This research scrutinized the relationship between school administration and quality assurance in Abia State’s primary schools, Nigeria. The correlation research design was employed for the study. The study population consisted of 969 respondents, including 886 Head teachers and 83 Supervisors, from which a sample of 339 respondents (269 head teachers and 70 supervisors) was selected using the Krejice and Morgan sampling table and proportionate sampling technique.

Data was collected using two researcher-developed questionnaires: the School Management Questionnaire (SMQ) and the Quality Assurance Questionnaire (QAQ). These instruments were validated by three experts, two in Educational Management and Planning and one in measurement and evaluation, all affiliated with the College of Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. The Cronbach Alpha statistic was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments, yielding coefficients of 0.74 for SMQ and 0.73 for QAQ.

Out of the 339 questionnaires distributed, 325 were adequately filled out and returned, representing a 96% response rate. These were used for data analysis. The seven research questions were answered using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, while the seven null hypotheses were tested using linear regression analysis at a 0.05 level of significance.

The study found a significant correlation between school management and quality assurance in primary schools. Based on these findings, it was recommended that head teachers and other school administrators ensure adequate and quality management of staff personnel in their schools. It was also suggested that head teachers foster a peaceful and cordial relationship with their host community, possibly by involving them in some school committees. Lastly, it was recommended that the government ensure the adequate provision and monitoring of infrastructural facilities in primary schools, regardless of location.




Background to the study 


Nigeria, as a country, necessitates sufficient human and material resources to enhance its societal structure, safeguard its culture, boost economic growth, and reform its political systems. As explained by Redden in Okamkinde (2014), education is a purposeful and systematic influence exerted by mature individuals on the immature through instruction, discipline, and the harmonious development of physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social, and spiritual abilities. Thompson (2015) suggested that education is the impact of the environment on an individual to effect a lasting change in their behavior, thought patterns, and attitudes. The environment encompasses various aspects, including physical, social, and cultural.

In Nigeria, education is provided at three primary levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary. This study focuses on primary education. As defined in the National Policy on Education (2013), primary education is the instruction given in institutions for children aged 6 – 11 plus (FRN, 2013). It is the initial stage of compulsory education, preceded by pre-school or nursery education and followed by secondary education. Primary education constitutes the first six years of the nine years of basic education under the Universal Basic Education (UBE) standard. In most countries worldwide, including Nigeria, primary education is mandatory for children. Okam (2012) argues that the vision statement of Universal Basic Education, which includes primary education, states that every child should acquire appropriate and relevant skills and values and be employable after nine years of continuous education, thereby contributing to national development.

Primary education is to the educational system and the nation what the mind is to the body. A flawed primary education, which forms the foundation of the entire education system, can hinder the achievement of the system’s intended outcome. Adeyemi (2019) described primary education as the foundation upon which other layers of the educational structure are built. Upon completing primary education, the child is expected to have earned his first school leaving certificate (FSLC), which can secure him a job. Edinyang (2012) stated that one of the significant aims of education is to foster the full development of an individual to enable a substantial contribution to societal well-being. It is the duty of any nation’s educational system to illuminate the transformation of the country’s economic, political, scientific, and technological recognition. The role of primary education is crucial because it forms the basis of an adult’s contribution to developmental processes. In essence, effective primary education shapes a child into a better adult.


The Head teacher is the key actor or number one manager/supervisor in the primary school management.  He is the major leader in the primary school organization. The quality of school leadership is important to school improvement. The head teacher’s role is to work with the teachers, parents, School Based Management Committee (SBMC) and the community to ensure that all pupils learn.  His roles which are carried out within the school help to improve classroom instruction.  The head teacher tries as much as possible to motivate, encourage, praise and appraise the teachers to enhance pupils’ learning.  The head teacher carries out several instructional activities directed to teachers for the benefit of pupils. Some of these activities include observation of classroom instruction, conducting of teachers’ groups and individual conferences, that is, organizing teachers' professional development programmes regularly, (Modebelu, Eya & Obunadike, 2016). Other instructional practices of the head teacher involves helping in the formulation and implementation of scheme of work.  It is his responsibility to check and mark the teachers’ lesson notes, also ensures that relevant instructional materials for each lesson are adequately provided and used by the teachers to enhance effective teaching and learning. The head teacher keeps the daily or weekly reports which would be required from them by the supervisors from the Local Government Education Authority.

The Supervisors also known as Quality Assurance Officers (QAO) or School Support Officers (SSO) from the Quality Assurance Department of the LGEA visit the school from time to time to monitor, supervise and evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning, (Mkpa, Okorie, Nmaju- Uba & Odoemelam, 2021).

 Alugbuo in Modebelu et al (2016) noted that in compliance with the law enacted by the government that schools should be inspected and maintained in order to maintain standard. Supervisors of primary schools visit and supervise all schools within their local government areas, at least 3 times in a term, (UBEC, 2020).

The supervisors are the key players in determining how effective head teachers and teachers carry out their tasks, (Mkpa et al, 2021). A supervisor is a trained personnel based at LGEAs who is engaged to provide support to head teachers and teachers in order to improve school governance and quality teaching and learning. A supervisor is a person is trained for the supervision of schools. A supervisor could be a teacher with experience promoted to the rank of a supervisor.  Primary school supervisors in Abia State are appointed by the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB), and Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs). It is the responsibility of the supervisors to supervise the teacher’s skills that teachers display in the performance of their duties.  Osokoye (2014) aver that primary education among other things aim at inculcating permanent literacy and numeracy and laying of a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking. Hence the governments prescription of curricular activities was spelt out which include creative arts, domestic science and agriculture. To achieve these objectives, a revolution in the primary school teaching method is also proposed. This include, exploratory and experimental method, a continuous assessment of children’s work, counseling services, provision of specialist teachers (e.g. jolly phonics) and regular visits to schools to monitor, guide and supervise the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities, to check for the availability and use of instructional materials in the school and to also check how conducive the school environment is. It is the duty of the supervisors from Quality Assurance Department to carry out these responsibilities to ensure quality outcome. This means that any child who have completed his/her primary school will be able to read and write, and proceed to secondary level of education, to achieve this aim, there must be regular school visits and supervision in schools, which will help achieve quality assurance in primary schools.

Quality is defined as the state of ‘goodness’ or ‘fitness’ of a thing, substance, place or a given phenomenon. Agreeing to this fact, Wilson in Osaghae (2019) and Asiyai in Osaghae (2019) considered quality as a measure of how good or bad the products of educational institutions in terms of their academic achievement and meeting of their established standard. Quality is assured through the various inputs from the stakeholders. Quality Assurance considers how effective a programme achieves its aims, and the success of learners in attaining the intended learning outcomes. Consequently, quality assurance is linked to quality control. It accommodates the process that produces the products. Okebukola (2015) noted that quality assurance is an umbrella concept for a host of activities that are designed to improve the quality of inputs, process and output of primary education.

Quality assurance remains a standard when compared to other related facts. It therefore implies that quality assurance deals with monitoring, assessment and evaluation of a standard set in an organization towards achieving stated goals or objectives. Eziuzo (2014) defines quality assurance as the process of ensuring educational stakeholder that education offered by the university is “fit for purpose”.  This is to say that there is a specification in which the organization (education system) is expecting to maintain in its activities in either setting a pace or maintaining its stand in both internal and external environments. Nwosu et al, (2017) defines quality assurance as a collection of policies, procedures, systems, and practices designed to achieve, maintain, and enhance quality of education offered.

As elucidated by Babalola (2016), quality assurance in education deals with proactive means of ensuring or achieving some school management components. Some of the school management components as the variables discussed in this study for quality assurance   are; staff   personnel management, management of teaching and learning, management of infrastructural facilities, management of curriculum implementation, supervision of teachers and school -community relation. These components will be looked into in the background of this study.

Staff personnel management is the recruitment, orientation to meet with the welfare needs of the workforce in the academic environment or any other establishment for the sole aim of ensuring that job task assigned to the workforce is effectively achieved. Ugwuanyi (2015) defined staff personnel management as the selection, retention, staff appraisal, staff training and development, staff promotion and compensation, staff  induction,  and staff motivation. Agreeing to this fact, Ibukun in Uwakwe (2013) defined staff personnel management as the recruitment, welfare, training, promotion, motivation, transfer, and discipline of staff. The simple implication of this remains that the quality of staff performance deals with the organizations ability to improve on the welfare of staff members as well as provide appropriate measures for such improvement in the system. The definition of staff personnel management could be possibly viewed from the standpoint that it deals with the totality of improving workforce competence in handling issues in the system which is capable of assisting the manager to achieve mapped goals. The fact remains that a manager may be efficient and well- intentional but cannot achieve any success without the support and co-operation of well oriented, dedicated and competent driven staff. However, the major work of academic staff (teachers) whose welfare is to be cared for by the school manager is to understand academic activities which include instructional delivery etc.  Primary school management Academic staff hierarchically could be ranked from the education secretary, supervisors from Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs), the head teachers. Since the quality staff personnel management improves the quality of the education system,  proper management of   teaching and learning therefore becomes an issue of discourse in ensuring that the mapped  out goals of school are attained.

Teaching and learning are the core activities that takes place in the schools. While teaching is taking place, learning is also expected to follow. The number of learners within the class and interaction patterns are important in what happens within the classroom. School is expected to provide instructional materials and teachers must be assessed as teaching is being conducted (classroom observation). Anyanwu (2019) states that management of teaching and learning deals with the improvement of instructional activities that may require rethinking of every purpose, organization and length of schooling. The minimum qualifications for teaching in the Nigerian primary school as identified by TRCN (Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria) must be maintained. And anyone qualified in terms of certificate should possess some skills, values and knowledge which can be applied in teaching for teachers. As interaction takes place in the classrooms during teaching and when the population of learners are too large the quality of interaction can be diminished. If proper management of teaching and learning could be relevant in primary school, management of infrastructural facilities become an important matter to be looked into.

Infrastructural facilities therefore consists of school building, school ground and equipment that are provided in the school which aids the stimulation of teaching-learning process. Ugwuanyi (2015) defined infrastructural facilities as school plant, building and equipment. This portrays that the manager in a bid to ascertain administrative effectiveness should ensure adequate maintenance of available facilities that shields the students and teachers. The primary school system is expected to have enough classroom blocks that will accommodate all the learners in the school with enough space and good ventilation according to quality assurance standard, standard library and library facilities, sufficient desk, tables and chairs, good convenience, sporting facilities, and good staff quarters among others. It seems that Eheazu (2016) agreed with this fact by concerting that the presence of good desk, chairs electricity, buildings and good source of water supply have created a motivating conducive learning environment. This in essence shows that primary school managers must ensure that the school buildings are kept safe for students’ use and that they are under good condition as well as ensure worn-out facilities be repaired. As good management of infrastructural facilities facilitates academic managerial effectiveness, the need for curriculum implementation becomes salient to the school manager.

The curriculum is the vehicle which educational goals are executed. It is broken down into syllabuses, and schemes of work; available for management of the teaching that goes on in modules and dairies. Without these, teachers may teach things that may not be examined in the final certificate examinations. Anukam (2011) opined that curriculum is a planned experience and activities provided by the school which can be manipulated by teachers to help students achieve predetermined learning objectives in answer to national development outcome. It is expected that, every school manager is aware of the curricula specifications for the different levels of Basic Education which primary education is part of. Where the specifications are contained, what exactly guides what teachers teach in school and how what is taught can be evidenced, how other activities organized in the school are relevant in complete development of the learners in a school. All these point to what would be of interest in the assessment of the curriculum and other matters. Library within schools play a very important role in the education of the learner. For a good reading culture, a library must be available with an assortment of books. Through it, the learners can develop sustained interest in reading, which would have a carry-on effect on the study of other school subjects. It is a known cliché that “all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy”. Psychomotor outcomes are engendered through sports and agriculture. If management of curriculum implementation has an influence on ensuring quality assurance in the primary school management, it invariably means that supervision of teachers remains relevant in achieving quality outcome in the primary education.

Supervision is an integral part of school administration and no organization can function effectively without it. Supervision is an age long device for improving teacher’s knowledge, attitudes and skills which focuses on the teaching/ learning process for the purpose of ensuring the achievement of educational goals and objectives. School heads are guarantors of qualitative education and implementers of educational policies and ought to possess some managerial skills of supervision which are essential for their effectiveness. Unachukwu et al (2016) Supervision involves assessing the performance of tasks. It includes providing people with the support and skills needed to perform a task.

Supervision concerns itself with the rudiments of efficiency and effective management of human and material resources. According to Dennis (2014), supervision is the act of providing leadership through a process designed to help staff gain greater competence and overcome some barriers so as to improve job performance. It is an administrative activity that is aimed at improving the quality of instruction by teachers and school condition which in turn leads to the growth of the students. School supervision is a practice that is designed to improve the effectiveness of teaching. Supervision as defined by Ogunu, (2010) is the act of overseeing the activities of teachers and other workers in a school system to ensure that they conform with generally accepted principles of education in order to achieve educational goals. Since supervision of teachers has an influence on primary school management, good school-community relationship remain cogent in achieving quality outcome in the primary school.

Looking at the school-community relationship, the school to Modebelu (2014) is an organization that is not separated from its host environment. This view is evidence that the school managers should develop and administer a culture for parents and community participation in school affairs. Ibiam (2015) asserts that the school requires the corporation, support and assistance of the community where it is situated to function effectively. It was on this premise that she further identified alienative   relationship, model relationship, co-operative relationship as the type of school- community relationship. Ogedi (2017) rightly said that the success or failure of any school management to a large extent depends on its relationship with the host community as a result; the school and the community should ensure that ideal and conducive environment is created for the training of the learners who are the future society leaders. In order to ensure effective functioning, management effectiveness and high level of productivity in the primary school, there must be good relationship between the school managers and the community where the institution of learning is sited. In other words, school-community relationship is the act of maintaining good rapport or peaceful and cordial relationship between the school and the host community which is aimed at promoting good value, culture and norms in the absence of cohesion and hostile environment.

It is against this background that this study examined the relationship between  school management and quality assurance of primary schools in Abia State, Nigeria.  


School management is an important part of any educational system. School authorities or managers all over the world are continuously engaged in numerous activities to efficiently manage school functions and provide a better educational experience to learners. An effective school is not only one which is conducted in a safe environment by qualified teachers, but also maintains high standard for all learners.

Ideally, the situation with school management should incorporate effective staff personnel management, students personnel management, quality management of available infrastructural facilities, good school-community relations and teachers satisfaction towards achieving quality assurance in primary education.

But today, it appears that things are not the way it should be with regards to management of schools as observed and experienced by the researcher is very appalling and discouraging. It seems that primary school education in Nigeria is poorly managed and supervised which has resulted in poor performance by some learners, even in higher levels of education.  It is equally observed that components of quality assurance are not strictly observed as a result of poor or lack of effective management of primary schools in Abia state. these poor management primary schools thus results to poor staff personnel management, poor students personnel management, poor school-community relationship, dilapidated and nearly collapsed infrastructural facilities and lack of satisfaction among primary school teachers in carrying out their instructional duties.

However, management of primary school education should be seen as the major priority of educational stakeholder since this level of education is the core foundation of educational system. Quality assurance thus cannot be attained on a platter of gold but must be doggedly pursued, maintained and sustained for educational goals of a society to be realized. The government and other stakeholders in the education system should ensure that quality assurance mechanisms and effective management measures be put in place so as to realize the objectives of the educational system.

It is against this backdrop that the researcher wants to investigate the school management and quality assurance of primary school education which is the gap the researcher wants to fill. The problem of this study thus put as a question; to what extent does school management correlates with quality assurance of primary education in Abia State Nigeria.



The purpose of the study is to investigate school management and quality assurance of public primary schools in Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study seeks to;

1.      Find out the extent of relationship between staff personnel management and quality assurance in primary school.

2.      Ascertain the extent of relationship between management of teaching and learning processes and quality assurance in primary school.

3.      Access the extent to which management of infrastructural facilities correlate with quality assurance in primary schools.

4.      Investigate the extent to which management of curriculum implementation correlate with quality assurance in primary schools.

5.       Find out the extent of relationship between supervision of teacher and quality assurance of primary schools.

6.      Ascertain the extent to which school-community relationship correlate with quality assurance in primary schools.

7.      Determine the joint relationship between school management and quality assurance of primary schools.


1.4              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions guided this study. They are;

1.      To what extent does staff personnel management correlate with quality assurance in primary schools?

2.      To what extent does management of teaching and learning processes correlate with quality assurance in primary school?

3.      To what extent does management of infrastructural facilities correlate with quality assurance in primary school?

4.      To what extent does management of curriculum implementation correlate with quality assurance of primary schools?

5.      To what extent does supervision of teachers correlate with quality assurance of primary schools?

6.      To what extent does school-community relationship correlate with quality assurance in primary schools?

7.      To what extent does effective management of schools jointly correlate with quality assurance in primary schools?



To facilitate this study, the following null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance. They are;

H01:     There is no significant relationship between staff personnel management and quality assurance of primary schools.

H02:     There is no significant relationship between management of teaching learning processes and quality assurance of primary schools.

H03:     There is no significant relationship between management of infrastructural facilities and quality assurance of primary schools.

H04: There is no significant relationship between management of curriculum implementation and quality assurance of primary schools.

H05:     There is no significant relationship between supervision of teachers and quality assurance in primary schools.

H06:     There is no significant relationship between school-community relationship and quality assurance of primary schools.

H07:     There is no significant joint relationship between effective school management and quality assurance of primary schools.






The findings of this study when published, would be of immense benefit to government, supervisors, school managers, teachers, pupils, communities and future researchers.

The government could benefit from the findings of this study by understanding the need of equipping primary schools with the required infrastructural facilities to carry out its instructional activities effectively. It would also provide the government with the necessary measure for improving quality assurance mechanisms in the educational system.

School supervisors could also benefit from the findings of this study by understanding the need and importance of supervisory activities in ensuring that all available infrastructural facilities are well maintained. It would also assist them in proper evaluation of quality assurance mechanism in the primary school system as well as make recommendations for quality measures towards the management of primary school education. The supervisors would also benefit from the findings of this study by understanding the importance and need of training school head teachers and other managers of the primary school education on staff. They would also benefit from the study by carrying out adequate supervisory activities on the core elements of school management to promote quality assurance for the attainment of educational goals.

The school managers could also benefit from the findings of study by putting into practice modern and innovative approaches towards staff personnel and students’ personnel management towards achieving quality productivity in the school system. They would also benefit from the study by ensuring that all the available infrastructure in the school are properly maintained. It would also provide them with an insight of ensuring sustainable and quality school-community relationship.

Teachers could benefit from the findings of the study by understanding the importance of students’ personnel administration. They would also benefit from the findings of the study by ensuring good school-community relations. They would also benefit from the study by helping the school management in ensuring that available infrastructural facilities are adequately maintained. It would also benefit the teachers by making themselves available for in-service training and other personal development programmes that will prepare them for quality teaching of the curriculum content.

 The pupils having completed their primary education will proceed to the next level – secondary and other higher levels of education without fear of failure. The findings when implemented will make the pupils achieve the possible learning outcome and personal development that prepares them for working life and societal living.

Communities may benefit because new classroom blocks will be built, desks, chairs and tables adequately supplied to their school, staff quarters also built for regular attendance of teachers to school, and where their children will have access to their teachers. And probably their roads constructed, for easy movement to the urban areas.

The findings of this study could be beneficiary to future researchers as it would provide them with current information on effective school management and quality assurance of primary education. It would also help them in their review of related literature. This study would also serve as a working document for academic consultation in educational sector as well as help in knowledge development.



The study is delimited to school management and quality assurance of primary schools in Abia State, Nigeria.   school management serves as the independent variable with its sub-variables as school-community relations, staff personnel management, management of teaching and learning, management of infrastructural facilities, management of curriculum implementation, supervision of teachers, and school-community relationship, while the dependent variable covered quality assurance of primary schools. Geographically, this study was carried out in all the public primary schools in Abia State, Nigeria. Abia State is ideal for this study because quality assurance has issues in this area.



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