The study investigated the effect of technology integration on secondary school students‟ learning outcomes in civic education in Zaria educational zone of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study aimed at determining the effects of integrating non-digital technology of chalkboard, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in civic education on students‟ academic performance and attitude toward civic education as a school subject. Two research questions were raised and two corresponding hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study used quasi-experimental design of pretest-posttest non-equivalent nonrandomized comparison groups design. The population of the study was 56,415 students in 39 senior secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone. 204 SSII students participated in the study using purposive sampling technique. Two instruments were used for data collection: Civic Education Performance Test (CEPT) (adopted from WAEC and NECO from 2014-2017), Civic Education Students Attitudinal Scale (CESAS). CEPT and CESAS were validated. CESAS was pilot tested using Cronbach Alpha Approach and a reliability index of 0.85 was obtained. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and percentage. Formulated hypothesis 1 was tested using ANCOVA while hypothesis 2 was tested using ANOVA. Findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean academic performance scores of SSII students taught civic education using Non-digital technology of Chalkboard, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in favour of Interactive and Linear PowerPoint groups. The study also revealed a significant difference in the attitudes of students taught civic education using Non-digital technology of chalkboard, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in favour of Interactive Power Point. The study, therefore, recommended among others that Interactive PowerPoint Instructional packages should be encouraged in schools for teaching civic education.




 1.1.        Background of the Study

 Education remains the most powerful instrument for effecting any desired change in human society. Education system being a sub-system of the super-system (the society) is consciously designed to meet the needs of society, although not always the needs of all within. Citizens refined by the education system are expected to possess competencies and values needed by society. This explains why countries of the world held education industry with high esteem because of its potentialities of producing effective citizens who are educationally sound in head, heart, and hand (3H) (Wangaard, Elias, Fink & 2014).


The fundamental role of producing competent and effective citizens by the education industry is becoming more complex associety has been transformed by digital technologies of the 21st-century. The integration of these technologies in socio-economic and political institutions is gradually making human interactions more of digital technology-dependent (Garba, Byabazaire & Busthami, 2015). It is, therefore, required of the education industry to integrate digital technologies in teaching and learning to equip 21st-century learners with what it takes to fit into the larger society. It is worth to note that most of these digital technologies are not primarily designed for the education industry. The need to create a teaching and learning environment that mirrors the reality of the larger society calls for innovative integration of digital technologies that transformed the analogue society into a digital society (Harris, Mishra & Koehler, 2009). Innovative integration refers to appropriation of digital toolsfor teaching and learning activitiesso that students can use these tools in the same way they are being used in the larger society(Harris, Mishra & Koehler, 2009). When technology is used in this manner, the teacher becomes a mentor and facilitator of the teaching and learning process while learners are actively involved in the process of constructing knowledge (Garba, 2018; Jagtap, 2016).

 Prior to the 21st-century, non-digital technologies are integrated in teaching and learning process for the purposeof enhancingthe learners‟ understandingand easy remembrance of the information conveyed by teachers (Obielodan, 2016).These non-digital technologies include but not limited to books, pens, paper, chalks, blackboards, whiteboards, printed pictures, maps, charts, and textbooks.The teachers that do integrate non-digital technologies are of the believe that effective learning will take place when learners repeatedly learn particular information presented through these technologies. Chalkboard remained the most commonly integrated non-digital technology in the teaching and learning process at the secondary school level. The teacher conveys the learning content to the learner via writing on the board along with verbal explanation and sometimes draw on the board to illustrate the information to the learners. However, the issues of knowledge application/transfer in the context of 21st-century workplace and development of positive attitudes via integration non-digital technologies remained a bone of contention among educational stakeholders (Nwodo, 2017; Hendry, 2015).

 As digital technologies are now ubiquitous, different modes of technology integration are now being adapted in the education industry. Digital Presentation Technologies (DPT) are reported to be the most integrated digital technologies in the classroom (Gambari, 2017). These include but not limited to interactive whiteboards, LCD projectors, DLP projectors, Wireless Presentation System (WPS) and their corresponding computer applications (offline and online application) such as PowerPoint, Prezi, Google-presentation slide, Skype-video call, online synchronous and asynchronous presentations. The common feature of all these digital presentation

technologies is “multimedia”.Teachers can innovatively „dual-coding‟ learning contents using text, audio and motion graphics/animations/real-videos. (Gambari, 2017, Yilmazel-Sahin, 2007).


Linear PowerPoint presentation remained the most commonly integrated DPT in the classroom. Linear PowerPoint is a pattern of PowerPoint slide design that proceed one slide right after another. The sheer popularity of this presentation tool comes from the belief that representation of information using auditory and visual inputs improves learning (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Linear PowerPointis said to be very effective in drawing and maintaining students‟ attention and this is reported to have a positive impact on students‟ academic performance and motivation (Erdemir, 2009; Savoy, Proctor & Salvendy, 2009; Wofford, 2009). Linear PowerPoint appeals to sight and hearing which are the most used senses in teaching and learning activities (Gambari, Zubairu, Daramola, Abubakar, & Tukura. 2018). This mode of technology integration, however, is a semi-compromised 21st-century learning environment. The learners only received information presented by the teacher through digital technologiesbut they are not actually using digital technology to construct knowledge.The suitability of Linear PowerPoint, therefore,for digital natives (21st-century learners) has been questioned because the issue of students using previous knowledge to constructnew knowledge through interaction with learning content is restricted (Chen, 2012).

 Interactive Digital Technologies (IDT) is not a new set of digital technologies but how the computer is programmed to meet the educational needs of 21st-century learners makes a different. IDTs allow the subject teacher to embed interactive elements in multimedia learning resources using their interactive features. When these interactive elementsare embedded in multimedia learning resources, students can learn at their own pace and actively interact with the digital information system. In this mode of technology integration, digital technology served as a tool that students use to seek information that can address the problem at hand, perform tasks/carry out a project, organize the information and communicate the findings. The most commonly integrated IDT in teaching are WEB 2.0-based technologies (Wikis, Blogs; etc), Computer Assisted Instruction, and Authoring tools such articulated storyline, adobe-captivate andthe underutilizedPowerPoint.

 PowerPoint application package came with interactive features that can be used in creating an interactive learning environment (Garth, 2010). These interactive features include hyperlinks, trigger, animation, custom shows, selection pane, animation pane among others. All these features can be used in creating Interactive PowerPoint. Interactive PowerPoint is a network of slide hyperlinked to one another which enable flexible navigation and user-friendly interaction (Kosslyn, Kievit, Russell, & Shephard, 2012; Garth, 2010; Poole, Jackson, & Randall, 2002). Teachers can innovatively integrate this technology in the teaching and learning process by creating a virtual project of different modes base on what the package features. Teachers can feature tutorials, game activities, virtual data collection, drill and practice activities or combinations of more than one feature depends on the predetermined endurable change in learns‟ behaviours. The overwhelming advantage of Interactive PowerPoint over other interactive media is „guided screen.‟ The interactive PowerPoint uses the entire computer screen which prevent user(s) from using any other applications installed on the computer. Students cannot create a new tab, open new windows while Interactive PowerPoint is in presentation mode. This addressed the issue of “destructiveness” most often reported as one of disadvantages of integrating digital technology in the teaching and learning process.

The teacher in the Interactive PowerPoint learning environment has the fundamental role of prompting students to see the need for information in addressing the problem at hand; the need to collaborate with fellow students in solving the problem and the need to think critically in distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. Adherence to this mode of technology integration simply means a deviation from common classroom practice of teacher-centered learning to that of uncompromised students centered learning where students are actively constructing knowledge rather than being a passive receiver. This deviation from common practices will have academic implications (positive or negative) on students‟ learning outcomes when applied in implementing curriculum contents of any school subject like civic education.


The civic education curriculum is held in high esteem by Nigeria government in realizing the unmet goals of using formal education as a tool to develop expected knowledge, skills, and dispositions essential for learners‟citizenship engagement. The esteem associated with the subject by Nigeria government warrant disarticulation of the subject from social studies curriculum (Garba, Singh, Yusuf, &Ziden, 2013) to become an independent core subject in lower basic (primary school), upper basic (Junior Secondary schools) and Post Basic (Senior Secondary Schools) education in Nigeria. Civic education as a core school subject in Nigeria senior secondary schools is made up of three different elements, civic knowledge, civic skills, and civic disposition.The digital tools that the 21st-century usher-in are now being used extensively to demonstrate citizen‟s civic potentials via the use of digital tools, such as online petitions or automatic data aggregators, online-electioneering (Meira, 2014). These tools have extended citizenship beyond the country‟s boundary and is changing the learning preferences of contemporary students (Carretero, Haste & Bermudez, 2016). Using these technologies in implementing civic education curriculum will have educational implications on students‟ academic performance and attitudes toward civic education as a school subject.

 Academic performance is one of the commonly used indexes for determining students‟ success in learning specified curriculum content. It is a numerical rating obtained from continuous assessment and examination (Adediwura & Tayo, 2007). Students‟ academic performance at secondary school levels communicates to the government and other education stakeholders the effectiveness of schools, the well-being of youths in particular and the nation in general (Levin, Wasanga & Somerset, 2011). It is these numerical values that the educational industry commonly used to judge the effectiveness of any educational intervention, (Yusuf & Adigun, 2010). Using these measure alone as justification that learning has taken place have been criticized by educational stakeholders as inadequate. Useful knowledge is described as the knowledge that is transferable into skill and attitudes and applicable in real-life situations (Gano-Phillips, 2015).


Attitude represents our evaluations, preferences or rejections based on the information received. It is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner concerning a given object. An important consequence of instruction is the students' attitudes toward the subject. A student with low achievement might have developed positive attitudes toward the subject matter while students with high achievement might have developed negative attitudes toward the subject matter, vice-versa. Teachers need to be aware of the attitudinal characteristics of their students (Gano-Phillips, 2015). The likelihood of student putting his knowledge of civic education to use (applicability) largely depend on the student‟s attitude for or against the subject because things disliked has a way of being forgotten easily.


Based on the foregone background, the study investigated the effects of integrating non-digital technology of chalkboard, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint on student‟s attitude and academic performance in civic education in Zaria Education of Kaduna State Nigeria.

 Statement of the Problem

 The radical transformation of human society by digital technologies has triggered the need for digital technology integration in the planning and implementation of educational programme of 21st-century learners. 21st-century learners are native of digitally transformed society and their learning preference has been altered by digital technologies. Failure of schools to integrate these technologies may result into non-interesting learning environments and this may trigger negative attitudes toward schooling in general. In agreement with this position, Nigeria government in her National Policy on Information and CommunicationTechnologies (ICT) in Education boldly expressed the impossibility of qualitative education in 21st-century without integration of ICT into education (FRN, 2019).Kaduna state government in collaboration with Non-governmental organizations further translated Nigeria National Policy on ICT in Education into practice by equipped secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone with computer facilities for easy access and integration.These computer facilities are adequateenough to serve an intact class of 60-100 students. The teachers in these schools are furthered trained on how to used various components of the facilities in teaching and learning process.

 The aforementioned efforts of Kaduna State government, particularly in Senior Secondary schools in Zaria education zone has not received desire positive response from teachers implementing civic education curriculum in Zaria Education zone. The researcher observed that the teaching and learning of Civic education like any other subjects in Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria Education zone is still characterized by integration of non-digital technology and teacher-centered learning approaches even in the schools that have adequate digital technology at their disposal. This observation is in line with the report of Yusuf, Maina Dare, (2013) and Garba, Singh, Yusuf & Ziden, (2013) who reported that teachers in Kaduna State as a whole are not ready to integrate digital technologies in teaching and learning even when these technologies are readily available.

 It is worth to note that civic education teachers‟ loyalty to non-digital technology integration and its corresponding teacher-centered teaching and learning approaches do not result intothe desired civic education learning outcomesin both affective and cognitive in Zaria Education Zone. Mukhtari (2017) reported that, in Zaria Education zone, only 46.31%, 45.61% and 35.82% in the year 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively got credit in Civic Education external examination of West Africa Senior Secondary Certification Examination (WASSCE-Civic Education) while the rest of the students failed. Similarly, WAEC Chief Examiner Report (2018) (see Appendix 7) shows that many candidates that sat for civic education examination lack proper understanding of civic education subject matter due to poor coverage of the curriculum.Affectively, Idowu (2015)and Okeahialam (2013) reported that reintroduction of civic education in Nigerian schools has not significantlyimprove students‟ sense of and demonstration of national consciousness.

 Inconsistencies exist on why civic education teachers in Zaria education zone remained loyal to the use of non-digital technologies and its corresponding pedagogy of teacher-centered  learning  despite  inadequacies  attributed  to  these  technologies  in 8


teaching civic education (Garba, 2018).Previous studies found teacher‟s pedagogical belief, non-availability of digital technology, lack of adaptable/adoptable digital instructional packages and disruptiveness as impediments to digital technology integration in teaching and learning (Chen, Liao, Chang, Hun & Chamg, 2019; Flavin, 2012; Inan & Lowther, 2010). Other studies also reportedinadequate knowledge of interlinks between content, pedagogy and technology as factors affecting the integration of digital technology in teachingand learning (Ukah & Odey, 2018; Lagace, 2008).


The issues of non-availability of digital technology in the context of Zaria Education Zone has been addressed as Civic education teachers in the zone have access to adequate computers installed with PowerPoint Application. This application has features that can be innovatively used to design and implement interactive and non-interactive 21stcentury complied learning environment.However, the academic implication of integrating any of the two modes of PowerPoint (Interactive and Linear PowerPoint) in the teaching of civic education in Zaria Education Zone has not been empirically established. How then can PowerPoint be innovatively integrated in civic education that will simultaneously improve student performance and developed positive attitudes toward civic education as a school subject? Desire to provide empirical-based answers to these question motivated researcher to embark on this research.


1.3.        Objectives of the Study


The study aimed at determining the effect of technology integration on learning outcomes in Civic Education among senior secondary schools‟ students in Zaria educational zone, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study is to:


i.                    determine the difference in the academic performance of SSII students taught civic education using non-digital technology, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State;




ii.                  ascertain the difference in SSII students‟ attitude toward learning civic education when taught using non-digital technology, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State.












1.4.        Research Questions


There are six research questions raised for this study. Research questions 1-4 are quantitative while five appeals to the qualitative aspect of the study. Thus, the research questions are stated below:


i.                    What is the difference in the mean performance scores of SSII students taught civic education using non-digital technology, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State?


ii.                  What is the difference in SSII students‟ attitudes toward learning civic education when taught using non-digital technology, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State?


1.5.        Research Hypotheses

 There are four research hypotheses formulated for research question 1-4; these


 i.                    There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of SSII students taught civic education using non-digital technology, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State?

  ii.                  There is no significant difference in students‟ attitudes toward learning civic education when taught using non-digital technology, Linear PowerPoint and Interactive PowerPoint in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State?


1.6.        Significance of the Study

 The significance of this study lies solely on the benefits the education stakeholders will derive from it after being published in journals and other related means of information dissemination. Teachers, researchers, parents, government, students, curriculum planners, and instructional designers will all find this study useful in different ways.


The teachers will find this study useful because it will reveal to them the potentiality of integrating digital technology into teaching and learning of civic education. The teachers that directly participated in the study and those that will come across the findings of the study after being published will find this study useful in decision making on whether to stick to teacher-centered practices or to adopt the digital technology that promote student centered learning while teaching the selected concept of civic education in Nigeria schools. The review of digital technology integration will serve as a source of information for civic education teachers on diverse ways of integrating digital technology in teaching.

 The curriculum planners will find the findings of this study helpful in reviewing the civic education curriculum to reflect 21st-century classroom setting. The findings after being published will communicate to the curriculum planneron the need to review civic education curriculum by recommending integrationof digital technology that is capable of moulding the characters of the learners to reflect an effective citizen.


The researchers will find the outcome of this study useful in extending researches in this area of digital technology integration. The models, the Interactive PowerPoint and the instruments to be used in this study can be adapted/adopted for further study. This will extend the advocate for the integration of digital technology into the teaching and learning process.


The instructional designers will find this study useful in diverse ways; first of all, they will be exposed to how researcher used the three learning theory paradigm (behaviorist, cognitivist and constructivist) approaches to design instruction peculiar to each of the approaches and the implication of such on students learning outcomes. They will also be exposed to how commonly available digital technology tools like PowerPoint can be innovative use in creating an interactive learning environment.

1.7.        Scope of the Study

The study is limited to some selected senior secondary schools in the Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State. The study only selected three national issues incivic educationthat is; National Development, National Integration, and Political Apathy of the Curriculum content (SSII). The teaching of civic education using the three modes of technology integrationmay have different effects on students learning outcomes but the present study is only concerned with students‟ academic performance and attitude toward civic education as a school subject.





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