Background to the study

 The role of the head teacher in primary schools is crucial for determining the performance of teachers. Head teachers have the responsibility of overseeing the overall management of the school and play a critical role in ensuring that teachers are motivated and able to excel in their work.

The head teacher serves as the primary supervisor within the school, representing the Quality Assurance and Standards Directorate (Okumbe, 2007). It is their duty to effectively translate educational policies and objectives into a comprehensive program for the school. Over time, the head teacher's teaching and administrative tasks have been reduced, with a greater emphasis placed on their supervisory role in the school.

To influence teachers' job performance, head teachers employ various practices. These practices involve checking teachers' records and students' work, providing instructional materials, offering appropriate motivation and stimulation to both staff and students, thereby enhancing teachers' job performance and student achievement. Additionally, it is important for the head teacher to foster a collaborative environment. As stated by Bakhda (2004), an effective head teacher forms small groups to explore new ideas and strategies, while involving larger groups in decision-making processes.

Analyzing staff's professional development needs and addressing them through school-based INSET (In-Service Education and Training) programs is another responsibility of the head teacher. Research conducted by Tanner (1994) indicates that schools that utilize consultancy and collaboration in their efforts to improve the curriculum are the most effective. Consultation can involve activities such as intervisitation, classroom visits, lesson demonstrations, and providing constructive assistance for teachers within the school system and through networks of schools, all aimed at engaging in collective problem-solving.


In the Western countries, there is evidence of instructional supervision by principals. In the United States of America (U.S.A), head teachers take their responsibility of school management and instructional supervision seriously by visiting and doing class observation frequently (Archibong, 2008). Class observation is deemed as a communication tool where head teachers share various issues affecting teaching and learning in a particular classroom. Teacher supervision also acts as appraisal tool where teachers reflect on highlighted issues.

Statement of the problem

The effectiveness of head teachers in primary schools in influencing teachers' job performance is a critical factor for ensuring quality education. However, there is a need to explore and understand the specific practices and strategies employed by head teachers to motivate and support teachers, as well as the impact of these practices on teachers' job performance. Furthermore, it is important to identify any challenges or barriers that head teachers may face in fulfilling their role effectively and to propose potential solutions to enhance their ability to positively influence teachers' job performance.

Objective Of The Study

The major objectives of this projects is to  determine the head teachers roles and teachers job performance in primary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State

The specific objective is to

i.             To assess whether classroom observation by the head teachers influenced teachers‘ job performance in   primary schools in  Ado local government

ii.             To determine the extent to which provision of instructional resources by the headteachers influence teachers‘ job performance in public primary schools 

iii.             To establish whether checking of teachers‘ professional records by the headteachers influence teachers‘ job performance in public primary schools 

iv.          To establish whether motivational reward for task accomplishment by the headteacher has influence on teachers‘ job performance in primary schools 



 Research Questions

The following questions guided the research objectives

i.             How does the headteachers‘ classroom observation influence teachers‘ job performance in   primary schools in Ado local government Area ?

ii.             To what extent does the headteachers‘ provision of instructional material influence teachers‘ job performance in   primary schools ?

iii.             To what extent does the headteachers‘ checking of teachers‘ professional records influence teachers‘ job performance in   primary schools in Ado local government Area ?

iv.          To what extent does the headteachers motivational reward for task accomplishment influence teacher‘s job performance in   primary schools in Ado local government Area ?

Significance of the Study

The findings may be used by the ministry of education and teachers service commission to guide in future policy formulation and provide necessary supervisory guidelines in schools. The study may assist parties involved in school supervision   and headteachers to address the gaps identified. The findings of the research would help re-examine the way instructional supervision is carried out to make it more appreciated by teachers. It may pave way for other interested educational researchers to investigate further issues of teacher supervision in other parts of the country and globe.

 Limitations to the Study

The researcher encountered some resistance from the headteachers to fill in the questionnaires due to fear of victimization. Some teachers trivialized or just gave the ideal responses, instead of the real situation in the school because of poor perception of research. However, the researcher tried to advise them to be sincere. Their responses were not considered in isolation of those of the headteachers.

Delimitations of the Study


The study confined itself to headteachers‘ instructional supervision practices, although there were other factors that influence teachers‘ job performance so as to have ample time to delve in this area without superficial coverage. The research was done on sampled teachers and headteachers. Ten secondary schools in Ado local government area of Ekiti state were selected for  the study.

Basic Assumptions of the Study

This study assume the following:

i.             That headteachers were trained and were aware of their role in instructional supervision to achieve high quality of education in their schools.

ii.             That teachers were aware of the instructional supervision practices carried out by the headteacher to enable the teaching and learning process to be achieved in schools.

Definition of Significant Terms

Significant terms and contextual definition of selected terms of concern used in the study are as follows;

Classroom observation refers to time when a head teacher or deputy head teacher visit a teacher in classes during instruction to evaluate the teachers pedagogical skills and advice him/her.

Instructional material refers to textbooks, exercise books and all resources that assist teachers in instructional practice

Instructional supervisor practices refers to a constant process that aims at improving teaching and learning through provision of needed services to teachers

 Teacher professional records these are prepared and written documents that enable the teacher to deliver instruction effectively e.g schemes of work lesson notes and lesson plans

Teachers’ job performance refers to the duties performed by a teacher at particular period in a school system to achieve the school‘s goals.





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