. Thus, greater parts of many primary schools have their roofs blown-off by wind. Therefore, children under this condition are forced to study without being free from the effect of weather, rain, sun, and wind. In a situation where the physical comfort of the children is not guaranteed it is then not ideal for learning. NT.I (2000) puts it together that conducive teaching-learning environment is a pre-requisite for effective learning in most secondary schools in Ekiti State.
Previous  research  work  on  students’  success  factors  in  accounting,  such  as  Tailab  (2013), Uyor and Gungornus (2011) and Adeleke, Binyuomote and Adoyinka (2013), examined the two extreme  factors  (students-related  and  teachers-related) with  little  or  no consideration  given  to the factor that brings the symbolism between teachers and students (institutional factors). More so, although the high rate of students’ failure in  principle of in Nigerian secondary schools is clearly observable, to the best of our knowledge, there are scanty empirical studies in Nigerian that  have  examined  factors  responsible  for  this  poor  students’  achievement.  In order to close these existing gaps, this study is therefore aimed at investigating the factors and the effect of mass failure in principle of Accounting in Nigeria secondary school
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Statement of the Problem
Observations and reports from examining bodies like WAEC, NECO and JAMB revealed that a high percentage of secondary school students continue to perform poorly in principle of accounting. Despite the laudable efforts at developing an acceptable general accounting curriculum students’ performance in the subject appears to be declining over the years.  Yet in the face of all these efforts put in place by various stake holder and curriculum planner the rate and degree of students’ poor performance in senior secondary school examination in principle of accounting must now be a problem of national concern. The question that readily comes to mind is; what are the factors responsible for mass failure in principle of accounting in secondary school examination? Are the teachers of principle of accounting adequately qualified and properly trained in the subject? Is the excessive workload and lack of teacher training facilities at the root of poor performances of student?
Purpose of the study 
This study examines the factors responsible for mass failure in principle of accounting in three selected secondary schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State
Specifically, the study will;
1.     Determine if teachers’ and students’ attitude to teaching and learning of principle of accounting is one the major factors responsible for mass failure
2.     Determine if  school environment contribute to mass failure in accounting
3.     Find out if Teachers’ teaching methods contribute to mass failure in principle of accounting
4.     Find out  if  teachers’ use of instructional materials contribute to mass failure in accounting 
 Research Questions
To achieve the objective of the study, five research questions were raised.
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Significance of Study
It is the sincere hope of the researcher that by carrying out this study of the factors responsible for mass failure in Accounting and proffering solutions, the findings and recommendations would be of a great help to all stakeholders who have anything to do with the success or failure of the child in school; school administrators, classroom teachers, psychologists, teacher trainers, theorists, examination bodies, curriculum designers and professional associations.
It will equally guide and guard government at all levels and ministries of education, school guidance counselors and parents. It is hoped that this study will help in improving the whole system in such a way as to induce better performance in accounting examination at the secondary school level.
 Scope of study
The present study used three secondary schools in Oye  Local Government Area Of Ekiti State. These schools present students for the senior secondary school certificate examinations conducted by both NECO and WAEC.The research work covered only three sampled selected schools in only one local government area. It also covered only public senior secondary schools.



CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
A lot have been written on student’s performance in the senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE). The reason for this chapter is to view related literature on the factors responsible for mass failure in principle of accounting at SSCE level. The review is organized into the following sub-headings:
·        Historical background of accounting
·        Concepts of principle of Accounting 
·        Objectives of principle of Accounting 
·        methods of teaching principle of Accounting 
·        the roles of instructional materials in teaching principle of Accounting
·        teachers attitude as its effects on students performance, students learning attitude and its effect on their performances
·        Factors responsible for  mass failure in accounting
·        empirical studies
·        theoretical framework
·        Summary of literature review
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