Background of the Study

Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. The students’ performance plays an important role in producing best quality graduates who will become great leaders and manpower for the country, thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development. Academic achievement is one of the major factors considered by employers in hiring workers especially for the fresh graduates. Thus, students have to put the greatest effort in their study to obtain good grades and to prepare themselves for future opportunities in their career at the same time to fulfill the employer’s demand. Academic performance in the secondary school determines whether the students will proceed to university for higher degree or be able to secure a teaching job. Students’ performance also determines quality of education that will be passing to the students by the potential teachers at primary and secondary school levels.

Academic achievement or performance is used in the school to refer to students’ success in learning specified curriculum content as revealed by continuous assessment and examination. According to Adediwura and Tayo (2007), academic achievement is designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teachers. It could also be said to be any expression used to represent students’ scholastic standing. Lewin, Wasanga and Somerset (2011) reported that the academic achievement of students at secondary school level is not only a pointer of the effectiveness of schools, but also a major determinant of the well-being of youths in particular and the nation in general. Yusuf and Adigun (2010); Lydiah and Nasongo (2009) noted that the performance of students in any academic task has always been of special interest to the government, educators, parents and society at large.

According to Ali (2013), academic achievement is a measure of the degree of success in performing specific tasks in a subject or area of study by students after a learning experience. It is the outcome of education that indicates how well a student or class of students is doing academically. Academic achievement is a major issue to teachers, students, parents and guardians as well as other stakeholders in the education industry. This concern cuts across all school subjects and all levels in the education system, including primary, secondary and tertiary.

Poor academic performance according to Aremu and Sokan (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics, chemistry and English language among secondary school students (Adesemowo, 2005). Aremu and Sokan (2003) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. Education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual for further education and development, general development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real or marginal disabilities.

The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school to students because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, low achievement motivation and the likes (Aremu&Sokan, 2003; Aremu&Oluwole 2001). Many graduates and school leavers in Nigeria are without jobs and there is the assertion among the public and employers of labour that many Nigerian graduates are unemployable and those employed are inefficient. These are pointers to problems in quality and this raises the question of whether quality instruction is given to students. Also, one wonders if the stakeholders in education are doing what is expected of them. Jacob and Lefgren (2008) examined how differences in teacher quality affected students’ achievement in a midsized school district. It was found that school environment, home background and teacher quality are sine qua none to students’ academic performance in schools.

According to Uduh (2009) asserted that one of the major problems facing the educational system in Nigeria is the abysmal failure of students in public examinations, particularly at the secondary level of education. According to Uduh (2009), the high percentage of candidates who failed JSSCE and SSCE yearly is reflected in the low percentage of the candidates that meets the University Admission requirements. The situation is so pathetic that stakeholders keep on wondering why this level of education has persistently failed to meet the yearnings and aspirations of the society. Apart from the fact that the mass failure of students in public examinations constitutes wastage on investment in secondary education, it puts a big question mark on the quality of secondary education in the country especially in Business Studies subject.

According to Aremu (2000), poor performance is a performance that adjudged by the examinees/testees and some significant as falling below an expected standard. The interpretation of this expected or desire standard is better appreciated from the perpetual cognitive ability of the evaluator of the performance. The evaluator or assessor can therefore give different interpretations depending on some factors. While, (Abdullahi, 2013) described poor academic performance as any performance that falls below a desired standard. The criteria of excellence can be from 40% to 100% depending on some subjective criteria of the evaluator or assessor. Just as in universities in Nigeria, any grade below 40% is considered as poor or failed.

Motshabi, Kesamang and Gabalebatse (2011) claimed that the concept of standards in examinations is deeply central to the concerns of any examining agency and its stakeholders. An examining agency will always strive to deliver credible examinations and certificates since this will not only bring gratification to the agency but its reputation will also be protected. In their explanation, candidates feel confident when they are assured that the certificates they bear are true reflections of their abilities. Dignified parents would not want to invest in assessment procedures that are incredible. Crucially speaking, there is need for assurance of employers and tertiary institutions that the knowledge, abilities and skills of their prospective intakes are accurately and genuinely reflected in certificates they bear.

Education was seen as the necessary instrument immediately and essentially for the consolidation of the independence, for securing the new nation against new colonialism and for making workable the newly established self-government in a multi-ethnic society. Mass education at least to the level of literacy, was also seen by the Nigerian leaders to be necessary to create a proper foundation. Parents would be in a good position to be second teachers to the child; and even guide and counsel the child on the best way to perform well in education and provide the necessary materials needed by the child. This was supported by Musgrave (2000) who said that a child that comes from an educated home would like to follow the steps of his or her family and thus, work actively in his or her studies. He said further that parents who have more than a minimum level of education are expected to have a favoured attitude to the child’s education and to encourage and help him or her with school work. They provide library facilities to encourage the child to show examples in activities of intellectual type such as reading of newspaper, magazines and journals. They are likely to have wider vocabulary by which the children can benefit and develop language fluency. Home environment and family processes provide a network of physical, social and intellectual forces and factors which affect the students’ learning. According to them, the family’s level of encouragement, expectations and education activities in the home are related to socio-economic status, while Song and Hattle (2004) agreed that families from different socio-economic groups create different learning environments that affects the child’s academic achievement. There is no doubt that parents’ attitude help to condition their children’s attitudes. A parent who shows complete regard for education might have some effect upon his or her children’s education progress.

Many studies have examined the relationships among the factors responsible for poor performance of students’ achievement. Students’ academic achievement and educational attainment have been studied within different frame works, many of them have a focus on parents’ education, occupation or home background like; family income, language of the home, activities of the family and work methods, while other studies looked at it from the teachers’ variables such as teachers age, experience, education, gender etc. school variables such as environment, structures, buildings, location etc. Students’ variables such as attitude, self-concept, self-esteem, study habit, interest or parents’ support such as achievement motivation of wards, parental attitude towards education, the aspiration of parents etc. There is evidence that parents’ education will affect students’ academic achievement in schools. According to Cirissmer (2003) parents’ level of education is the most important factors affecting students’ academic achievement. Stakeholders have continued to trade blames on the causes of mass failure of students in public examinations Business Studies subject. Some people shifted the blame on government, some on parents, some on society and students themselves with the teachers having lion share of the blame. As accusations and counter-accusations on who to blame on the mass failure of students will persist, the fact remains that all the stakeholders have roles to play in solving the problem of abysmal failure of students in public examinations. Nevertheless, there is need to identify the major causes of the problem with a view to providing lasting solutions. It is against this backdrop that this study assesses the factors responsible for mass failure of students in Business Studies in secondary schools in Ado local government area, Ekiti State.

Statement of the Problem

Education system in Nigeria has been in crisis for many years largely due to the fact that the sector is poorly funded. This has led to shortage supply of learning materials and human resources being experienced in the system. Inadequate qualified teachers, high turnover rate of teachers, shortage of classroom, and poor remuneration of teachers and a host of other problems abound in the education sector. The economic crisis experienced in Nigeria impacted on the educational system and had played a major role in the decline of the quality of education offered in the country. Meanwhile, the future of every nation depends largely on the fate of every child that is born into her; most especially those that are privileged to go through the academic walls of the nation starting from the primary level of education to the tertiary institution. Education is an important industry for social, political and economic development and is being affected by the environment within which it exists. Hence, national development has been founded by those who are experts in their areas of specialization, and this would not have been imaginable without the instrumentality of the educational system. Every countryendeavours to provide qualityeducation for its people. This problem, as a phenomenon, calls for intensive investigation toknow the root causes of this poor academic performance in secondary schools in Nigeria.This research was conducted to assess the factors responsible for the poor academic performance of Business Studies students in secondary schools in IkereLocal Government Area of Ekiti State.

Purpose of the Study

          The main purpose of this study is onthe assessment of the factors responsible for the poor academic performance of Business Studies students in secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. In specific term, the study intends to:

1.     examine whether Business studies teachers’ teaching method affect academic performance of secondary school students in Ekiti State.

2.     findout if whether inadequate teaching aids contribute to mass failure among secondary school students in Business studies in Ekiti State.

3.     find out if parent socio – economic status contribute to the academic performance of secondary school students in Business studies in Ekiti State.

4.     investigate the impact of government on how to curb mass failure of students in Business studies subject in secondary schools in Ekiti State.

Research Question

          The following research questions were raised for this study;

1.     Do teaching methods contribute to mass failure of students in Business studies in secondary schools in Ekiti State?    

2.     Do teaching aids contribute to mass failure of students in Business studies in secondary schools in Ekiti State?

3.     Does parents socio-economic status affects academic performance of secondary school students’ in Business studies?

4.     What are the impacts of government on how to curb mass failure of students in Business studies subject in secondary schools in Ekiti State?


Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be relevant to the Ministry of Education in Ekiti State as means of enhancing teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary school for better educational outcome. The researcher’s result will furnish educators such as teachers and administrators with more reliable information on how to curb mass failure students’ and learning of Business Studies in secondary schools.

          Conclusively, this study wishes to create awareness among parents, state and federal government on the need to sensitize, providing conducive atmosphere for proper learning and fabulous performance in Business Studies subject where necessary.

Scope of the Study

          This research work will be restricted to secobndary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. However, as a result of time frame and the mobility of the researcher, the researcher could not go round to all the secondary schools in the local government area to carry out the findings. Consequently, five (5) secondary schools will be sample from different locations within the local government area, where the research beliefs that he could get authentic data for this research project.



You may like these posts

Post a Comment