This study examines the effect of administrative planning processes on the teaching and learning outcome of secondary school students in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo state. Descriptive research survey design was adopted for the study.  There are 18 Local Government areas in Ondo state in which one were randomly selected. 5 secondary schools (3 public and 2 government approved private secondary schools from  the sampled local government) were purposively selected for the study. 20 principals and 30 teachers from the sampled schools in the State were used which gave rise to 50 sample population for the study. four research question and two null hypotheses guided the study and tested at an alpha level of 0.05 significance. Mean scores and t-test analyses were used as statistical tools for the study. Findings showed that the respondents agreed that  administrative planning helps in achieving goals and objectives of secondary schools. Findings also revealed that administrative planning is a key factor that influences the quality of education in secondary schools. It helps principals to allocate resources effectively, design and align the curriculum with educational standards, set and communicate clear educational goals, and monitor and evaluate the teaching and learning outcomes.  It  was recommended that principals of secondary schools should imbibe the spirit of planning in the discharge of their responsibilities in the state.






Background to the study

 Education is the largest single industry and employer of labour in most parts of the world. It has significance effects on the life of the individual in the community and the nation in general and as such accounts for between ten to twenty-five percent (10% - 25%) of government’s annual expenditure in Nigeria. It must therefore be subjected to prudent and effective management. This depends to a larger extent on the quality of planning put in place by administrators of education in a given country. Planning according to Adedeji (2013) and Adeyinka (2019) is the umbrella under which all management functions fall, without its benefit, organisations in general and people in particular have no clear way to evaluate the purpose of directing group enterprise. The planning process provides a framework to guide the members of the organisation. According to them planning can be defined as the set of actions and decisions made by management that lead to the development of specific strategies designed to help an organisation achieved its objectives.


Planning is a universal principle of the management process, and as such, it is applicable to every organisation, secondary schools inclusive. Without adequate planning, it will be difficult for school administrator or principal to manage the resources available to him effectively. It is very germane for principals of secondary schools to engage in planning so as to give direction to the activities of schools. For instance, principal plans for the number of pupils or students to be admitted, provision of classrooms, make sure that the School Committees are informed of the required number of teachers before the school resumes and also of the non-teaching staff to be employed. In buttressing the above, Nwankwo (2018) and Babalola (2016) opined that the planning undertaken by principals are regarded as administrative planning because they are concerned with implementing government policies on education in their various schools. They plan and forward their demand to School Committees as regards the number of classrooms, the number of teachers required, the types of office equipment and furniture, the number of pupils to be admitted and funds (budget) required for the smooth running of the schools.

Longe (2010) and Akpan (2018) asserted that administrative planning can be referred to as micro-planning. It is the planning done at the institutional level. Micro-planning is often described as planning at the grassroots primarily concerned with an in-depth study of educational problems as they are perceived at the institutional level. These definitions, show that principals’ administrative planning examines the problem of acquisition and maintenance of teaching equipment, attitudes of students and teachers to education and so forth. Administrative planning is not only concerned with the problem of allocation of resources but also with the problem of efficient utilisation of resources. The question here is: how efficient is the school system in terms of the level of output? Indicators such as the enrolment ratio, and the unit cost show the level of efficiency of the school system. The principal to show justification for the size of resources allocated to the school system.

On the other hand, effective management is the process by which managers realise the best possible economic and service results from the resources available to them. That is, they try to maximise the resources, both material and human, with which the managers work.  Fabunmi  (2002) opined that “The resources with which managers work are traditionally described as the “Five M’s” of Management (Men, Money, Materials, Methods and Machines). Managers must organise, coordinate and develop these resources to ensure productivity. For instance, effective managers bring a group of employees together and assign tasks to them, thus creating communication systems, responsibility, assignments and control, and molding the disorganised group to team performance. A coordinated team of workers strive together to meet corporate goals.

Nwankwo and Lulsegged (1985) as cited by Nwankwo (2018) wrote that every experienced school administrator knows that the degree of success we achieve in our schools depends primarily on how well we manage the school and the resources (including time), in the school. In this sense, the school administrator can be compared to a symphony orchestra that leads, directs, and coordinates the different sections of the land as they do their own things independently but looking up to the leader who through a well calculated process harmonises the sounds of the different sections into a good music. Therefore, how the school administrator or principal orchestrates his staff, pupils and resources, will determine his efficiency and the overall efficiency of the school programme.

According to Okeke (2018), in an era when schools as institutions have become tremendously complex in population, programmes, resources, expectations and procedure, when accountability is demanded of the school system and the school administration, when rapid social and technological changes bring enormous pressure on the school for change and innovation, when the mass media and electronic gadgets contending the traditional monopoly of schools as centers of knowledge and information, when students, parents and the society not only know their rights to the schools but demand these rights from the school system, when education has became a strong political weapon for both the promotion of a political creed and for effecting national development, and in an era when the school personnel is composed of many technically well qualified and professionally oriented teachers, the school administrator must be equipped with tested guides and principles of administrative action in order to manage these resources effectively and achieve the objectives and goals of the educational system.


Statement of the Problem

The secondary level of education in Ondo State today is witnessing inadequate planning and management of resources. Observation have shown that many Principals of secondary schools in the state lack basic administrative planning to effectively and efficiently manage the resources available to them for the achievement of goals and objectives of the system. This is evident in the number of teaching equipment, physical resources (buildings, furniture, etc), human resources (teaching and non-teaching staff) available in the system, as the acquisition and maintenance of these resources for proper implementation of programmes are inadequate. Meanwhile the quality and quantity of graduates turned out yearly in the state depends largely on the quality and quantity of inputs (teaching equipment, physical and human resources) which is greatly determined by the administrative planning put in place by secondary schools principals in the state. It is against this background that this study sought to investigate how  administrative planning exerts influence on teaching and learning  in  secondary schools in Ondo state, Nigeria.

Purposes of the study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate  the effect of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes of secondary school students in Akure South Local Government

 The specific objectives is to

1.       investigate the relevance of administrative planning  in teaching and learning in secondary schools in  Akure south local government area of Ondo state.

2.       Investigate how administrative planning can be used by the principals to enhance effective management of secondary schools in  Akure South Local Government Area.

3.       Determine how administrative planning processes influence the quality of teaching in secondary schools.

4.       Examine whether administrative planning has a significant effect on the academic performance and learning outcomes of secondary school students.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study

1.       What are  the relevance of administrative planning  in teaching and learning in secondary schools in  Akure south local government area of Ondo state.

2.       How Does administrative planning  used by the principals enhance effective management of secondary schools in  Akure South Local Government Area.

3.       Does administrative planning process influence the quality of teaching in secondary schools

4.       To what extent does administrative planning has a significant effect on the academic performance and learning outcomes of secondary school students.

 Research Hypotheses

1.       There is no significant relevance of administrative planning in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State.

2.       Administrative planning used by principals does not enhance effective management of secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area.

3.       Administrative planning processes do not significantly influence the quality of teaching in secondary schools.

4.       Administrative planning does not have a significant effect on the academic performance and learning outcomes of secondary school students.

 1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is an attempt to examine the effects of administrative planning process on the teaching and learning outcome in secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area. It will go a long way in providing information that will be utilized by an array of personalities such as officials of department of policy and implementation, quality assurance officers and Deans of departments. The study will provide information that will assist planners and administrators in the decision making process, particularly as it pertains to recruitment, posting of staff to take charge of the administrative planning processes in respective schools.

          The study will help them to see areas of lapses in relation to the administrative planning processes in secondary schools . The study will provide feedback mechanism to schools administration   on how they fare in their the administrative planning processes activities. It will

provide the Deans with necessary information that will enable them fortify their position towards effective the administrative planning processes in their respective schools.

Scope of the Study


The study is on the effects of the administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes in  Akure South East local government area secondary schools.. It attempted to find out whether or not the administrative planning processes have influence on teaching and learning outcomes in secpndaru schools.

  The study involved school administrator like principal, vice priciapl, teachers and non teaching staff  in Five selected secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area

 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the

success of this study.

Definition of Terms


Educational Technology: Educational technology is the combined use of computer hardware,

software, and educational theory and practice to facilitate learning


Learning Outcome: Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills

students should acquire by the end of a particular assignment, class,

course, or program, and help students understand why that knowledge and

those skills will be useful to them.

Motivation: This the process through which individual are charged to increase their action or performance either by internal or external factors.

Planning: Planning refers to the process of setting goals, determining the actions or strategies necessary to achieve those goals, and organizing resources and tasks to execute those strategies effectively. It involves a systematic approach to decision-making and problem-solving to ensure that objectives are met efficiently and effectively.

Administrative Planning: Administrative planning is a specific type of planning focused on the management and organization of administrative functions within an organization or institution. It involves creating and implementing strategies to optimize administrative processes, allocate resources, and ensure the smooth operation of an organization. Administrative planning often includes aspects like budgeting, staffing, and workflow design to support the overall goals and mission of an organization.

Learning Outcome: A learning outcome, also known as a learning objective or educational outcome, is a specific, measurable statement that describes what a learner is expected to know, understand, or be able to do after completing a learning experience such as a course, lesson, or educational program. Learning outcomes are used to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning and provide a clear understanding of what students should achieve.

Academic Performance: Academic performance refers to an individual's or a group's achievements and success in an academic or educational context. It is typically measured by factors such as grades, test scores, class participation, and other assessments. Academic performance reflects a person's ability to acquire and apply knowledge, skills, and competencies within an educational setting, and it is often used as an indicator of a student's progress and achievement in their studies.










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