Background to the study

The word ‘effect’ according to Encarta (2019) is a change or changed state occurring as a direct result of action by somebody or something else.  Jones, Gorge and Hill (2000) stated that conflicts are inevitable part of organizational life since the goals of different stakeholders such as managers and staffs are often incompatible.  Conflict is an unpleasant fact in any organization as longer as people compete for jobs, resources, power, recognition and security. Organizational conflict can be regarded as a dispute that occurs when interests, goals or values of different individuals or groups are incompatible with each other (Henry, 2019). This results into a situation whereby they frustrate each other in an attempt to achieve their objectives. Conflict arises in groups because of the scarcity of freedom, position, and resources. People who value independence tend to resist the need for interdependence and, to some extent, conformity within a group. People who seek power therefore struggle with others for position or status within the group. 


According to Okechukwu (2013), the word conflict brings to mind images such as antagonism, struggles between parties, opposition processes and threats to cooperation. But not all conflicts come in these forms especially in the construction industry and others. They come in form of needs to be met or desires to be satisfied, disagreements to be settled and ideas to be shared that eventually lead to change of attitudes, feelings and perceptions. Rahim (2001) opined that conflict may be interpersonal or inter group.  He further explained that interpersonal conflict tis the kind of conflict that occurs between a supervisor and his subordinate or between two individuals at the same level of the organizational hierarchy. Intergroup conflicts often occur between two trade unions, between two departments or between management and Student Academicers while attempting to implement the policies and programme of the organization. Similarly, Bogoro (2020) defined interpersonal conflict as the kind of conflict that exists between individual and another person. Azamosa (2004) observed that conflicts involve the total range of behaviours and attitudes that is in opposition between owners/managers on the one hand and Student Academicing people on the other. It is a state of disagreement over issues of substance or emotional antagonism and may arise due to anger, mistrust or personality clashes.

Conflict is a part of organizational life and may occur between individuals, between individual and the group, and between groups. While conflict is generally perceived as dysfunctional, it can also be beneficial because it may cause an issue to be presented in different perspectives. Conflict has both positive and negative effects.

Worldwide, academic achievement disparities significantly contribute to individual and cross-national variations in income and economic prosperity (Card, 2019; Hanushek and Woessmann, 2021). Factors such as personal attributes, family and school environment, and local and national socio-economic conditions can all impact a person’s academic success (Glewwe and Kremer, 2006). Recent studies on the micro-level consequences of community conflicts have consistently shown the detrimental effects of these conflicts on education, as evidenced by various educational outcomes like school enrollment, attendance, and attainment (Buvinic et al., 2013; Leon, 2022; Justino, 2022; ~ESCO, 2021). However, there is still a significant lack of understanding regarding the impact of conflict on educational quality, as measured by academic achievement, and the underlying mechanisms of such effects, especially for high school students.

In Africa, conflicts have been a common occurrence for centuries, and this has further exacerbated the declining quality of students’ academic performance across the continent. A study by IJNEP (2014) found that 67.4% of students underperform in school due to the presence of violent conflicts in their communities. Despite numerous government interventions, many African countries continue to struggle with community conflicts, which are often driven by high youth unemployment rates and tribal differences. In Northeastern Uganda, particularly in the Karamoja region, recent conflicts have primarily been instigated by tribal differences between the Jie and Pokot tribes, leading to widespread killings in the area due to cattle raiding. Furthermore, many schools, especially in conflict-affected areas like Bali local government area, have been destroyed.

This area has been a hotspot for recurring conflicts, primarily involving pastoralists. The practice of cattle grazing has been a significant trigger for these conflicts, which in turn, adversely affects the region’s education system. The deployment of the Police and Civil Defence in the region has managed to quell most of these community conflicts. However, the district’s communities continue to grapple with conflicts stemming from issues such as land grabbing and nocturnal attacks, among others. These community conflicts have progressively become a source of insecurity, consequently affecting school attendance and overall student academic performance in the district.

In multi-ethnic societies, there is always quest for distributive justice, the perceived absence of which breeds frustration and conflict among members, which may result in acts of aggression in the pursuit of the satisfaction of basic life requirements. In Taraba State , according to Akpaeti, in Opiki and Adeleke (2022), one of the causes of conflicts is the control of resources. A release from the Department of State Service (DSS) cited by the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution (IFPCR, 2002)   Within the period under reference, communities were deserted, school activities and programs were abandoned as schools were forcefully shut. Final year students who could not afford transfer to other schools were denied external examinations, while some had to travel long distances or even relocate to enable them complete secondary school education. The conflicts between militants and oil companies have impacted negatively on the land and other environmental resources, thereby reducing the livelihood, development potentials of the natural resource base, as well as the educational development of the people.




 Statement of the problem

Communal conflicts in the  Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State pose substantial challenges to students’ academic performance. For instance, escalating land conflicts and cattle raiding continue to threaten numerous households in the area. These conflicts not only impact parents but also impede students’ academic performance. Specifically, community conflicts affect parents’ income, thereby negatively impacting their ability to pay their children’s school fees. This, in turn, psychologically affects the students and evidently contributes to low grades in most secondary schools. This is because community conflicts affect children’s physical and cognitive growth, thereby hindering their academic performance at school. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of community conflict on the academic performance of secondary school students in Bali local goverment area.

Objectives of the Research

the main objectives of this study is to investigate the effect oof communal conflict on the academic performance of secondary schools students in Bali Local Government area of Taraba State

 the specific objectives is to

1.     Determine the extent to which chieftaincy disputes influence the academic performance   Secondary School Students in  Bali Local government area .

2.     Ascertain the extent to which crises over location of natural resources influence the academic performance of   Secondary School Students

3.     Establish the extent to which farm land disputes influence the academic performance of Secondary School Student.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

1.                 What is the extent to which chieftaincy disputes influence the academic performance of  Secondary School Students in  Bali local government area?


2.                 To what extent does crises over location of natural resources influence the academic performance  of Secondary School Students ?

3.                 What is extent to which farm land disputes influence the academic performance of  Secondary School Students?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance were tested for the study:

1.           There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the influence of chieftaincy disputes on academic performance of   Secondary School Students .

2.           There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the influence of crises over location of natural resources on academic performance of   Secondary School Students

3.           There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the influence of farm land disputes on the academic performance of   Secondary School Students.

 Significance of the Study

The study will raise awareness about the impact of community conflicts on academic performance and help develop strategies to address these conflicts. The study will provide reliable information to policymakers, enabling them to formulate appropriate policies to address the issue of community conflicts in the district. The findings of this study will assist teachers and parents in understanding their students’ performance in school. It will also contribute to the body of literature on this topic.

Scope of the study

The study is aimed at investigating the effect of communal conflict on the academic performance of secondary school students in Bali Local Government Area. The study cover five selected secondary schools in Bali local government area of Taraba State.

Definition of terms

1.      Communal Crisis: A communal crisis refers to a situation of unrest, conflict, or tension that affects a particular community or group of people. This crisis often involves clashes between different groups within a community, such as ethnic or religious groups, and may arise due to various factors including socio-political issues, economic disparities, or cultural differences.

2.      Community: A community is a social group of people who share common characteristics, interests, or values and who often reside in the same geographical area. Communities can be based on various factors such as ethnicity, religion, nationality, or shared interests, and they typically involve social interaction, mutual support, and a sense of belonging among members.

3.      Dispute: A dispute is a disagreement, conflict, or contention between two or more parties over a particular issue or matter. Disputes can arise in various contexts, including interpersonal relationships, business transactions, legal matters, or societal conflicts, and they often involve conflicting interests, perspectives, or objectives.

4.      Chieftaincy: Chieftaincy refers to a traditional system of governance or leadership in some societies, where authority and power are vested in a chief or tribal leader. Chieftaincy systems often have cultural, religious, or historical significance and play a central role in the social, political, and judicial affairs of the community.

5.      Academic Performance: Academic performance refers to the achievement, proficiency, or success of students in their educational pursuits, typically measured through various indicators such as grades, test scores, class rankings, or academic assessments. Academic performance reflects students' abilities, knowledge, skills, and accomplishments in academic subjects and activities.

6.      Conflict: Conflict refers to a state of disagreement, opposition, or hostility between individuals, groups, or entities, often arising from incompatible interests, goals, values, or perceptions. Conflicts can occur in various contexts, including interpersonal relationships, organizational settings, social groups, or international relations, and they may range from minor disputes to violent confrontations.

7.      Resolution: Resolution refers to the process of addressing, managing, or resolving conflicts, disagreements, or disputes in a constructive and peaceful manner. Conflict resolution involves identifying underlying issues, promoting dialogue, negotiation, and compromise, and seeking mutually acceptable solutions to restore harmony, cooperation, or reconciliation among the parties involved.




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