Background to the Study

The use of alcoholic drinks has been a common phenomenon all over the world throughout the history of man. From time immemorial, no society is without its mood modifying drugs such as alcoholic drinks beer and hot drinks. Alcohol according to Wikipedia (2021) is sometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor). As a chemical substance, alcohol has predictable properties, which are evident in chemical reactions. It also has characteristic effects on the metabolic functions of the human organism. Its consequences for behaviour include psychomotor effects for instance driving skills (Klingermann, 2011).  These effects are predictable and a causative role of alcohol is relatively easy to establish as it is evident in the behaviour of the person who has taken alcoholic drinks.

Alcoholism on the other hand according to Britannica (2011) is excessive and repetitive drinking of alcoholic beverages to the extent that the drinker is harmed or harm others. It is addiction to alcohol. The harm may be physical or mental; it may be social, legal or economic. Heavy alcoholic consumption may lead to depression and liver problems. In addition, alcohol effects may affect parts of the brain (Onongha, 2012).

In Ado Ekiti, Ekiti  State, alcoholic drinks are being served in cultural events installation of kings and chiefs, marriages, naming ceremony, burial ceremonies and birthday parties. Culturally, alcoholic drink is used to preserve the dead bodies in order to prevent the fellow not to decay.  The researcher also observed that both the youth and elderly ones take alcoholic drinks in public place without any penalty. The old men who are illiterate are more addicted to alcoholic drink.  However, youth especially those in secondary school tend to see those who drink  alcohol as one who is tough, bold and strong. Many youngsters have been known to drinking at the instance of peers, elders or siblings. Students who usually feel inadequate have been known to achieve social acceptance.

The researcher observed that the rate at which secondary school students get involved in the intake of alcohol is becoming alarming and worrisome within Ado metropolis in Ekiti State. Early child use of alcohol has been shown to increase risk for chronic alcohol addiction and other alcoholic problems in later life (Hingson and Winter, 2016).  Alcoholic consumption according to Oscar- Berman (2012) is known to promote brain damage and mental disorder.  According to Hingson and Winter (2016) , the neuropsychological consequences of brain damages resulting from chronic alcohol abuse include a change in behaviour, memory loss (especially short-term memory), amnesia, and atrophy (shrinkage of the cerebral cortex). The prevalence rate of alcohol use and abuse vary from one country to the other, for instance, in the united stated of America, 52% of the eight grade and 80% of high school seniors have used alcohol at sometime, while 25% of the eight grade and 62% of high school seniors have been drunk (National Youth Violence Prevention, 2010; Adeyemo, 2017). In Nigeria, the situation shows there is high prevalence of alcohol use among adolescents and there is high probability that the frequency of alcohol drinking will continue to increase (Adeyemo, 2017).

 The researcher also observed that most cases of deviant behavioural problem perpetrated by secondary school students such as truancy, bullying, stealing, fighting, substance abuse and other criminal activities are as a result of intake and involvement in the intake of alcohol.  Secondary school students are mostly adolescents especially those in the senior secondary level and some of them engage in risky behaviours such as smoking, premarital and indiscriminate sexual activities, taking of hard drugs and alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Alcohol use among students is characterized by a number of risky behaviour which in long run affects their well being and academic performance. As levels of alcohol intake increase, so also is the prevalence of variety of risky behaviour (Onongho, 2012).  

The researcher also observed that these risky behaviours problem affect adolescent social behaviour. Socio behavious problems include, carelessness, truancy, bully/distructive talking, inflated self esteem/over confidence, self in jury, property damage, aggressive emotion and social withdrawal. When some of these students take alcohol and become tipsy, they sometime cause harm to other people in the cause of interacting with them and sometimes to themselves. Social behaviours are behaviour among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any bahaviour in which one member affects the other. Social behaviour can be seen as similar to an exchange of goods, with the expectation that when you give, you will receive the same (Homans,2016). Social behaviour arises as a result of interactions between two organisms in an environment. This means that, in regards to humans, social behaviour can be determined by both the individual characteristics of the person, and the situation they are in (Snyder, 2015). According to Robinson (2013) a major aspect of social behaviour is communication, which is the basis for survival and reproduction. Social behaviour is said to be determined by two different processes that can either work together or oppose one another. These factors that determine behaviour can work in different situations and even opposes one another. While at times one can behave with a specific goal in mind, other times they can behave without rational control, and driven by impulse instead (Strack, 2014). Just as social behavioural problem is influenced by both situations and individual characteristics, the development of behaviour is due to the combination of the two as well.

The researcher equally observed that the consumption of alcohol by secondary students in Ado-Ekiti is not unconnected to peer group influence (social interactions with their peers).  According to World Health Organisation (2014), alcoholic consumption is usually due to environmental factors, friends or peer group, social wellbeing and uncontrollable drinking habit of an individual. According to Melloo (2016) alcohol consumption among students is on the increase and that they are mostly influenced to drinking alcohol by their friends and these on the other hand affect their attitude in the school. A young person who befriends another with anti-social behaviour is likely to be influenced by that person. Such a person finds it difficult to resist the temptation of imbibing the anti-social conduct of that person.

The researcher also observed that some factors are responsible for the use of alcohol by students of secondary school inAdo-Ekiti. There are a few reasons why students get involved in the abuse of alcohol which could be due to home background, peer group influence, curiosity, irresistible urge for drinking etc. These factors may have contributed to the intake of alcohol by secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti which have serious effects on their social behaviour. And this is of serious concern to teachers, parents and other stakeholders in the education sector.

Too much alcoholic consumption can make us act in ways we wouldn’t normally, including making us more angry or aggressive. Experts believe the reason some people can become aggressive when drunk is due to the way alcohol affects the brain. There are a number of reasons as to why alcohol may contribute to aggression. Alcohol myopia’ proposes that alcohol can reduce our ability to think straight and narrow our attention. Students may miss social and environmental cues that help them to interpret situations rationally. This means that if someone provokes them when they are drunk, them might rise to the bait rather than thinking of the consequences. This can lead to violent or angry reactions from people who would usually just shrug things off.

The way students who take alcohol process information is affected when they are been drinking too. Students are  more likely to misinterpret other people's behaviour. This could be the reason why drunken fights start over little more than bumping into someone at a bar. Alcohol also causes chemical changes in the brain which initially can make us feel relaxed. What is actually happening is that alcohol is beginning to suppress activity in parts of the brain associated with inhibition and this make the students uncomfortable and start working around the school premises  after dinking excessively some students misbehave. Any warning signals that may have kicked in are unlikely to work, and we may find ourselves in confrontational or even dangerous situations.

Many people who drink are never violent and even those who do become aggressive won't do so all the time. But there is evidence of an association between alcohol and aggression. The impact of drinking alcohol on aggressive or violent behaviour is complex  and while alcohol may not be the direct cause of a person’s aggressive or violent behaviour, it is often a compounding factor.

It has been found that binge drinking increases the likelihood of both becoming aggressive or angry and also being on the receiving end of someone else's temper. Studies by Taiwo, (2016) also show that there is a consistent and robust association between alcohol use and students violent – which is any form or physical, sexual or psychological violence against a current or former partner, fighting class mate, truancy, and examination malpractices.

The researcher observed that many students leave the school premises and go to beer parlor for drinking. However, after drinking some students come back to school causing naissance. Some students drink before going to examination hall in order to have boldness to cheat in the examination hall and being able to confront the invigilator if caught.  It appears that most secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti see the intake of alcohol as pleasure seeking and civilization without necessarily considering its health implication and the perception of society to such habit. Alcohol is a depressant, which means it reduces the activities of the nervous system (According to Ajila (1999) many students are found in the habit of indulging in Heroin, Cocaine, Marijuana, Tobacco, Alcohol Caffeine Mandrax, Chinese capsule, Valium, Proplus, Phosphorine/Reactive and Dexterine which were grouped into three categories namely, hallucinogen, depressant or sedative and stimulant.  It is upon this basis that the researcher seeks to investigate the influence of alcoholic consumption on the social behaviour problems among secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.

Statement of the Problem

It also appears that most of the deviant behaviours exhibited by students in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis are as a result of intake of alcohol by secondary school students. Alcohol can progress from light drinking, with little to no consequence to excessive uncontrolabvle drinking, which most often affects person’s behaviour   The abuse of alcohol among the young is a marvel in all nations, and an expansion in their viscous conducts has been of impressive worry over previous years everywhere throughout the world. These activities of the youth especially secondary school students are of serious concern to parents and government in recent time. Nefarious activities such as stealing, assaults, rapes, arsons, brigandage and other crimes are mostly perpetrated by these youths. Fear of students abusing alcohol is a constant concern for millions of people all over the world (Timothy, 2016).

It appears that most of students dropping outs from school in Ado Ekiti as a result of alcohol and other substance abuse. You find some of these students starting with truancy which usually finally result these students dropping out of school due to their inability to cope with academic work.  The research therefore carryout to investigate the influence of alcoholic consumption on the social behaviour problems among secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of alcoholic consumption on the social behaviour problems among secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. The study will specifically;

i. Examine if there is any difference between the alcoholic consumption and social behaviour problems of secondary school students that indulge in drinking of alcohol as a habit in Ado-Ekiti.

ii. Look into the factors responsible for alcoholic drinking habit among secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti

iii. Examine the sex that are mostly involve in the drinking of alcohol.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised;

1. Do secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti indulge in alcoholic drinking?

2. Are there any difference between the social behavioural problem of students that indulge in alcohol drinking habit and those who do not?

3. What are the factors responsible for alcoholic drinking habit among the secondary school students?

Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were generated to properly examine this study.

1. There is no significant difference between the social behaviours of students that indulge in alcohol drinking habit and those who do dot.

2. There is no significant difference between the alcoholic drinking habit of male and female students.

3. There is no significant difference between students who indulge in alcoholic drinking habit and truancy.

4. There is no significant difference between students who indulge in alcoholic drinking habit and violent behaviour.

5. There is no significant difference between students who indulge in alcoholic drinking habit and examination malpractice.

6. There is no significant difference between students who indulge in alcoholic drinking habit and fighting.



Significance of the Study

The significance of this study will be to establish the role which educational guidance and counselling could play in moderating student’s attitude and involvement on alcoholic drinking habit in their formative years. It will also be useful for personal and social development of students in giving room for effective helping relationship. It will also help in curbing the surge of alcoholic drinking habit among secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti. The study will further be of importance to government agencies and parastatals, as the study would educate them the effect of alcohol on students, and why it is necessary restrict the sales of alcohol to under age children. The study will also be useful to students, teachers, lecturers, as it will contribute to the  pool of knowledge on the subject matter and also contribute to existing literature.

Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to public secondary school students in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. The study is also delimited to 5 secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti. The study is also delimited to students from SS 1 to SS2. It was further delimited to alcoholic consumption and social beahviours problem.

Definition of Term

The following terms are operationally defined as used in the study;

Alcohol: This is a chemical substance in liquid form which alters the mood and bahaviour of people who take it. Its is an intoxicating liquid found in beer, liquors, wine etc

Alcohol Abuse: this is unapproved and misuse of any brand of alcohol which is capable of affecting the mood of people or their mind.

Alcoholism: it is excessive and repetitive drinking of alcoholic beverages to the extent that the drinker is harmed or harm others. It is the condition of being addicted to alcohol.

Adolescent: this is the stage in human development which ranges from 13-19 years of age. The stage leads to adulthood.

Drug: a drug is a chemical substance that is given to people to treat or prevent illness or disease.

Stimulants: A stimulant is a drug that increases your heart rate and makes you less likely to sleep. It is anything that stimulates or excites.  

Truancy: the action of staying away from school without good reason; absenteeism

Violence: This is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy

Examination Malpractice: This refers to any deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to the rules of examinations designed to give a candidate an undue advantage. 

Social Behaviour: Is defined as interactions among individuals, normally within the same species, that are usually beneficial to one or more of the individuals.




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