1.1 Background to the Study
According to the report of the United Nations on drugs and crime, 2010, it is estimated that between 155 and 250 million people, approximately between 3.5% and 5.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 years, have used drugs at least once in the last 12 months, there is a growing trend in the use and abuse of psychoactive substances in the african countries (Adelekan, Ndom, Makajuola, Parakoyi, Osagbemi, Fabgemi, & Pute 2000 and Ready, Resnicow, Omardien, & Kambara, 2007). In this trend, cannabis use and abuse is taking its fair share and most young adults are caught up in the disaster.
This trend appears to be very common or frequent during the period of adolescence, extending into early adulthood and causing social, physical, health and mental complications; previous empirical studies indicate that both men and women use cannabis (World Drug Report, 2008). Nigeria, for example, where cannabis abuse was rare many decades ago, there is now ample visual evidence of cannabis use on the edges of roads and car parks in most urban centres where young adults could be seen using cannabis (Rasheed and Ismaila, 2010). These increased usage certainly has a number of implications. The use and abuse of cannabis have continued to increase social and public health problems.
According to statistics from the World Drug Report (2008), around 200,000 people die from drug use worldwide, affecting not only drug users, but also their families, friends, co-workers and communities. Drug use (including the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, tobacco and marijuana / cannabis, etc.) is widespread and this wide distribution increases the burden of related disease and the problem of behavior-related drug use. According to the World Health Organization's report on the world situation of marijuana and health, the harmful use of marijuana (cannabis) is a causal factor in 60 types of illness and injury, resulting in approximately 15 million deaths each year. These deaths account for almost 3% of all deaths worldwide, e.g. marijuana has been reported to be responsible for 5 million deaths annually; in most European and Asian countries, opiates remain the main drug of abuse, accounting for 62 per cent of all treatment demand; in South America, drug-related treatment remains mainly linked to cocaine use (59 per cent of all treatment demand), but in Africa, most of all treatment demand is linked to cannabis 64 per cent (WHO, 2004).
Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana and many other names (Indian hemp, ganja, bush, igbo, we-we, gbanaa, hash, etc.), is a preparation of the cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as a medicine (Harcout, 2007). Pharmacologically, the principle psychoactive component of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, is one of the 283 compounds known in the plant (Russo, 2013), including at least 84 cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, cannabinol, tetrahidrocannabivarin, (The-Aify, Iy, Robison, Ahmed Radwan, Slade, Khan, Elsohly & Rossb, 2010) and cannabigerol according to the Commission on drugs of the United Nations, UNODC (2009). The three main forms of cannabis products are flower, resin (hashish) and oil (hashish oil). UNODC (2009) states that cannabis flower is often 5% tetrahydrocannabivarin, (THC) content, resin may contain up to 20% THC content, while, cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC content.
Cannabis is used in many different ways (Golubi, 2012): smoking, which typically involves inhaling vaporized cannabinoids (smoke) from small pipes, bongs (portable versions of water-chamber hookah), paper-wrapped or blunt-wrapped joints in tobacco leaves, cockroach clips and other items (Tasman, Kay, Lieberman, First & Maj, 2011). It has proactive and physiological effects when consumed (Conaivi, Sugiura, & March, 2005). The immediate desired effects of cannabis use include relaxation and mild euphoria (the feeling "high or high"), while some immediately unwanted side effects include decreased short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills and red eyes, feeling paranoid or anxious (Hall and Paula, 2003). Apart from a subjective change in perception and mood, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, increased appetite and food consumption decreased blood pressure, impaired short-term or working memory (Mathre, 1997; Riedel & Darvies, 2005), psychomotor coordination and impaired concentration.
Other ways of using cannabis is as a recreational or medicinal drug, and as part of religious or spiritual rites. The medicinal value of cannabis is in dispute; the American Society of Medicine, Addiction (2005) rejects the concept of medical cannabis due to concerns about their potential for dependence and adverse health effects and significant aspects such as content, production and supply are not regulated. The FDA approves the prescription of two (non-smoking) products that have pure THC in a small controlled dose as an active substance (Scholastic, 2012).
Cannabis use became a public health problem in Nigeria in the 1960s with the discovery of a cannabis farm in the country, arrests of Nigerian cannabis traffickers abroad, and reports of psychological disorders suspected of being associated with cannabis use (Obot, 2003). In the 1980s, cocaine and heroin abuse added to the burden of public health. Soldiers and sailors returning from World War II introduced cannabis to Nigeria (Obot, 2003). The most widely used illicit drug in Nigeria is hemp from India, mainly in its herbal form. This is due to the fact that cannabis is grown at home and is relatively cheap, the price of a unit of cannabis is often about the same as that of a bottle of beer (UNODC, 2013). At 14.3%, the country has the highest annual prevalence rate of cannabis use in Africa (UNOGC, 2011, Onifade, Somoye, Ogunwale, Akinhanmi and Adason, 2013).
The burden of the use and effects of marijuana and other psychoactive substances on young people is taking on a dangerous dimension (Eneh, 2004; Pela, 1989 and Stanley & Saline 1991). In a study conducted by Eneh (2004) among secondary school students in River state Nigeria, the prevalence rate of cannabis use was found to be 20 per cent. However, like the study among young adults and secondary school in Zambia and Santiago Chile, the poor prevalence rate of 10% and 7.3% respectively (Haworth 1982: Florenzo, Mautelli, Madrid, Martini & Salazar, 1982).
In a neurological study by Albert, Bhattacharyya, Yucel, Poli, Crippa, Nogue, Torrens, Puyol, Farre, and Santors (2013) comparing different structural and functional imaging studies showed a morphological alteration of the brain in long-term cannabis users that was found to possibly correlate with cannabis exposure, another study by Santors, Fagundo, Crippa, Atakan, Bhattacharyya and Allen (2010) found that resting blood flow was lower globally and in the prefrontal areas of the brain in cannabis users, compared to non-users. Cannabis administration was also shown to correlate with increased blood flow in these areas, and facilitate activations of the anterior cingulate cortex and frontal cortex when presented to participants with an assignment that requires the use of cognitive ability. Both reviews noted that some of the studies they examined had methodological limitations, e.g. small sample size, or did not adequately distinguish between cannabis and alcohol use.
Within the field of treatment, there is a growing recognition that individuals vary in their willingness to change (Carey, Purnine, Maisto, and Carey, 1999A). For example, Prochaska, Diclements and Norcross (1992) have provided a heuristic is useful for understanding the different levels of motivation for change, within your model trans-theoretical, represent the process of continuous and cyclic by which people change addictive behaviors as Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, action and Maintenance. It is noted that the vast majority of people addicted to substances are not in the action stage (Prochaska and Diclements, 1992). Even people admitted to alcohol and drug treatment programs vary in their level of motivation for change (Diclement, & Hughes, 1990).'2 Statement of Problem
Cannabis use in Nigerian Society has become an issue of serious concern and constitutes one of the most important risks taking behavior among young adult. According to Boryelt, Franson, Nassbaum and Wang (2013), safety concerns regarding cannabis use include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairment in memory and cognition, accident pediatric ingestions and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. The same thing implies Gordon and Conley (2013) report that exposure to cannabis have biologically-based physical, mental, behavior and social health consequences and was associated with diseases of the liver (particularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart and vasculature.
In the area covered by the present study- Enugu metropolis, there are many cannabis users almost in all the layouts, streets and suburbs irrespective of the continual outlook of the law enforcement agencies National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies (Police and NDLEA) for them. Almost everybody within places like Abakpa, Emene, Obiagu, Thinkers’ Corner, Ugwuaji fly-over axis, Monarch, Achalla Layout, New Haven Extension/Old Artisan, ESUT axis of Independent Layout and many other places have either a personal or learned story to tell about the menace of cannabis (“igbo”) users.
The series of problems associated with the use of cannabis have raised serious concern for awareness and treatment. Notwithstanding the worldwide concern and education about cannabis uses (the effects to both the person and the society at large), many users have limited awareness of their abuses’ consequences (Eneh, 2004) and very few of the users assess treatment or develop the willingness to assess treatment. This raises research concern for the evaluation of social factors that can influence young adults’ readiness to change from the use of cannabis and hence the drive of the present study. There is need to see the position of the behaviors of authority figures in the home (parents) and the support perceived to come from all the component members of the home in pushing or motivating young adults to engage in the change process from the use of cannabis.
Specifically, the present study intends to address the following problems.
1.    Would role of parenting style significantly influence readiness to change cannabis use among young adults?
2.    Would family support significantly influence readiness to change cannabis use among young adults?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.    Examine whether parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) of the father will influence readiness to change cannabis use among young adults.
2.    Examine whether parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) of the mother will influence readiness to change cannabis use among young adults.
3.    Examine whether level of family support will influence readiness to change cannabis use among young adults.
1.4 Operational Definitions Of Terms.
Parenting style: parenting style represent the overall climate of parent child interactions or standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing measured using the Parental Authority Questionnaire by Buri (1991) which was developed in line with the Baumrind’s three dimension of parenting: authoritativeness, authoritarianism and permissiveness.
Family Support: Family support is the extent to which individual perceives that his/her needs for support, information and feedback are fulfilled by family members measured using the the Perceived Social Support Scale-Family (PSS-Fr) adapted from the Perceived Social Support Scale by Procidano and Heller (1983).
Readiness to Change Cannabis Use: This is an individual’s personal feelings about his/her cannabis use at the present time which identifies him/her in either of the Pre-contemplation, Contemplation and Action decision level of whether or not he/she wish to change his cannabis use behavior. This is measured using the 12-item Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ) by Heather and Rollnick (1993).


You may like these posts

Post a Comment