This study investigated entry qualification and  students performance in economics. A case study of College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti. This study was an ex-post facts research design which comprises of all  economics related students from  various course combination. Fifty students were selected for the study. Simple random sampling technique was  to selected the students for the study. The entry result (SSCE) of students admitted into economics department in 2016/2017 session and their corresponding CGPA were used as an instruments for data collection. The data were analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and regression at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that  there was significant relationship between the scores for entry qualification and students’ grades in economics. Also, it was found in the study that students scores in the entry qualification would predict students academic achievement in College of Education. Based on these results, the researcher therefore recommended that examination bodies should continue to improve on the quality and method of administrating examination, the tertiary institution authorities should strive to improve the integrity of its examination.




Background of the Study

          The challenge associated with measuring academic achievement crops up when future academic achievement is to be predicted from past achievement. As represented by present achievement in predicting academic achievement, the criterion measure and the predictor scores must be identified. One of the most important predictors of post-secondary educational attainment is high school academic performance (Anastasi,2008; Daughety& Lane, 2009). Academic performance can be measured through various indicators. The most widely used indicator is standardized test score, deemed an appropriate measure of academic ability because it measure in terms of cognitive skills and abilities. Several other components could also be brought into the procedures leading to the determination of the forecast ability of achievement test outcomes.

          A number of associations have been discovered to have existed between some achievement tests, especially, public examinations and candidate’s performance in the future. Richeter (2003) found the arbiter, to be a valid measure of overall educational achievement and a good predictor of future academic performance. Some non-cognitive factors are capable of affecting the forecast ability of an achievement test measure (Faloye, 2005). These personality factors (such as age, sex and teaching experience) have been discovered to have impaired the performance of students. Jacobs, Lanza,Osgood,Eccles and Wingfield (2012) found out from their research that young women achieved at comparable or higher levels in Economics than males, but their interest especially from the high achieving females, are the same or lower than males.

          A minimum amount of standard is required before a student could be admitted to secondary (or any other) school. This minimum entry requirement varies from one school to the other and also from one level of schooling to the other. Achor, Aligba and Omananyi (2010) investigated the predictive strength of two selected examinations on the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) results of the pre- degree students of the Benue State University in Nigeria. They concluded that through student’s SSCE results of pre-degree examination and the university matriculation Examination (UME) in other social science subject, it was not the same for Economics.

          In the same vein at the higher institutions, Olaewe and Abioye (2014) were of the view that the UTME was a good predictor of university students’ performance in final degree examinations. Similarly, Tewari (2014) investigated the predictive validity of matriculation examination for first year degree performance. He concluded that the entrance examination was a good predictor of first year degree performance.

          Abdullahi (2013) also carried out a research to determine the relationship between performance in Joint Matriculation Examination (JME) and performance during the first year examination in the university. Fifty science and fifty social science students who were admitted to the University of Ilorin were selected for the study. Their (JME) and first year examination scores were compared and it was discovered that between JME scores in physics, chemistry and Economics. This means that students with high scores in JME also obtained high scores in university’s undergraduate examinations. It was however found that JME and university examination did not show any significant correlation in Geography and Biology. The former findings were attributed to the quantitative nature of the subjects. Abdullahi (2013) then concluded that JME could only predict first year university performance, but not in all disciplines in the university..Obioma and Salau (2007) also investigated the predictive validity of public examinations in Nigeria. They concluded that public examinations were not good predictors of students performance in the higher institutions in the country. They thereafter stated that the conduct of additional entrance examinations in the higher institutions exemplified their finding.

          College of Education is one of the tertiary institutions existing in Nigeria. College of Education is a teacher training institutions where the would-be teachers of the junior secondary schools are trained (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). The College of Education programme is a three-year programme by design except for situation whereby students have to undergo a year of preliminary study before being admitted to year one. This instance adds to the three year duration of the programme for those involved. Graduates of college of education are awarded the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) and they, in the employment world, are not at par with their university counterparts after employment. While university graduates are placed on grade level eight on entry into public service, graduates of colleges of education (or NCE holders) are placed on grade level seven at entry. Those interested in obtaining first degrees are admitted for a three-year direct-entry (i.e without) having to write any entrance /admission examination, such as the UTME) undergraduate programme.

Statement of the Problem

          Despite stringent measures and strategies employed by the Nigerian government to ensure that educational standard are maintained at the tertiary level, observation shows that students whom after passing through all these rigorous exercises still perform below examination especially in Economics. The deficiencies in the public examinations (SSCE and Post-UTME) could be due to shoddy arrangement, impersonation of candidate, leakage of papers, malpractices and so on.

          The resultant effects of these anomalies includes short-charging of brilliant students while the incompetent, but rich ones bought their way by eventually scoring very high marks, which would enable them to secure admission into competitive tertiary institutions and courses of study. Based on the forgoing this question was raised “did the performance of students in Economics at SSCE result determine his grade in the College of Education”?

Purposes of the Study

          The major purpose of the present study is to investigate the entry qualification and students academic performance in Economics. College of Education Ikere Ekiti.

 The specific objectives were to;

1.     investigate the relationship between students’ performance in entry examination (UTME, Post-UTME) and Economics performance in NCE examinations.

2.     investigate the relationship between entry qualification (SSCE) and Economics performance at College of Education.

3.     to investigate if there is any difference on the academic performance of students who gained admission with UME and those with Pre-Degree?

Research Questions

1.     Does entry examination predict academic performance in the college of Education?

2.     Are there existing relationship between entry qualification and students’ performance in Economics?

3.     Is there any difference in the academic performance of students who gained admission with UME and those with Pre-Degree?

Research Hypotheses.

        The following hypothesis will be postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1; there is no significant relationship between students’ performance in entry examination and their first year Economics performance in the NCE programme.

Ho2; there is significant relationship between students’ entry qualification and their Economics performance at the NC E programme.

H03  There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students who came in through UME and those with Direct Entry admission

Scope of the Study

        This study considers the entry qualification of the students in senior secondary schools certificate into college, polytechnic and university as a predictor performance in Economics. This study would be carried out in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.

The CGPA of sampled students in Economics related courses will also be considered in the study.


Significance of the Study

        This study is significant in many aspects. The study will help to reveal the entry qualification responsible for students’ academic achievement in colleges of education in Nigeria.

        The study offers empirical support to assist educational policy makers, administrators as educators in the educational planning and implementation in formulating appropriate policies on both the conduct and qualify of public examination as well as admission policy into Nigerian College of Education.

Finally, the study will lay a solid foundation which subsequent researchers in similar studies may build upon.

Definitions of Terms.

Anomalies;- This is a situation whereby a student performance is different from what is expected from them.

Entry Qualification;- It is the minimum education standard expected to be attained for entering a tertiary institution of learning.

Examination;- Is the process used to test the  ability of students.

Performance;- This is said to be an outcome of teaching/learning exercise.

Predictive;- Investigation are made on what will happen in public examination in future.

Stringent;- The regulation that must be employed by the Nigerian government to ensure that they have standard education.




This chapter is review under the following sub-heading

·        Conceptual framework

·        Concept of entry Requirements and Academic Performance

·        Cognitive Entry Characteristics and Students Achievement in Economics

·        Concept of Academic Performance

·        Theoretical Literature

·        Review of Related Empirical Studies

·        Summary of Review of Literature


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