Communication encompasses a diverse array of behaviors, processes, and technologies through which meaning is conveyed or derived from information. It spans a wide range of activities and lies at the heart of our humanity. The manner in which we interact shapes not only our personal lives but also the world around us. Human beings heavily rely on their communication skills to navigate challenges that demand flexibility, integrity, expressiveness, and critical thinking.

Communication takes on various forms, including intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication. These diverse modes facilitate interaction, association, sharing of ideas, opinions, norms, and values among individuals and groups. Regarded as the lifeblood of human existence, communication fosters unity and contributes to societal development.

Both modern and traditional communication methods play pivotal roles in promoting peaceful coexistence, understanding, and self-awareness among individuals. They share common elements that define the communication process. Central to communication are individuals involved in both transmitting and receiving messages, ensuring its effectiveness and vitality. Communication is an interactive process, requiring simultaneous sending and receiving of messages. Achieving effective communication signifies successful interaction between senders and receivers, ensuring mutual understanding and engagement.


Afrian society has different traditional ways of disseminating information through recognized official means like signs, sounds, and symbols. Manan et al. (2022) defined development as a progress of the individual well- being and the improvement of the quality of the life of the peo-ple. Communication is so vital to human exist-ence just like the oxygen is essential to human life, because it helps to sustain the human soci-ety. Have we ever thought of how life will be without communicating in our life? No story to share with friends, watching television even writing letter to family or social network (Stein-berg 2007). The process of communicating with people have changed with the advent of tradi-tional media. Traditional media is also known as user-generated media. It educates and inform people about any development in a novel way and bring about a platform of two-way commu-nication (Banerjee 2015). The traditional media are defined as ‘those media which attempt to send a message to a particular set of targeted audience group in a given time in local dialect with entertainment (Mathiyazhagan et al. 2015). This research work shows the effectiveness of traditional media in Arigbajo community and all rural community in general. Communication can also be referred to as a social interactive tool, since it helps to promote collective actions and other social behaviors that make life meaningful and interesting for human existence, and be-cause of its importance no society can progress or survive without communication process (Moemeka 2015). Message is very important in communication because the act of passing mes-sages is communication itself. Everything we do with our body or with other medium such as the thoughts in our mind and the words we use for those thoughts, the sounds we make, our gestures, our facial expressions and perhaps

even our touch or smell all communicate infor-mation, this tells us how effective communica-tion can be, it involves our every seconds’ ac-tion, therefore, there is no communication with-out a message being passed across. Communi-cation comes in different forms which include the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, mass communication etc. All these are different ways through which we interact, associate, com-municate, relate, share ideas, views, opinion, in-formation, norms and values with ourselves and others. In communication, channels mean the medium or means through which communica-tion is being passed or disseminated (Esimokha 2008). Because it is communication with a social conscience, development communication is ori-ented towards human beings, that is, towards the human aspect of development. Even though it is primarily associated with rural development, it is nevertheless also concerned with urban problems (Moemeka 2000). Nigeria is regarded as multi-channel communicator due to the dif-ferent channels through which communication is being disseminated in both urban and rural settings which help to proffer a better result of what is being sent. It is successful and effective in reading rural people because they emanate from the local culture and tradition of the people and they use familiar channel, the local language, pass relevant messages, address local issues, needs and problem and use local resources for development of the society. They are seen as the vehicle the common people employ for the delivery of their messages. Folk media are some of the most vibrant representation of traditional media because they reflect communication chan-nel for, by and of the common people of a soci-ety or region (Reich and Godler 2022). In rural areas and developing nations, folk media repre-sents the masses of people most deprived of specific messages. Thus, folk media cover a wide range of traditional communication channels, including storytelling, street theatre, puppetry, song and dance, market place, Town-Crier amongst others. Folk media are also representa-tives of a traditional way of life based on cus-toms, beliefs and art that makes up a distinctive culture. It draws upon people’s past, present and future, providing them with glimpse of real-ity that result in education and entertainment. However, African communities lay emphasis on events rather than date. These events and prob-ably the date, formed part of their culture (Scannell 2022). The meeting of two cultures often leads to cultural shock or what the scholars termed “clash of cultures”. African communica-tion scholars put more emphasis on the study of the modern media of communication which in-cludes the radio, television, internet, and bill-board, but due to lack of development most of the rural dwellers are not familiar with these mod-ern media ways of communication.



       Manan et al. (2022) defined development communication as an application of communi-cation to the development process. He also pointed out, that development communication using principles, practices and ideas exchange can be used to achieve objectives for the devel-opment. Fardouly et al. (2022) reported an in-vestigation on the overall frequency and the di-rection of appearance comparisons made in dif-ferent form of traditional media and social me-dia. The primary objective of social development communication is to create understanding, ac-ceptance and willingness to participate in de-velopment and not to impose orders and regula-tions. Even though social development commu-nication is primarily associated with rural devel-opment, it is also worried with urban, particular-ly sub -urban development. Although, the prac-tice of development communication can be traced to the early 1940’s, the term social development communication was first covered by Nora Que-bral in 1972 as reported by (Manyozo 2008) who defined it “as the art and science of human linked into the society’s planted transformation from the state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and larger unfolding of individual potentials.” Explaining the genesis of the term development communication, Quebra said he grew out of the field of agricultural communication. The term was coined to include apart from development, such as population, nutrition, health, education, hous-ing and employment etc. Since all these areas require communication input and development communication was one of the discipline. This explains why development communication is described as the systematic use of communica-tion in support of national development. We need to know that the effectiveness of develop-ment communication depends on the type and kind of audience, image of development bureau and understand symbols are used to communication to them. In every broad sense, social development commu-nication is the art and science of human commu-nication applied to the specific transformation of a country (that is, economic, growth, modern-ization and industrialization) and the majority of its citizens (fulfillment of self-actualization, ful-fillment of human potentials and greater social injustice etc.) through the development progress that will assist in increasing participation of in-tended beneficiaries at the grassroot level. So-cial development communication is the use of communication to promote development and it is quite different from other forms of communi-cation. For instance, social development com-munication is different from international com-munication, cultural communication, interper-sonal communication, public communication and organizational communication (Choi and Shin 2022). In all, the United Nation’s children fund (UNICEF) explains that development communi-cation seeks not only to transfer messages but also to promote interactions around the mes-sages for target audience to understand them better, accept them and practice the healthy be-havior proposed not only but long enough to reap their benefits. Narula (2006) sees develop-ment communication as the systematic means of communication for national development. According to Daramola (2001), farmers need in-formation on specific supplies, these are farm supplies like fertilizers and other things required on their farms and information on how to obtain credit facilities. There is no doubt that the tradi-tional mass media can go a long way in improv-ing this assertion. Nwosu (1990) said the media could act with other development changing fac-tors to improve the lots of the masses of devel-oping countries. Uma (1975) views rural devel-opment means; improving the standard of living of the masses among low income population who resided in rural areas. The traditional media are veritable tools to reach communities because the availability of modern media facilities is limited (Fearn-Banks 2021). The traditional commu-nication system is the most accessible channel of communication to the rural people. Abdulla (2021) in advocating for the traditional media in rural society, states that: In this modern age of new information communication technologies and mass media, the cultural value of traditional media channels must not be disregarded. If we are to properly communicate with rural commu-nities, we must learn more about them and have a better understanding on how to channel our development work through those communities via traditional communication channel as well (Soola 1999). For development communication programs directed at grassroots and cultural lev-els, it is important to include the use of tradition-al communication channels. This is because these media are part and parcel of the communi-ties. Imperatively, the following concepts that are relevant and central to the focus of this study are reviewed (George et al. 2022).




            In the Communication processes especially as regards to modern mass media such as the print and the electronic media, the rural people seem to be marginalized due to several factors. In spite of these factors, traditional Artifacts could be positively exploited and utilized to meet the needs of rural populace. How far the harnessing and utilization of these traditional means would get to solve the problem of the rural tiesils the primary concern of this research.

            The importance of traditional Artifacts where it will enhance rural

based on communication and development, how effective are the

traditional communication media, what similarities and

dissimilarities exist between these media and traditional communication

systems of Iwollo communities are all some of the problems this

study is set out to look into. The problem therefore is to find how

effective traditional media of communication are as a means of rural

based communication.



            This study is aimed at Identifying the role of traditional communication in the development of Iwollo town in ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State and other rural communities.       . This study intends to discover the Usefulness and limitation of any of those media in the community. The effectiveness of the traditional media will be determined and will serve as a base for comprising traditional communication in Iwollo Oghe community.



The study will be a humble contribution towards the development of traditional media of communication in Iwollo oghe community as a whole. It will also serve as a source of encouragement to marriage of traditional and modern mass media of the community and others in Nigeria.

This study will also encourage other cultural studies in African indigenous communication pattern and finally will guide others who want to know and understand the traditional media of communication and development.


As stated in the introduction the study is in Iwollo community in Ezeagu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. The study gives a brief background history of the community. The study also identifies the traditional communication tools mostly used by the people of the community in the past and this present day. The usefulness and limitations of these Artifacts in serving the communication in the entire Igbo Land is as a result of the short period of time.

Due to possible lack of maximum co-operation. This study might be limited to information collected from population figure of the community under study, the low literacy rate, the non-availability of previous   study on the topic and scarcity of previous study on the topic and scarcity of the text books are all      part of the limitations.


1.5             RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.                  Do Iwollo people have traditional means of communication?

2.                  What are these traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe         community?

3.                  Are traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe community more credible than the modern mass media?

4.                  Is there any complimentary role played by the traditional means of communication with respect to the modern mass media?

5.                  Can the traditional means of communication enhance rural based communication more than the modern mass media?

6.                  Can traditional means of communication play a vital role in rural development?


1.6             RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS    

HO;     Iwollo oghe people do not have traditional means of communication.

HI:       Iwollo   oghe people have traditional means of communication.

HO:     The traditional means of communication are not in existence in Iwollo  oghe community

H2:      There are traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe            community.

HO:     The traditional means of communication are not credible than the modern mass media.

 H3:     These traditional means of communication are credible than the modern mass media.



(1)              I assume that after this research work on the Need for the various traditional media of communication in developing our rural communities, that the people of Iwollo Oghe community and other rural communities will understand the basic needs for using their various Traditional media of communication for the development of their society.

(2)              I also assume that this research work will enlighten the people more and educate them widely in the need for the maintenance of their various means of communication especially the traditional means.

I assume that this work will put to an end, the problems of   traditional media of communication in our society.                                 




 A –   CONCEPTUAL - TRADITIONAL – According to the Oxford Advanced LEARNERS dictionary, it is being part of the beliefs, customs or way     of life of a particular group of people.


 B   -         OPERATIONAL - TRADITIONAL – IT means the people’s way of life; the common belief of the people living in a particular geographical area.


 A    -     CONCEPTUAL – MEDIA - According to Longman dictionary media are all the organization such as television, newspaper, Magazines or all other forms through which people           interact and get information for the public.   



B    -     OPERATIONAL - MEDIA- It could also be referred to as any medium        through which information is being passed across to the people both Traditional and Modern means.


 A-          CONCEPTUAL – COMUNICATION – According to Longman dictionary. It is the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings.


 B –     OPERATIONAL - COMMUNICATION – It is also the process by which we             exchange our ideas, views, opinion, norms, values, traditions, beliefs etc. from one person to another through a medium. 


 A –     CONCEPTUAL - TOOLS – According to Longman dictionary it is defined as skill that is useful for doing your job.


B -    OPERATIONAL – TOOLS – A useful means through which goals can be achieved.


 A –   CONCEPTUAL - EFFECTIVE – According to Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary, it is producing the result that is wanted or intended, producing the result that is wanted or intended, and producing a successful result.  

B –OPERATIONAL –EFFECTIVE –Producing a successful result.


A –      CONCEPTUAL -RURAL –A remote area to the country  side, out of the city where people are dwelling with their common belief.

B –      OPERATIONAL – RURAL –An under developed area, where people are living with a common norm                                           A-   CONCEPTUAL –DEVELOPMENT –According to oxford advanced learners  dictionary, it is the gradual growth of something so it becomes more advanced , stronger and acceptable.                                 

B –      OPERATIONAL –DEVELOPMENT - An advancement of something, people, community. 


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