Improvisation Of Instructional Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of English Language



The study intends to find out the use of improvised instructional materials for teaching and learning of  English language  in some selected secondary schools in --------------------- Local Government Area of ---------- State. The sample comprised of  one hundred (100) secondary schools students and thirty teachers randomly sampled from 10 schools in the local Government Area. The data  collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The findings revealed that students taught with improvised instructional materials performed better than those taught without instructional materials.  . The null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance indicated that there is significant difference between the students   those taught with improvised instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. It was therefore recommended that improvised instructional materials be used in teaching in secondary schools because it has positive impact on student’s performance in English language.



Background of the Study

The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching of English language in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners. Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola 1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.

English Language is an important and fundamental subject that must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution. The importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to teach it to the learners.

This fact is supported by Macaulay (1989) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could advance junior secondary school students performance in English language.

Poor academic achievement in English Language could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of English Language concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of English language without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer , Okebukola and Jegede (1992) stressed that a professionally qualified English teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.

Bassey (2002) opined that art of teaching is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of English language in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.

Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate resources (Teaching aids inclusive) for teaching in most secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation.   Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.


Selection of materials can help indepth understanding of lesson by the students in which they make the lesson attractive, thereby capturing their attention and motivating them to learn. Before, the instructional materials are maps, chart, and so on, which are used to enhance the teaching and learning of English Language , but presently there is technological advancement where film slide, Ipad, laptop, projector, television and internet system are the instructional materials which helps in teaching and learning process. With the above reasons, there is need to carry out research to know the impact of improvised instructional material in teaching English Language   

Statement of the Problem

The teachings of English Language   over the years have been faced with various problems ranging from the absence of in structural materials that are relevant in the class to the teacher factors. Instructional materials make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. But inspite of the benefits of instructional materials to teaching and learning, the scarcity of the instructional materials has hindered, to some extent, the efficiency of teaching and learning of English Language .

In view of this difficulties, most teachers of English Language  still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of English Language  education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 1996). The researcher has taught for a number of years in some secondary schools and had visited a number of secondary schools as a resource person. Through these experiences, the researcher observed that most teachers in secondary schools in the state did not fully make use of instructional materials in the teaching of English Language  to their students. This negligence of the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning of English Language  common to both the trained and untrained teachers affected the academic performance of students in English Language  in secondary schools in Kwara State.

Therefore, one can say that lack of instructional materials school affects the performance, interest and attitudes of students towards learning. This forms the premise on which this study is undertaken. To access the effect of improvised instructional materials on student performance.

Purpose of the Study

The  main objective of this project is to investigate  improvisation of instructional materials in the teaching and  learning of English language  

Therefore the specific objective of these studies are to:

The specific objective will be to:

i.            Investigate the positive and negative attitude of English Language  teachers towards the use of instructional materials in teaching English Language

ii.            To investigate if students taught with improvised instructional materials perform better than students taught with conventional method.

iii.            To find out the problem associated with the use of improvised instructional materials in teaching English Language .

iv.            To determine the impact of improvised instructional materials on students academic performance in English Language .

v.            To find out the attitude of English Language  students towards the use of instructional materials.

1.4       Significance of the study.

            Findings from this study may reveal clearly the attitudes of English Language  teacher towards improvisation. This will serve as a pointer to the prevailing condition in our schools. Both administrators and teachers, trainers may benefit from the findings and may enlighten them about the usefulness of improvised materials to the teachers, it may encourage them to know that some topics can be taught using improvised materials.

Findings from this study will be significant to students, teachers, curriculum planners, ministry of education and the society at large.

To the students, the effective use of instructional materials will enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question because, learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials. The use of instructional materials will give the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at difference levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility.

The study will enhance teachers‟ teaching effectiveness and productivity. The use of instructional materials provides alternative channels of communication which a teacher can use to compress information and make them more vivid to his learners. It also provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner‟s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. As a result, teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students‟  innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.

To the curriculum planners, findings from this study will help them in making proper planning for the place of instructional materials while planning English Language  curriculum. However, the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of English Language  is not only the issue, but also the appropriateness of the selected materials by the teacher to the topic at hand which sometimes make the lesson less effective and thereby render the materials useless. Findings from this study shall reveal to the curriculum planners that, English Language  contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such instructional materials, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives.

This study will recommends the State Ministry of Education through the Universal Basic Education Commission to purchase instructional resources required for effective teaching of English Language  and make them available in Schools throughout the State. The finding from the study will encourage the Ministry of Education to ensure that these materials are purchased and supplied to Schools. This will go a long way in ensuring that the pupils and students receive quality education. It will also recommend to the Ministry of Education on the need to train and retrain English Language  teachers through workshops on how to use instructional materials, how to improvise and source them from local available resources.


Finally, this research work will contribute to knowledge as a reference material for scholars in the research field.

 Research questions.

            The research questions formulated for the purpose of this study are stated below:

i.            What are the attitude of English Language  teachers towards the use of improvised instructional materials?

ii.            What are the impact of instructional materials on students academic performance in English Language ?

iii.            What are the problem associated with the use of improvised instructional materials in teaching English Language ?

iv.            What are the attitude of English Language  students towards the use of improvised instructional materials?

v.            Does students taught with improvised instructional materials perform better than students taught without improvised instructional materials?

Research Hypotheses

            In addition to the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated and tested:

i.            There is no significant relationship between students taught with improvised instructional materials and those taught without improvised instructional materials.


Scope of the Study

            This research work is design to investigate improvisation of instructional materials in the teaching and  learning of English language.

  The study aims at finding whether variable like; instructional materials, teachers‟ improvisation and use of instructional materials enhance students academic performance. Hence, the study shall be delimited to 30 English Language  teachers and 100 students in Senior Secondary School two (SSII) in  ---------------- local government area

Definition of terms

            In order to make this study meaningful, some of the terms used are explained. The major concepts in this study which need clear definitions of their operational meaning as used in this terms are:

Instructional materials: these are materials or objects which aids teaching and learning in classroom.

Improvised instructional materials: it make teaching  concepts more interesting to both students and teachers in the classroom.

Equipment: this is anything kept, furnished or provided for a specific purpose.


Students: this is a pupil, is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.

Academic performance: this is the requirement of students to maintain a satisfactory academic record and meet the obligations of the courses in which they are enrolled.

Improvisation:- can be defined as providing a substitute through innovation and production in the absence of the real things.

Instructional:- materials is a communication medial that information between the instruction and the learner with the internets of facilitating learning.

Curriculum:- curriculum is bodies of value co-oriented learning contents existing as a reading discover or in the mind of the teachers taught when give out as instruction result in change in pupil’s behaviors.

Teaching:- teaching is the conscious and deliberate efforts or matured or experienced person impact information and knowledge and experienced person with the intention that the later will learn or come to believe on whether he is being taught on ground.

Syllabus:- Syllabus is a context outline or statement of the main point of a course of study spring up from the board of curriculum of the school.

Learning:- Learning is a change of modification in behavior of organization as a result of experience or reaction to stimulus in this environment.


You may like these posts

Post a Comment