Background to the study

             Recently secondary schools colleges and universities face many challenges in trying to provide a safe and secure campus. The college campus is traditionally known as a safe haven for students, but recent tragic events have put higher education leaders facing the problem of preparing for tragedies that may occur on their campuses (Carrico, 2016).

The Nigerian university society faces many crimes that go unnoticed, but are undeniable. Crimes such as theft, robbery, rape, cultism, vandalism, open threat, murder, etc., remained on campuses. These crimes have transformed the school environment from the peaceful, supportive and safe place it used to be into an unsafe, frightening and uncomfortable place.

The safety of students, both physical and psychological, is central to their academic performance. Everyone wants to feel safe and stay safe to achieve maximum productivity. Security is a primary or necessary prerequisite for the development of people and societies (Etannibi, 2016).

Crime is a concept that applies not only to Nigerian educational institutions. It is universal, with a very long and difficult to track history. Many universities in all parts of the world have a fair share of crime, which has become a problem of national concern. Crime affects society in various ways, depending on the nature and scale of the crime committed. It is a problem when its prevalence in society is so great that it poses a threat to the security of people and property, as well as to social order and solidarity (Adebayo, 2013).

School safety is becoming an increasingly high priority for higher education institutions. Since crime poses a security threat, the detection of criminal situations using machines and data mining methods can be used to improve security in schools.

Crime is growing uncontrollably in universities in Nigeria, despite the huge efforts of university administrators to prevent and control it. A crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of the law, for which a penalty is imposed after conviction.

Over the past few decades, there has been a revolution in the field of computing and communications, and everything indicates that technological progress and the use of information technologies will continue at a rapid pace.(Consbrook, 2018). One of the most striking technological achievements of recent years has been the emergence of digital technologies as a powerful tool in our lives. Information communications and technologies could play a big role in solving crimes and improving the safety of schools. ICT tools such as closed-circuit television (CCTV), emergency call systems, metal detectors, GPS tracker, biometric scanner, bomb detectors are useful technologies for improving security. These tools reduce crime by giving criminals the opportunity to think that they will be seen, identified and possibly caught if they commit a crime. Since most students do not want to be known for crimes such as rape, theft, etc.because of their punishment by law and personal reputation, these tools help to ensure the safety of the school environment. Students commit the majority of crimes on campus and are the biggest victims of such crimes. Crimes among university students could be prevented, detected and expanded with the help of ICT technologies.

The tragic situation in which Nigerian universities are facing a rapid increase in seemingly uncontrolled criminal acts, and the pressure it puts on school administrators, has given rise to the study of information communication tools and technologies and how they can be used to identify these heinous crimes and at a higher level to ensure the safety of schools.


Problem statement

The university community has witnessed an alarming increase in crime rates on campuses in recent years. Such criminal acts as rape, office break-ins, theft, theft of mobile phones and cars, cultism have become commonplace in our higher educational institutions. Crimes of greater impact, such as murders, attempted murders and group uprisings on campus, are sprouting and will soon become high-ranking crimes if they are neglected. People no longer feel safe with others. Crime has become limitless, and this complicates the fight against criminals for law enforcement officers. In order to successfully combat crime, African leaders need to gain knowledge about the steps taken by most developed countries in the field of using ICTs to combat crime (Akinola and Ogunobi, 2015). The development of technology has also benefited criminals by providing sophisticated tools and making network crime possible on campuses and in society. Now people can illegally invade bank accounts, buy weapons and other weapons for their own selfish purposes, and even hack databases. In the old days, there were no records of this category of crimes in universities. Once it was a real " citadel of knowledge, decorated with peace and tranquility, where zealous people turn into sane people and champions.” Unfortunately, crime has deprived the university environment of its taste. Crime outrageously interferes with the curriculum. The student, who is an indispensable factor in evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum, is also the main victim of crime and violence on campus. If students do not study, the curriculum invariably fails. Governor Deval Patrick claimed that;

“No child will be able to succeed in school if he does not feel safe in school. No teacher can teach at his best if he is not sure that there is a plan in place to ensure that his school is well prepared for an emergency."

Governor Deval Patrick—January 16, 2014

Institutions spend a lot of money on security and are still willing to spend more. Everyone is desperate to find a solution to these crimes that undermine the reputation of higher education and spoil the image of our campuses. Everyone agrees that the university, although it can embody people of different languages, tribes, cultures, races, values, beliefs, principles, origins and experiences, which contributes to crimes such as religious murders, uprisings and much more. However, higher education institutions are designed to support socio-cultural coexistence. Ensuring security is the main responsibility of university administrators, therefore, the fight against crime to ensure security requires a concerted effort of all to be achievable. The alarming rate of crime growth and the desire for security in higher education institutions, especially on campuses, have led to the study of the use of ICTs as a weapon to detect these crimes that besiege campuses and make school safe without compromising educational purposes.

Purpose of the study

             Generally, this study aims at finding out how to use ICT in crime detection and school security using Godfrey Okoye University, and University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus as case study.

             Specifically, the study has the following objectives;

1.     to identify what ICT tool s are available in campuses  using Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus as case study.

2.     to determine the level of student awareness and usage of  available ICT tools for school safety in Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus

3.     to examine the adequacy and effectiveness of current ICT facililties employed in both schools(Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus) for crime detection.

4.     to recommend new ways of using modern ICT tools to detect/curb  on-campus crimes and enhance school security in Godfrey Okoye University, and the  University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus

Significance of the Study

The study has both theoretical and practical significance.

             Theoretically, it will add to existing research works and literatures to be used for educational purposes. Hence, it will serve as a databank for any student (or researcher) carrying out a study related to the subject matter. Also, the research findings could lead to further research.

             Practically, the study will be useful to authorities of tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the Nigeria government. By identifying new technologies and ways of using ICT to detect crimes and enhance security, tertiary institutions can have a solid stand against crime and criminals. The safety of the school will allow learning to effectively take place, thereby producing self reliant and employable graduates who are sound in both character and learning. As crime reduces, overall educational goals are achieved in the learners. These people will return to the society as leaders and employers of labour. To the society in general which is the potential victims of uncontrolled crimes, the information obtained from the study will create a consciousness of concerted effort towards a safer society.

             The study will benefit teachers and students who are potential victims of crimes in tertiary institutions. The information obtained from the study will guide students and teachers on steps to take when they perceive crime or are confronted by such.

The study will be useful to security agencies in policing by exposing new technologies that can be used to detect criminal. By employing the use of ICT for crime detection and security, more criminals will easily be detected and caught while crime scenes are observed firsthand with the help of CCTV.

             The study will also be beneficial to other institutions or business organizations who desire environmental safety of the work place or are challenged with invisible crimes that are evident. Information obtained from the study will help them see how ICT can help in monitoring the workplace and detecting intruders.


Scope of the Study

             This study focused on the use of ICT in crime detection and school security in Nigeria Universities using Godfrey Okoye University and University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus as case study. However, the researcher is very much constrained by time and resources to confine the study to Godfrey Okoye University and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus only. Both universities were selected because they are typical of Nigeria Universities and are more easily accessible to the researcher. Recommendations are made on how to use ICT tools to detect crimes and improve the security of school environment for learning to be effective.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;

1.     What are the ICT tools that are available for crime detection in Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus?

2.     What is the level of student awareness and usage of available ICT tools for school safety in Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus?

3.     How efficient and effective are present ICT facilities  employed in crime detection and school security in Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus?

4.     What ways can modern ICT facilities be used to detect/curb on-campus crimes  and enhance school security in Godfrey Okoye University, and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus?



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