Background of the Study

In recent times technology has tried to fulfill its role in helping humanity leading to the substantial medium of interaction in the social world as well as in teaching and learning (Raymond and Afua 2016). Over the years those in higher education has explore the exciting opportunities new technologies bring to institutions, educators and students. Technology has changed the way people interact and has brought about the emergence of an open social platform such as social media that allows the inhabitants of this planet earth to connect with each other making the world a global village. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Whatsapp, Instagram, etc., are being used in learning for the purpose of convenient communication with other students and potentially with others outside the class such as students of the same topic and subject experts. The advent of social media has impacted significantly on how students learn and the mode instructors teach. In today higher education settings, social media has influence instructors, students, and others to cooperate with each other on the tasks of knowledge construction in learning and teaching environments.

The internet is more than just a means of seeking information. People discovered that the internet could be used to connect with others, whether for business or commercial purposes, to make new friends, reawaken old friends and recover long lost relatives. The emergence of social media simplified the whole process of communication because they are easier to use. Abayomi (2014) opine that social media are fast becoming very popular means of both interpersonal and public communication in Nigeria and the world at large. Social media are modern interactive communication channels through which people connect to one another, share ideas, experiences, pictures, messages and information of common interest. What distinguishes the social media from the conventional means of communication is their interactive nature which allows the audience to participate in it from any part of the world they reside.

McQuail (2010), differentiates the social media from the traditional mass media when he noted that “traditional mass communication was essentially one-directional, while the new forms of communication are essentially interactive.” This interactive aura of the new media confers an unprecedented popularity on them. The social media by their nature have the capabilities of educating, informing, entertaining and „inflaming‟ the audience. Above all, they possess a “contagious and outreaching influence” which the conventional media lack. This potential is most likely what Osahenye (2012) refers to as “unstoppable power of the social media.” As a novel phenomenon, it is necessary to examine how Nigerian students use the new means of communication. This is because students‟ contribution as youths can make or mar any nation.

Okolloh cited by Essoungou (2010) explains that, “the new communication technology is one of the few ways that young Africans can bypass the inefficiencies in the system that allow the status quo to hold on. It lowers the barriers to entry for everyone to get involved and be heard.” A study like this shall help to ascertain whether students‟ use of the social media could be regulated or not. This is obviously because the disposition of people of a given community could shape the media in existence there, just like a cerebral media scholar Anim (2007), aptly notes that “...societies greatly influence the operations and functions of the media that operate within those societies.”

Social media comprises of activities that involve socializing and networking online through words, pictures and videos. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) defined social media as a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web2.0, and that allows the creation and exchange of user-generated content. It depends on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss and modify user-generated content. In line with this, Sherwin (2013) stated that social media introduced substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities and individuals. These changes are the focus of the emerging field of techno -self -studies.

Social media’s most distinctive aspects are that it has the potential to transform from a way of pushing content outward to a way of inviting conversation, of exchanging information, and of invoking unparalleled individual, industrial, societal, and even global changes. The availability of high speed internet broadband connection with massive use of desktop computer, laptops, e-readers, Facebook, YouTube, and smartphones enables millions of people to actively engage in social media, text messaging, content sharing, online-learning and much more. Peters in Ezenwafor (2012) observed that since technology is ruling the world in all disciplines and activities, the modern office ranks highest in innovation development and use of the ever changing technologies requiring adequate integration of ICT in Accounting education. Now just like radio or television stations, social media sites spread everywhere in Nigeria and are bound to be sprouting as technologies continue to improve; however, the problem lies in the point that the purposes which the users apply the new media for are still obscure. This is what Folorunso, Vincent, Adekoya and Adewale (2010) perceived when they argue generally that, “in Africa, social media networking site is becoming widely spread than it has ever been before and it tends to be majorly accepted by the youths. Yet the widespread adoption by users of these sites is not clear, as it appears that people’s perception of this technology is diverse.”

The use of social media like (Facebook, YouTube, twitter and Whatsapp) by Accounting education students today is resulting to mass failure of Accounting education students in academic achievement (David, 2014) . This is because students these days spend more time chatting with their friends rather than engaging in research or reading their books. A growing number of Nigerian scholars agree that addiction to social media sites have become a distractive technology to students’ academic work in higher education. Among the scholar inOluwatoyin (2011), who surveyed 1,860 Facebook users from the Lagos State University and found that 90percent of the students could not get up to cumulative grade point average (CGPA) above 3.50 because they had spent a large part of their time on social media than on their homework and study time (which could contribute to higher grade).

Statement of the Problem

Students are always very busy with their handset and laptops. Social media gives most students’ access to the Internet and this has resulted or affected the students’ academics. Through the use of Facebook, chatting, checking their email, pinging, whatsapp, YouTube, MySpace etc., students spend lots of time away from studying. It is speculated that an average Nigerian youth spends about six to seven hours on the internet daily, some even do all night browsing. When do they have the time to read/study their books or undertake research? The main problems now are: For which purposes do Nigerian students use the social media? Does the use of the social media reduce the amount of time the students devote to their studies? Do the social media have any positive input on the students‟ studies? These constitute the core problems this study seeks to systematically unravel.

Purpose of the Study

          The purpose of this study is on the effect of social media on academic performance of senior secondary school students’ in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. The specific objective is to;

i.       find out why students use the social mediaand the effect of social media on their academic performance.

ii.     ascertain whether the use of social media reduces the amount of time the students devote to their studies.

iii.  find out whether the use of the social media have positive inputs on the students’ academic performance.

Significance of the study

The study will be of immense benefits to students, parents and guardians and school teachers. The study will be most beneficial to students who need to learn to manage and balance their time so as to be greater contributors to the development of the society. They should learn to explore the social networking potential benefits as it will boost their creativity and technical skills but not at the expense of their primary responsibility which is reading.

It will equally benefit parents and guardians as they need to wake up to their roles of monitoring their children and wards. They should ensure that their children pay more attention to their studies.

This study will also serve as a guide to school teachers in order to teach the students the need to develop good reading habits and best ways to maximize the benefits of social networking sites.

Furthermore, the study will provide library services for readers. Every chapter of the study shall constitute an area of study for students and serve as resource material for teachers, especially in higher institutions of learning.

Research Questions

To achieve the aforementioned objectives, this study shall be guided by the following research questions:

i.       For what purposes do senior secondary school students use the social media and the effect of social media on their academic performance?

ii.     Do the students’ uses of the social media make them lessen the amount of time they devote to their studies?

iii.  Do the social media have positive inputs on the students‟ academic performance?

Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis would be tested in this study:

i.       There is no significant relationship between the use of social media and students’ academic performance.

ii.     There is no significant relationship between the use of social media and time devote to their studies.

iii.  There is no significant relationship between positive input of social media and students’ academic performance.

Scope of the Study

The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of social media on academic performance of senior secondary school students’ Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. However, the study is limited to all students’ in public secondary schools in aforementioned study area.

Definition of Terms

Social Mediaare interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

Teacher is a person that impact knowledge on a student or a person whose job is teaching

Academic performance or "academic achievement" is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured through examinations or continuous assessments but there is no general agreement on how it is best evaluated or which aspects are most important—procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts.

Continuous Assignment isthe part of a student's work that is done in the classroom, homework preparation. A task assigned for individual study by teacher to the students’.

Achievement is refers to the performance of students in biology examinations.

Teaching Aids are materials that are used to communicate between the instructor and the learners for better understanding of the subject matter e.g. drawing board, television, computer system, projector, cardboard etc.

Learning: Learning is a change of modification in behavior of organization as a result of experience or reaction to stimulus in this environment.



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