ASSESSMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE.

 

ABSTRACT

 This study was to identify the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted two theories cognitive learning theory and motivational theory. Five government secondary school were sampled for the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire, which was developed and administered to both teachers and students. The data from their responses were analyzed, using statistical mean. They result of the study revealed that there are inadequate and inappropriate instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics. The study also revealed that the teachers are  not using computer, whiteboard, internet, audio cassette when teaching Economics, rather they made use of locally produces instructional materials such as textbooks chalkboard, pictures, chart, map etc. The benefits of instructional material were also discussed from the finding, which includes making the lesson clear and easy to understand, enhancing the achievement of instructional objectives and helping students to understand some abstract concepts. Some of the problems associated with the use of instructional materials were also revealed which include lack of funds, improper storage facilities, lack of technical skill and high cost of instructional materials. It is therefore recommended that government should provide adequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of Economic in government secondary schools in Enugu East local Government Area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

          Education has been considered to be the cornerstone for development. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010). Education forms the basis for literacy, skills acquisition ability, teaching achievement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goals. In Nigeria today there is high demand for education because of this effective contributionsin the overall development.

          Subsequently, many subjects are studied at different levels of institution in Nigeria towards realizing the goal of education. Economics is one of the subjects offered in post primary school. It is important to both students and society because it cuts across all spheres of human endeavour. It is a subject concerned with the effective utilization or management of limited resources, for the purpose of attaining the maximum satisfaction of human wants.

          Achala (2014)states that Economics is associated with scarcity and choice.He defines Economics as social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. This means that economic as a science which helps man to understand and manage his scarce resources, in order to meet his numerous needs.

Economics education in senior secondary school is expected to equip the students with fundamental area of intellectual training, vocational skills, cultures, values, citizenship, training tools for the analysis of situation and natural interest for developments. But the optimal achievement on the above goals, or objectives, depends on the appropriate application of instructional material.

          Instructional materials are device that help in the effective teaching and leaving and help the teacher to achieve his or her specific objectives. Instructional materials are significant teaching and learning tools which helps the students to comprehend, retain and apply the knowledge acquired to attain the educational objectives. It is essential materials needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance.

          It also make learning more vivid, logical, realistic and pragmatic. Economics deals with concept and abstract ideas, the use of appropriate instructional materials go a long way to up-grade the learning experience and facilitates understanding. On the contrary non-use or inappropriate use of instructional materials is capable of jeopardizing the entire instructional objectives.

          Achala (2014), states that economic teaching need concrete objects when teaching, for example if a topic like money is to be taught, the teacher needs to show the students the currency ,both notes and coins and their demonstration, in order to retain the topic in their memory. Furthermore, a set goal may not be reached by the teacher if he fails to choose and correctly use appropriate resources in teaching, because there are some students who learn better when they see and touch and others learn more when they combine all the senses of learning, sight, touch, and  even tasting and smelling.

Abdan (2014) states that despite thefact that instructional materials are essential tools that can make learning practical and knowledgeable, they are not readily available in Nigeria secondary school leading to low levelin academic performance of learners in government examination.

Academic performance is the outcome of education or the event to which an institution is able to achieve the educational goals.  These entails how the students and teacher are able to fulfil the purpose for which educational goals and objectives are set. Academic performance is how well or bad, someone does during his or her school and all the activities that go with it. Bossarti, Roumenas, Versxhuevent (2011) stated that academic performance is commonly measured by examination or contains assessment.

          Since academic performance is measured through examination like WAEC, NECO, and JAMB, it is necessary to know why the students performedpoorly in an examination. One of the secret is the type of instructional material s their teachers used in carrying out the instructional objectives. Trying to know the type of instructional material used in teaching and learning in both rural or urban school in the study area will help to improve the academic performance of the students, because it will help to find out whether the economics students are using instructional materials or not. If they are not using instructional materials, they will be forced to use it and suitable and appropriate instructional material will be selected for them to enhance high academic performance in economics subjects.

          So it is on this background that this study will be carried out to find out the type of instructional material used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary school in Enugu East Local government areas.

 

Statement of the problem

          Teaching and learning of economics have been seriously frustrated in recent time.Udekaigbo, Onionwu and Mbionwu (2009).This attributed to the fact that it is difficult to translate the ideas of some economics conceptsand theories into visual practical realities. Teachers are being accused of not teaching with the use of instructional materials which has led to poor academic performances of students especially in external examinations. Because of this, most students rely so much on examination malpractice to succeed in external examinations, like West African Examination council (WAEC) NationalExamination Council (NECO), National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) and University Tertiary and MatriculationExamination (UTME). The problem is compounded by the use of unsuitable teaching aids such as out-dated textbook s, parroting in place of improvisation or even emphasis in teaching and learning  with technology,  

          The inadequate supply of instructional material by government cum the poor supervision  of teacher s’ compliance  to instructional materials  usage especially during teaching and learning  encounter has  led to poor academic performance among economics students of government senior secondary school of Enugu East Local  government  area.  Furthermore teachers who are not well acquainted with the skill on how to use the instructional materials end up making the lesson more abstract than reality, and which makes the class boring .For example, there are teachers in the secondary schools who have Bachelor of science [B.SC]  at the expense of Bachelor of Education [B.ED], and they might not have acquired relevant skills on how to appropriately use the instructional materials In teaching and learning process even at students jeopardy. It becomes obvious that they can degrade the quality of our educational system.

          Hence, there is need to identify the type of instructional  material used in teaching and learning of economic in order to address the problems of poor academic performance of economic students and non-use or inappropriate use of instructional material in teaching and learning of economics in government secondary school Enugu East L.G.A.

 

 

Significance of the study

      The study aimed at identifying the instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics. The findings of the work will be beneficial to all students in general, and Economics students in particular, the society and policy makers. It will help the students to develop interest in the subject as instructional materials awaken interest in school subjects. It will also help the students to perform higher in Economics examination, since instructional materials make learning more real and concrete.

The teacher of Economics will also benefit from the findings of the study as it helps to reduce their energy in communicating meanings, concepts to the learners by the use of teaching aids.

The society in general will benefit from the findings of the study because the interest of the students will lead to devoting more time to the study of the subject and this will generate moral values that the society needs. It will also enlighten the general public, state, and federal ministry of education on the need to provide public secondary schools with the relevant instructional materials for the production of highly skilled, intelligent and professional students for national transformation and sustainable development. The study will equally enable the authorities in government secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area to see the need to equip the schools with relevant teaching aids for the improvement of the academic performance of the students and the attainment of a global economy.

 

Purpose of the study

1.     Specifically, the purpose of the study is to identify the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area. Specifically, the objective of the study includes the following:

2.     To examine the benefits of instructional materials tostudents of the study area.

3.      To identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of economics in the study area.

                                        

Scope of the study

The study focused on some selected government secondary schools in Enugu East L.G.A. The research work has been limited to identifying the instructional materials usedin teaching and learning of economics in government senior secondary schools. The study discloses the relationship between the instructional materials and the academic performance of the students. This means that instructional materials are indispensable tools which enhance teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance towards achieving educational goals. Also in this study the importance of cognitive leaning theory and motivational theory in teaching and learning process cannot over emphasized.

 

Research Questions

1.         What are the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary schools in Enugu East L.G.A?

2.         What are the benefits of the use of instructional materials in the teaching of economics to students

3.         What are the problems associated with the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in the study area?

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

This chapter discussed related literatures under the following sub- heading Conceptual framework, Theoretical framework, Empirical studies, Summary of   literature review.

 

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

·        Concept of education.

·        The concept of Economics.

·        Concept of instructional materials.

·        Teaching and learning of Economics.

·        Teaching and learning with technology.

·        Classification/types of instructional materials.

(visual resources, audio resources and audio usual resources

·        Criteria for selecting instructional materials for teaching and learning of Economics.

·        The importance of instructional material used in teaching and learning  ofEconomic.

·        Problems associated with the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics.

 

Theoretical Frame Work

·         cognitive  learning theory

·        Motivational theory

Empirical Review

Summary of Literature Review

CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

The concept of education is a controversial concept just like every other concept of humanities and social sciences. This means that education has many definitions depending on the context of a phrase, sentences or story. Just as we have many educationist, so also we have many definitions of education.

According to Nwigwe (2013), education in its technical sense is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. He further stated that education is the process of imparting and acquiring knowledge and training, to grow ones intellectual and mental capabilities so as to make mature decision in different situation.

Paralkimili (2012), Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquired knowledge, experience and sound attitude. According to him, the goal of education is to make an individual perfect.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010) further stated that education shall continue to be highly rated in the national development plan because education is the most instrument of change, any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by an educational revolution.He further emphasized that educational activities shall be centred on the learner for maximum self – development and improved upon at all levels of the education system.

Igwe (2009) states that, Nigeria as an independence country recognized that education is a national activity which involves an orderly deliberate and sustained effort to transmit or develop knowledge, concept, skills and attitudes

Or habits, hence her determination to provide lifelong education for her citizens,

 

CONCEPT OF ECONOMICS

According to Jhingan (2009) Economics is a systematic body of knowledge that have laws and theories which are to be tested by observation and experiment and can make prediction and have universal validity.

Smith in Jhinghan (2009), stated that Economics is an inquiry into the nature and wealth of nation.

Economics is the prudent management of scarce resources. It is the study of using the limited resources at the disposal to satisfy numerous needs. Economics is the management of scarce resourcesto achieve ones or organizational goals through the use of the basic concept of Economics like choice, opportunity cost, scale of preferences etc. It is the study of how an economy of a country can maintain equilibrium; which can be regulated through fiscal and monetary policy. Economics is concerned with what toproduce, how to produce and to whom to produce.

Economics is a subject that came into existence in 1976 via the publication of Adam Smith- the protagonist of the classical school of thought, and since then, it has assumed many roles especially in both political and educational circles. The study of Economics is dichotomised into two major parts, namely microeconomics and macroeconomics. While microeconomics studies the behaviour and operation s of the individual units (household, firms and government agencies) in the economy, macroeconomics studies the entire economy in aggregate and averages. Three major languages are used in teaching and communicating Economics ideas. These languages include theory or verbal geometric, or graphical and algebraic or mathematical language.

Economics is a broad subject which cuts across difference sphere of the society. It is taught at the senior secondary school, Economics is an important subject that must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution especially university to study relevant courses like accountancy ,business administration, banking and financing, insurance etc. The importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used in teaching and learning of the subject

 

CONCEPTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Instructional materials can be described as instructional aids, educational tools, educational media, teaching resources, curriculum materials, instructional resources, educational device etc.

According to Obiagwu and Ezeugo (2009), instructional material includes all materials, devices, equipment that is adopted during the teaching – hearing processes to pass across information effectively to the audience such that the hearer receives, comprehend, retains and apply the knowledge acquired to attain the educational objectives. There are resources used by both the teachers and students in ensuring effective teaching and learning processes.

Okafor in Obiagwu and Usifo (2008) stated that instructional materials are objects brought into play to emphasize clarity or visualize instructions. Thus ,means that instructional materials help in effective teaching and are useful in the classroom by evoking in the students the same mental image as in the teachers; thereby helping them to retain what they have learnt.

Ofoefuna (2008)opined that educational media are also called instructional material that the teachers needs to incorporate into the teaching hearing process to help students benefits maximally from hearing experience. In support of what Ofoefuna stated above, Meze (2009) suggested that as economics deals more with concepts and abstract ideas, the use of appropriate instructional materials go a long way to up-grade the learning experience and facilitate understanding. From these opinion, one should discover that instructional material will help the students to increase their knowledge and creativity. Instructional materials makes the teacher to be at advantage, because it reduces over-verbalization and use of words on the part of the teacher.

Abdu Raheem (2016), stated that instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subject to promote teacher’s efficiency and improve students’ performance. Instructional materials help the students to acquire skills, knowledge, and development of self-confidence and self-actualization.

Kochher(2012) opined that instructional materials are very significant teaching and learning tools. Isola (2010) stated that instructional materials are objects or devices that assists the teacher to present their lesson logically and sequentially to the learners. Furthermore Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu Raheen (2014), realized that instructional materials are such that are used by teachers to explain and make learning of subject matter understandable to the students during teaching and learning process.

According to Aggarwal (2014), technological instructional materials provide the means for student with special needs to communicate with e-mail and use the internet for research and can help teachers to accumulate student’s varying learning style. He further stated that through technology, gifted students can work at their own pace and explore subject in more depth than the basic curriculum.      Federal Ministry of Education (2010), stated that increased accessibility to information is engendered through technology. 

Osuala (2010). In his own contribution said , it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the students, but also help to bring about and enhance respect for teachers knowledge of the subject.

Cronbach (2009) states that important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment.

Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally make or imported that help to facilitate the teaching and learning process.

Abolade (2009), the advantage of instructional materials are that they are cheaper to produce, useful in teaching large number of students at a time, encouraginglearners to pay proper attention and enhance their interest.

 

TEACHING AND LEARNNG OF ECONOMICS

Basically, all the topic in Economics need one form of instructional materials or the other. According to Jhinghan (2009) enriching our knowledge of the functioning of the economy involves the practical study of the behaviour of the national income, output,investment, savings and consumption.

Abdu Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of student in schools. This means that the teachers of Economics use more of chalk board and talk method in teaching the subject.

One of the major problem facing the educational sector today is the inadequacy of instructional materials necessary for effective teaching and learning.Nigeria secondary school teachers of Economics have few instructional materials used in teaching of Economics. According to Adu (2002) audio-visual are either not available in sufficient quantity or what is available is usually inappropriate. Also most teachers of Economics are not using technological instructional materials like computers, projectors, internet, white board, etc. to teach to their students. This causes massive failure of the students in C.B.T (Computer Based Test) examination, more especiallyJ.A.M.B(Joint Admission Matriculation Board)examination. Because Economics is a social science which studies human behaviour, there are many classroom activities that can make economics come alive for students. Activity based pedagogical techniques includes stimulation, roles play, active demonstration, group problem solving etc. Active learning will both enrich instruction and facilitates student’s understanding. Economics can come alive for students when they see it in action.

Donal Jane (2009), states that the use of instructional materials is critical to the teaching of economics simply because, it is an applied subject and it cannot be taught in abstract. It is not enough for a teacher of Economics to be well grounded in the mastery of the subject matter, but his ability to transfer such to the cognitive level of the learner. The National policy on education emphasized the teaching of Economics in Nigerian school as it is linked to the philosophy of education aimed at inculcating national consciousness and national unity, and also inculcating the right type of attitude for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society.

TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY

According to Waughton J. ((1956) in Aggarwal (2014) the term technology argued in his book Technology in schools, that technology can be considered  in two ways ; technology of thing and technology of social process. Technology of thing is the application of scientific knowledge to practical task by organization that deals mostly in men and machine.

Technology of social process is the application of scientific and other organized knowledge to practical tasks by hierarchically ordered systems that involves men and machine. So technology is not only the tool for the development of science but also the change in social process .R.J. Alexander stated that technology describes a process that is, something that people do to solve problem or to achieve aims and product s, such as instruments and tools something tangible that exist and can be used to satisfy the needs of the community.

According to FME (2004) knowledge has become a critical detachment of competitiveness in the world economy, given the prevalent globalization and rapid technological change government recognizes the key role of education towards the attainment of sustainable education a key compound of seven point agenda. The realization of the National vision, the vision of being one of the top twenty economies of the world by the year 2020 is tied to education. It further stated that the attainment of qualitative education requires improving on teaching and learning as well as educational administration. This in turn requires introducing ICT into the educational system, for it is common knowledge globally; that the latter plays a vital role in promoting such an improvement.

Technology explosion has yielded several new machines, materials and media which have great potential for use in the educational enterprise. A judicious use of these together with new functions and roles of educational personnel can make the process of teaching and learning more efficient and effective.

Technology primarily serves the goal of increasing students’ basic skills and knowledge. Students use technology as a tool that can be applied to a variety of goals in the learning process rather than serving simply as instructional delivery system. Students use technology as a resource to help them develop higher order thinking, creativity, research skill etc. learning with technology involves students using it to gather, organize, and analyse information and using the information to solve problems.

According to Siddiqui (2008) with technology, students can spend less time doing calculation and more time creating strategies for solving complex problems and developing a deep understanding of the subject matter. Word processors have greatly simplified some aspects of writing, editing and rewriting. Video has long been a way to present unfamiliar material that would be difficult to conceptualize when presented verbally, and today’s interactive video combines the power of visual presentation with the interactive and information processing capabilities of the computer.

Furthermore, students can have access to libraries many times, more extensive than libraries in their school or community and can take advantage of information that is up-to-date not found in their textbook and perhaps unfamiliar to their teacher. Interaction through e-mail have been shown to be motivating factors for students to improve their reading and writing skills. E-mail also allows students to collaborate with people not physically present over long distance.

According to Visuan (2014) one of the most powerful uses of technology in education is to teach instructions to students individual learning needs. It helps the students with special need to communicate via e-mail and use the internet for research and can also help teachers accommodate students varying learning styles.

Some of the examples of technology materials used in teaching and learning are computer, projector, television, radio digital recorder, internet, CD-ROM, digital camera, online learning etc.

 

 

 

CLASSIFICATION/TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

There are many types of instructional materials, as there are many scholars in the field of educational technology. Instructional materials can be classified based on the time it comes into play, e.g. old media and new media. It may be classified on the bases of condition and utilization e.g. mediating media, obligation media, optioned media and criterion media. It can also be classified on the bases of operational techniques e.g. projected resources, non-projected resources and transmitted resources. However this study adopted the classification based on the senses with these materials appeal to e.g. visual resources, audio-visual resources and audio resources.

 

VISUAL RESOURCES

This is based on the eye gate theory we described the eye as the main gate into the human mind. (Onyejekwe, 2006) they are educational media that appeal to the sense of sight. The principle behind the use of visual resources in teaching is that much more is learned through the sense of sight than any other sense. It is also argued that mind tends to remember more of what the eyes saw than what the ear heard. So in economics education, visual resources includes real objects and models pictorial resources and graphic resources. Real objects such as a naira note, coins cowries etc. could help in the teaching of topics like money, also, car toys, horse toy etc. can be used in teaching topic like transportation. These real objects help to make the lesson real. on the other hand, pictorial resources and graphic materials such as drawing, cartoons, photographs, charts, tables, maps, diagrams etc. to a large extent helps to explain topics like the law of diminishing returns, balance of payment, population distribution, demand and supply etc.

However, these visual resources feature most prominently in the teaching of economic as students could also visit economic institutions like banks, insurance companies, stock exchange markets, manufacturing companies etc.

 

AUDIO RESOURCES

These resources are curriculum materials that rely extensively on the sense of hearing for teaching and learning. It is argued that although most people learn by seeing, some persons still learn better through the sense of hearing. Educational media such as radio, compact disc, cassette, recorder, the recorder player, tape recorder among others, could be emphasized on by the teacher for the students to listen to even at home. This emphasis might be based on topical issues discussed in radio station by experts which students could listen to and retain this concept of the message. For instance, bank consolidation era of professor Soludo was highly discussed over the radio and this related topics on how central banks control commercial banks.

AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES

This is a multimedia system which appeals to both sense of sight and hearing simultaneously. The principle behind the adoption and utilization of these media is the fact that learners learn better when more senses are involved. Based on this note ancient Chinese proverb argued that ‘what I hear I forget, what I see, I remember but what I do I know’. To buttress this, Sounder in Okpala (2004) observed and advocated that people remember 10% of what they hear (what I hear I forget) remember 50% of what they see (what I see I remember) and remember 90% what they hear, see, and do (multiple senses utilized)

 However, as many economic issuesare discussed in educational television, the teacher can video tape it for the purpose of teaching-learning encounter. The teacher can also lay emphasis on students need to listen and watch economic programme on television. Another example of audio-visual media are films, video and sound films. The effectiveness depends largely on the skilled application of those materials by the teacher.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS

According to LCISD (2007) instructional material used in teaching and learning should be selected based on technical quality, readability by students, availability, accuracy, clarity, absence of gender stereotyping, ethnicbias, relevance of materials to the topic, appropriateness of  the content and presentation relative to the maturity and comprehension level of the students.

Obiagwu and Ezeugo (2009) stated that relevance availability, cost and utility value of the materials should be considered. Meze (2008) pinioned that objectives of the lesson, suitability, appropriateness, availability and cost benefit analysis should be taken into consideration.

According to Aguokogbuo (2008), the following factors are to be considered when selecting materials used in teaching and learning.

·        Teacher’s capacity: the media to be selected should be such that the teacher has the capacity to use or operate. Problem arises when the teacher does not have the basic skills necessary to make fullest use of the available resources in classroom. In fact the greatest frustration a teacher can face in the class is that of not being able to use or operate instructional materials the teacher bought for a lesson.

·        Learner: The learner’s characteristic such as age learner’s ability, interest, intelligence, learning styles etc. should be considered by the teacher when selecting instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics. Since each learner is distinct in terms of learning style, care should be taken to select media that meet the varying learning style.

·        Instructional objective: The objectives to be achieved at the end of the lesson should determine the type of instructional materials to be selected .If the objectives requires the learners to simply mention, list facts or principle etc. In cognitive domain, textbook or audio tapes may be adequate. Visuals synchronized with sound need to be selected when the objectives are in the area of affective and psychomotor domain.

·        Size of the class: The numbers of students in the class is considered in the selection of instructional materials. Media, charts, maps, etc.can used to teach small groups but not large groups. The adjustable lenses of slides films, strips, and overhead projectors make them usable for small and large group.

·        Durability: Instructional material selected should be durable. The material should stand the wear and tear of environment and the carelessness of the users. Teachers should buy instructional materials that are durable and whose accessories are easy to obtain and also easy to service.

·        Cost: The teacher should consider the financial implication of media to be selected for class use because inadequate funding has always beena serious challenge to educational institution especially the third world countries.

·        Availability: The teacher should also consider the availability of the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics. He or she should know whether the materials can be produced locally and can be easily available or improvised; the compatibility of the material with relevant equipment should be considered.

                            

IMPORTANCE OFINSTRUTIONAL MATERIALS USED INTEACHING AND LEARNING.

Instructional material has been proved to be very useful material in the classroom. It introduced some varieties, to the usual classroom procedure where at all time the students listen to teacher’s voice. George and Robbins (2000) noted that projected, picture, possess certain inherent characteristics that are definitely advantageous in learning situation. Nzewi (1995) observe that, when a student sees what he is learning the tendency is for him to retain it, because he has employed more than one sense, in each time he sees the object, pictures or diagrams he had been  shown previously during the lesson.

Therefore, instructional materials arouse and sustains the interest of the learners, contributing to the efficiency, depth, and reality of learning experience which stimulates self-activity. They facilitate the learning of abstract concept and ideas that help top concretize ideas and postulates the imagination of the students.

Instructional material (technology) has transformed students from passive recipient of the knowledge of the teacher to active participants in the knowledge seeking and knowledge-construction with the teacher often learning new technology programme along with them. (FME 2010) instructional material helps to transform the system to education from pedagogical system of anagogical method of teaching and learning.

 

Problem associated with the use of instructional Material in the teaching and learning Economics

          There are many problems associated with instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area. They are as follows:

·         Poor Funding: One of the problems associated with the instructional material used in teaching and learning is lack of fund. Some school cannot afford to buy those instructional material used in teaching and learning Economics.

·        Lack of power supply: This is another major problems that hinder the use of instructional materials in school. Most of the instructional materials use power supply to function effectively and most of the school in rural area are not provided with electricity so this makes it difficult for them to use technological instructional materials in their areas. Even the schools in the cities lack power supply which makes the use of instructional materials boring and inefficiency in teaching and learning.

·        Lack of skills: Most of the teachers in secondary schools do not know how to install, operate or use some of the instructional materials in teaching and learning. For example some of them cannot operate computer, how can he or she use computer in teaching some of the concepts of Economics to the students.

·        Lack of network: There is no steady network when trying to use some of the instructional materials like internet. This frustrates the teacher and the students as they will spend much time waiting for network to be available.

·        High cost: Some of the instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics are very costly, Examples are projectors, computers, the public address system etc.

·        Inadequacy of the materials: The instructional materials used in teaching and learning in secondary schools are not enough for the students. School finds it difficult to provide computers for each student in the class, and this hinders the effective use of such instructional material in teaching and learning of Economics.

 

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

          According to Eze (2014), theoretical framework is the relevant theory or theories upon which the study is based and are presented and discussed. There are many theories in which this study is based on. One of the theories is cognitive learning  theory. Cognitive learning theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things.  Cognitive learning theory has been used to explain mental process as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factor which brings learning in individual. The theory is divided into two specific theories: the social cognitive theory which was propounded by Albert Banora in 196o,and cognitive behavioural theory which was propounded by Aaron Beck, Social cognitive theory considers three variables which are interrelated with each other causing learning to occur.  These variables are behavioural factors, environmental factor (extrinsic) and personal factor (intrinsic).The cognitive behaviour theory says that individuals tends to form self-concepts that affect the behaviour they display. This concepts can be positive or negative and can affect a person environment. Relating this theory to this study, the instructional materials used in classroom environment for teaching and learning will be one thatwill make student who exhibit lack of interest in behaviour to be focus, and it will also arouse the interest of the students, because in teaching and learning process one of the components of learner’s environment is the instructional materials According to B.F. Skinner in Mmaduakonam (2001),  he opined that teaching environment is the input factor that matter in teaching and learning, and in order to understand human behaviour, we must take into consideration what the environment does for an organism before and after it responds…. behaviour is shaped and maintained by consequence. This means environment is the major factor that direct, and influence the behaviour or learning pattern of individuals. Undoubtedly in teaching and learning process, one of the component of the learner’s environment is the instructional materials. Also according to Unachukwu (1998), the implication of behaviourist’s learning theories in education is that teachers should present materials in a way that sustain the learners interest  as interest will inspire readiness to continue the learning task.

Also in terms of social cognitive theory, instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics help the students to retain and memorize what they had learnt in the classroom. Brenda (1998) suggested that mastering learning means that students can master the instructional materials used in the lesson. In teaching and learning endeavour, it is understood that teaching should start from the known to unknown. So if student students were able to master the known which is the instructional materials used inteachingthe lesson, it will enable them to retain what they have learnt.

 

MOTIVATION THEORIES

Motivation refers to the art of stimulating and sustaining interest in the students where there is no such interest. It refers to anything that urges someone into a kind of action. The role of motivation on students’ academic performance cannot be over emphasized. Many psychologist have propounded various theories on how to motivate learners. Abraham Maslow in his theory of self-actualization in   1943 highlighted basic needs of learners which served as motivator to learning. Such needs include physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self- actualization needs.

Iroegbu et al (2003) pointed out that characteristics of motivation includes the following:

1)    It energizes and sterilises organism towards certain stimuli.

2)    It directs the organism’s behaviour towards certain goals.

3)    It reinforces behaviour that is effective in the attainment of desired goals.

So the instructional material used in teaching and learning process motivates the students to improve academically. For example if basic needs of the students are met in schools, like provision of well conducive classrooms with enough seats, desks, electric light, air condition etc. the students will be motivated to learn and improve in academic performance.

 

REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE

In study entitled: The Effectiveness of Instructional Materials in learning of Economic in Onitsha Educational Zone, Okpala(2004) analysed the data collected using chi-square and discovered that there is a significant difference between students taught without instructional materials. According to him, it shows that instructional materials are effective in learning of economics. It can also be stated here that visiting economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies, stock exchange markets etc. could arouse the development of career interest in economics.

Onyejemaxi (1991) conducted a study focusing on identification and evaluation of instructional material for teaching and learning of social studies subject in school in Benue state. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the adequacy of instructional material available for the teaching and learning in social studies subject. The population of the study was three hundred and eighty (380. Social studies teachers in the entire junior school in 5the state. There was no sampling because population was small, four research questions guided the study, revealed a data of instructional materials and staff in the junior secondary school. The federal government  owned school was better equipped than the state owned school. The study is helpful to access the extent the use of teaching aid.

Guam (1997) conducted a study on the perceptive of religious curriculum on the on term for selecting teaching aids in junior secondary school in Nsukka Local Government Area. The main aim of the study was to identify the intention that could be employed in selecting instructional materials for teaching area of curriculum.

          Three research questions and hypothesis using mean, standard deviation and T test. The finding of this study revealed that thirteen (13) criteria presently used for selection of instructional materials by C.R.K teachers are valid. The study created a gap because it focuses on criteria for selecting instructional material.

          Ezeugo (2010), investigated on the title: Teachers use of information and Communication Technology (I.C.T) in primary mathematics instructions. He analysed the data using both mean and Z- test. His study revealed that the usage of I.C.T tools in teaching mathematics for both private and public schools was generally low, although teachers in private schools did significantly better than teachers, in public schools. He further stated that limited usage of I.C.T tools in teaching and learning of mathematics has the following implication: transformation of teaching-learning process from being highly teacher –centred to student cantered cannot be feasible, creation of opportunity for learners to develop their creativity, problem solving abilities, information reasoning skills and other higher order skills cannot be achieved.

           According to Udeorah (2010) who examined topical issues on: “The Roles of constraints and strategies in improvisation of instructional material for teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in Nigeria”, with mean scores as his method of data analysis, reported that the followings affect the extent of improvisation by teaches:

Lack of fund, Lack of interest, lack of skills on the part of teaching due to in exposure of seminar and courses based on selection, production and utilization of material, lack of laboratories for storage of improvised materials, teaches reliance on already made imported materials, poor attitude of students to execute projects in Agricultural Science. This means that for a teacher to get involved in improvisation, all these factors mentioned above should be seriously considered and followed

          Ozorewe (2013) carried out a research study titled “utilization of teaching aids in the teaching of chemistry in secondary School in Osun state”, The target population was 231 secondary school out of which (15) secondary school were selected as the sample by simple randomization fund (5) null hypothesis were stated which were tested using correlation co-efficient test statistics at 0.68 level of significance and all the five (5) null hypothesis were rejected. The result showed that about 60% of the respondents made use which had positive relationship in the teaching of chemistry in secondary school in Osun state.

          Oshadumi (2013) also carried out a research study titled; “ Impact of IM on students Academic Achievement in Chemistry at secondary school of Okewe L.G.A, Fogi State”. The target population was seventeen (17) secondary schools out of which ten (10) secondary school were selected as the samples by random sampling. The instrument used in collecting the data was questionnaire four (4) null hypothesis were stated which were tested using correlation coefficient test statistic at 1.00 level of significance. All the four (4) null hypothesis made use of the in effectively which had positive impact on the students’ academic achievement in chemistry in Okwe L.G.A.

Ikeagemani (2017) carried out a research study titled “teachers perception in instructional material use in teaching and learning physics among students in Idimili North L.G.A of Anambra state. The purpose the study was to establish the important of using IM in the teaching and learning of physics.

The researcher used descriptive summary research method in carrying out the study. The researcher used stratified simple random sampling technical in selecting 40 students froma population of about 20,000 simple percentage and tables were used in analyzing generated with the administration of the questionnaire. The finding of the study indicate that use of instructional materials enhance students ability in physics learning.

 

SUMMARY OF LITERATURAL REVIEW

On the conceptual framework, it was understood that students learn through many senses, the more the senses that instructional material appeal to, the higher the rate of learning. The criteria for selection of educational media that could help in the accomplishment of instructional goals were: materials to the topic, cost and benefit to be derived herein, age and experience of the learner .etc. and poor funding, timing constraint, poor academic background of learners etc. inadequate availability of educational media centers are the problem, confronting the proper application of instructional materials in teaching and learning.

On theoretical framework, cognitive learning theory, motivation theory, and modernization theory were discussed. On thecognitive learningtheory it is observed that both social cognitive theory and cognitive behavioural theories   stated that instructional materials are indispensable in teaching and learning process.

Also the motivationtheory states that provision of basic needs of the students like well conducive classroom will motivate student to improve academically.

      Considering the empirical aspect of literature review, it was observed that different scholars all agreed that instructional materials is something that a teachers and learner cannot do without in teaching and learning. That means that it is indispensable. It revealed that instructional materials could objectively help in the achievement of instructional objectives, if they are appropriate applied by well-trained teachers in such area.

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter is concerned with the procedures which was adopted in this study. It was presented under the following sub-headings:Design of the study, Sample and sampling, Techniques, Instrument from data collection, Validation of the instrument, Reliability of the instrument, Method of data collection, Method of data analysis,

 

Design of the study

Descriptive research design wasadopted in thus study. It is considered appropriately to this study because it is fact finding in nature, and it entails the systematic collection and presentation of data to identify the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning economics in Enugu East local government area of Enugu state.

 

Area of study

The study was carried out among the senior students offering economics in government secondary school in Enugu East Local Government. Five schools out of ten schools in Enugu East was selected.  I use Enugu East as my study area because it is my Local Government Area.

 

Population of study

The population for the study consists of all economics teachers and senior students offering economics in the study area. The senior secondary school students offering economics in five selected schools in Enugu East are seven hundred ad eighty nine 789.

 

Sample and Sampling Techniques

          The sample consists of 110 respondents which comprises of 100 Economics students and 10 Economics teachers. That is 20students and 2teachers from each of the five selected schools.

Research instruments

The instruments used to collect data from the study was questionnaire.

The questionnaire was divided into two section A and B. Section A was used to collect Bio data of the respondent while the section B contains (16) items that was used to elicit responses from that respondents.

The questionnaire was modified on a four linker’s scale of measurement of

·        Strongly agreed (SA)

·        Agreed (A)

·        Disagreed(D) and Strongly Disagreed(SD)

 

 

Validation of instrument

The researchers drafted samples of the questionnaire and sent to the project supervisor who is an expert and the research consultant and also to a lecturer in measurement and evaluation department who examined each item in terms of relevant clarity and appropriateness of language. Their comment were incorporated in the correction and modification of the instrument.

 

Administration of data

          The copies of the questionnaire were distributed personally by the researcher to respondent which comprised of the selected teachers and students in the sampled schools. The questionnaire was collected as the researcher helps the respondents with the necessary explanation and instruction on how to complete the questionnaire. The responses were structured thus:

 

Strongly Agreed             SA     4

Agreed                           A3     3

Disagree                         D       2

 

 

Method of data analysis

Following the administration of the instrument the researcher collected back the materials and analysed the data collected using mean statistics or statistical means of 2.5 above 2.5 are regarded as accepted, while responses receiving arithmetic mean score less than 2.5 is rejected

 


E

 

 

       =Summation

F       = Frequency

X       = Total number of respondent

 

Mean =

         

ABSTRACT

 

This study was to identify the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted two theories cognitive learning theory and motivational theory. Five government secondary school were sampled for the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire, which was developed and administered to both teachers and students. The data from their responses were analyzed, using statistical mean. They result of the study revealed that there are inadequate and inappropriate instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics. The study also revealed that the teachers are  not using computer, whiteboard, internet, audio cassette when teaching Economics, rather they made use of locally produces instructional materials such as textbooks chalkboard, pictures, chart, map etc. The benefits of instructional material were also discussed from the finding, which includes making the lesson clear and easy to understand, enhancing the achievement of instructional objectives and helping students to understand some abstract concepts. Some of the problems associated with the use of instructional materials were also revealed which include lack of funds, improper storage facilities, lack of technical skill and high cost of instructional materials. It is therefore recommended that government should provide adequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of Economic in government secondary schools in Enugu East local Government Area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

          Education has been considered to be the cornerstone for development. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010). Education forms the basis for literacy, skills acquisition ability, teaching achievement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goals. In Nigeria today there is high demand for education because of this effective contributionsin the overall development.

          Subsequently, many subjects are studied at different levels of institution in Nigeria towards realizing the goal of education. Economics is one of the subjects offered in post primary school. It is important to both students and society because it cuts across all spheres of human endeavour. It is a subject concerned with the effective utilization or management of limited resources, for the purpose of attaining the maximum satisfaction of human wants.

          Achala (2014)states that Economics is associated with scarcity and choice.He defines Economics as social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. This means that economic as a science which helps man to understand and manage his scarce resources, in order to meet his numerous needs.

Economics education in senior secondary school is expected to equip the students with fundamental area of intellectual training, vocational skills, cultures, values, citizenship, training tools for the analysis of situation and natural interest for developments. But the optimal achievement on the above goals, or objectives, depends on the appropriate application of instructional material.

          Instructional materials are device that help in the effective teaching and leaving and help the teacher to achieve his or her specific objectives. Instructional materials are significant teaching and learning tools which helps the students to comprehend, retain and apply the knowledge acquired to attain the educational objectives. It is essential materials needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance.

          It also make learning more vivid, logical, realistic and pragmatic. Economics deals with concept and abstract ideas, the use of appropriate instructional materials go a long way to up-grade the learning experience and facilitates understanding. On the contrary non-use or inappropriate use of instructional materials is capable of jeopardizing the entire instructional objectives.

          Achala (2014), states that economic teaching need concrete objects when teaching, for example if a topic like money is to be taught, the teacher needs to show the students the currency ,both notes and coins and their demonstration, in order to retain the topic in their memory. Furthermore, a set goal may not be reached by the teacher if he fails to choose and correctly use appropriate resources in teaching, because there are some students who learn better when they see and touch and others learn more when they combine all the senses of learning, sight, touch, and  even tasting and smelling.

Abdan (2014) states that despite thefact that instructional materials are essential tools that can make learning practical and knowledgeable, they are not readily available in Nigeria secondary school leading to low levelin academic performance of learners in government examination.

Academic performance is the outcome of education or the event to which an institution is able to achieve the educational goals.  These entails how the students and teacher are able to fulfil the purpose for which educational goals and objectives are set. Academic performance is how well or bad, someone does during his or her school and all the activities that go with it. Bossarti, Roumenas, Versxhuevent (2011) stated that academic performance is commonly measured by examination or contains assessment.

          Since academic performance is measured through examination like WAEC, NECO, and JAMB, it is necessary to know why the students performedpoorly in an examination. One of the secret is the type of instructional material s their teachers used in carrying out the instructional objectives. Trying to know the type of instructional material used in teaching and learning in both rural or urban school in the study area will help to improve the academic performance of the students, because it will help to find out whether the economics students are using instructional materials or not. If they are not using instructional materials, they will be forced to use it and suitable and appropriate instructional material will be selected for them to enhance high academic performance in economics subjects.

          So it is on this background that this study will be carried out to find out the type of instructional material used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary school in Enugu East Local government areas.

 

Statement of the problem

          Teaching and learning of economics have been seriously frustrated in recent time.Udekaigbo, Onionwu and Mbionwu (2009).This attributed to the fact that it is difficult to translate the ideas of some economics conceptsand theories into visual practical realities. Teachers are being accused of not teaching with the use of instructional materials which has led to poor academic performances of students especially in external examinations. Because of this, most students rely so much on examination malpractice to succeed in external examinations, like West African Examination council (WAEC) NationalExamination Council (NECO), National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) and University Tertiary and MatriculationExamination (UTME). The problem is compounded by the use of unsuitable teaching aids such as out-dated textbook s, parroting in place of improvisation or even emphasis in teaching and learning  with technology,  

          The inadequate supply of instructional material by government cum the poor supervision  of teacher s’ compliance  to instructional materials  usage especially during teaching and learning  encounter has  led to poor academic performance among economics students of government senior secondary school of Enugu East Local  government  area.  Furthermore teachers who are not well acquainted with the skill on how to use the instructional materials end up making the lesson more abstract than reality, and which makes the class boring .For example, there are teachers in the secondary schools who have Bachelor of science [B.SC]  at the expense of Bachelor of Education [B.ED], and they might not have acquired relevant skills on how to appropriately use the instructional materials In teaching and learning process even at students jeopardy. It becomes obvious that they can degrade the quality of our educational system.

          Hence, there is need to identify the type of instructional  material used in teaching and learning of economic in order to address the problems of poor academic performance of economic students and non-use or inappropriate use of instructional material in teaching and learning of economics in government secondary school Enugu East L.G.A.

 

 

Significance of the study

      The study aimed at identifying the instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics. The findings of the work will be beneficial to all students in general, and Economics students in particular, the society and policy makers. It will help the students to develop interest in the subject as instructional materials awaken interest in school subjects. It will also help the students to perform higher in Economics examination, since instructional materials make learning more real and concrete.

The teacher of Economics will also benefit from the findings of the study as it helps to reduce their energy in communicating meanings, concepts to the learners by the use of teaching aids.

The society in general will benefit from the findings of the study because the interest of the students will lead to devoting more time to the study of the subject and this will generate moral values that the society needs. It will also enlighten the general public, state, and federal ministry of education on the need to provide public secondary schools with the relevant instructional materials for the production of highly skilled, intelligent and professional students for national transformation and sustainable development. The study will equally enable the authorities in government secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area to see the need to equip the schools with relevant teaching aids for the improvement of the academic performance of the students and the attainment of a global economy.

 

Purpose of the study

1.     Specifically, the purpose of the study is to identify the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area. Specifically, the objective of the study includes the following:

2.     To examine the benefits of instructional materials tostudents of the study area.

3.      To identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of economics in the study area.

                                        

Scope of the study

The study focused on some selected government secondary schools in Enugu East L.G.A. The research work has been limited to identifying the instructional materials usedin teaching and learning of economics in government senior secondary schools. The study discloses the relationship between the instructional materials and the academic performance of the students. This means that instructional materials are indispensable tools which enhance teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance towards achieving educational goals. Also in this study the importance of cognitive leaning theory and motivational theory in teaching and learning process cannot over emphasized.

 

Research Questions

1.         What are the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary schools in Enugu East L.G.A?

2.         What are the benefits of the use of instructional materials in the teaching of economics to students

3.         What are the problems associated with the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in the study area?

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

This chapter discussed related literatures under the following sub- heading Conceptual framework, Theoretical framework, Empirical studies, Summary of   literature review.

 

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

·        Concept of education.

·        The concept of Economics.

·        Concept of instructional materials.

·        Teaching and learning of Economics.

·        Teaching and learning with technology.

·        Classification/types of instructional materials.

(visual resources, audio resources and audio usual resources

·        Criteria for selecting instructional materials for teaching and learning of Economics.

·        The importance of instructional material used in teaching and learning  ofEconomic.

·        Problems associated with the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics.

 

Theoretical Frame Work

·         cognitive  learning theory

·        Motivational theory

Empirical Review

Summary of Literature Review

CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

The concept of education is a controversial concept just like every other concept of humanities and social sciences. This means that education has many definitions depending on the context of a phrase, sentences or story. Just as we have many educationist, so also we have many definitions of education.

According to Nwigwe (2013), education in its technical sense is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. He further stated that education is the process of imparting and acquiring knowledge and training, to grow ones intellectual and mental capabilities so as to make mature decision in different situation.

Paralkimili (2012), Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquired knowledge, experience and sound attitude. According to him, the goal of education is to make an individual perfect.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010) further stated that education shall continue to be highly rated in the national development plan because education is the most instrument of change, any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by an educational revolution.He further emphasized that educational activities shall be centred on the learner for maximum self – development and improved upon at all levels of the education system.

Igwe (2009) states that, Nigeria as an independence country recognized that education is a national activity which involves an orderly deliberate and sustained effort to transmit or develop knowledge, concept, skills and attitudes

Or habits, hence her determination to provide lifelong education for her citizens,

 

CONCEPT OF ECONOMICS

According to Jhingan (2009) Economics is a systematic body of knowledge that have laws and theories which are to be tested by observation and experiment and can make prediction and have universal validity.

Smith in Jhinghan (2009), stated that Economics is an inquiry into the nature and wealth of nation.

Economics is the prudent management of scarce resources. It is the study of using the limited resources at the disposal to satisfy numerous needs. Economics is the management of scarce resourcesto achieve ones or organizational goals through the use of the basic concept of Economics like choice, opportunity cost, scale of preferences etc. It is the study of how an economy of a country can maintain equilibrium; which can be regulated through fiscal and monetary policy. Economics is concerned with what toproduce, how to produce and to whom to produce.

Economics is a subject that came into existence in 1976 via the publication of Adam Smith- the protagonist of the classical school of thought, and since then, it has assumed many roles especially in both political and educational circles. The study of Economics is dichotomised into two major parts, namely microeconomics and macroeconomics. While microeconomics studies the behaviour and operation s of the individual units (household, firms and government agencies) in the economy, macroeconomics studies the entire economy in aggregate and averages. Three major languages are used in teaching and communicating Economics ideas. These languages include theory or verbal geometric, or graphical and algebraic or mathematical language.

Economics is a broad subject which cuts across difference sphere of the society. It is taught at the senior secondary school, Economics is an important subject that must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution especially university to study relevant courses like accountancy ,business administration, banking and financing, insurance etc. The importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used in teaching and learning of the subject

 

CONCEPTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Instructional materials can be described as instructional aids, educational tools, educational media, teaching resources, curriculum materials, instructional resources, educational device etc.

According to Obiagwu and Ezeugo (2009), instructional material includes all materials, devices, equipment that is adopted during the teaching – hearing processes to pass across information effectively to the audience such that the hearer receives, comprehend, retains and apply the knowledge acquired to attain the educational objectives. There are resources used by both the teachers and students in ensuring effective teaching and learning processes.

Okafor in Obiagwu and Usifo (2008) stated that instructional materials are objects brought into play to emphasize clarity or visualize instructions. Thus ,means that instructional materials help in effective teaching and are useful in the classroom by evoking in the students the same mental image as in the teachers; thereby helping them to retain what they have learnt.

Ofoefuna (2008)opined that educational media are also called instructional material that the teachers needs to incorporate into the teaching hearing process to help students benefits maximally from hearing experience. In support of what Ofoefuna stated above, Meze (2009) suggested that as economics deals more with concepts and abstract ideas, the use of appropriate instructional materials go a long way to up-grade the learning experience and facilitate understanding. From these opinion, one should discover that instructional material will help the students to increase their knowledge and creativity. Instructional materials makes the teacher to be at advantage, because it reduces over-verbalization and use of words on the part of the teacher.

Abdu Raheem (2016), stated that instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subject to promote teacher’s efficiency and improve students’ performance. Instructional materials help the students to acquire skills, knowledge, and development of self-confidence and self-actualization.

Kochher(2012) opined that instructional materials are very significant teaching and learning tools. Isola (2010) stated that instructional materials are objects or devices that assists the teacher to present their lesson logically and sequentially to the learners. Furthermore Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu Raheen (2014), realized that instructional materials are such that are used by teachers to explain and make learning of subject matter understandable to the students during teaching and learning process.

According to Aggarwal (2014), technological instructional materials provide the means for student with special needs to communicate with e-mail and use the internet for research and can help teachers to accumulate student’s varying learning style. He further stated that through technology, gifted students can work at their own pace and explore subject in more depth than the basic curriculum.      Federal Ministry of Education (2010), stated that increased accessibility to information is engendered through technology. 

Osuala (2010). In his own contribution said , it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the students, but also help to bring about and enhance respect for teachers knowledge of the subject.

Cronbach (2009) states that important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment.

Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally make or imported that help to facilitate the teaching and learning process.

Abolade (2009), the advantage of instructional materials are that they are cheaper to produce, useful in teaching large number of students at a time, encouraginglearners to pay proper attention and enhance their interest.

 

TEACHING AND LEARNNG OF ECONOMICS

Basically, all the topic in Economics need one form of instructional materials or the other. According to Jhinghan (2009) enriching our knowledge of the functioning of the economy involves the practical study of the behaviour of the national income, output,investment, savings and consumption.

Abdu Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of student in schools. This means that the teachers of Economics use more of chalk board and talk method in teaching the subject.

One of the major problem facing the educational sector today is the inadequacy of instructional materials necessary for effective teaching and learning.Nigeria secondary school teachers of Economics have few instructional materials used in teaching of Economics. According to Adu (2002) audio-visual are either not available in sufficient quantity or what is available is usually inappropriate. Also most teachers of Economics are not using technological instructional materials like computers, projectors, internet, white board, etc. to teach to their students. This causes massive failure of the students in C.B.T (Computer Based Test) examination, more especiallyJ.A.M.B(Joint Admission Matriculation Board)examination. Because Economics is a social science which studies human behaviour, there are many classroom activities that can make economics come alive for students. Activity based pedagogical techniques includes stimulation, roles play, active demonstration, group problem solving etc. Active learning will both enrich instruction and facilitates student’s understanding. Economics can come alive for students when they see it in action.

Donal Jane (2009), states that the use of instructional materials is critical to the teaching of economics simply because, it is an applied subject and it cannot be taught in abstract. It is not enough for a teacher of Economics to be well grounded in the mastery of the subject matter, but his ability to transfer such to the cognitive level of the learner. The National policy on education emphasized the teaching of Economics in Nigerian school as it is linked to the philosophy of education aimed at inculcating national consciousness and national unity, and also inculcating the right type of attitude for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society.

TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY

According to Waughton J. ((1956) in Aggarwal (2014) the term technology argued in his book Technology in schools, that technology can be considered  in two ways ; technology of thing and technology of social process. Technology of thing is the application of scientific knowledge to practical task by organization that deals mostly in men and machine.

Technology of social process is the application of scientific and other organized knowledge to practical tasks by hierarchically ordered systems that involves men and machine. So technology is not only the tool for the development of science but also the change in social process .R.J. Alexander stated that technology describes a process that is, something that people do to solve problem or to achieve aims and product s, such as instruments and tools something tangible that exist and can be used to satisfy the needs of the community.

According to FME (2004) knowledge has become a critical detachment of competitiveness in the world economy, given the prevalent globalization and rapid technological change government recognizes the key role of education towards the attainment of sustainable education a key compound of seven point agenda. The realization of the National vision, the vision of being one of the top twenty economies of the world by the year 2020 is tied to education. It further stated that the attainment of qualitative education requires improving on teaching and learning as well as educational administration. This in turn requires introducing ICT into the educational system, for it is common knowledge globally; that the latter plays a vital role in promoting such an improvement.

Technology explosion has yielded several new machines, materials and media which have great potential for use in the educational enterprise. A judicious use of these together with new functions and roles of educational personnel can make the process of teaching and learning more efficient and effective.

Technology primarily serves the goal of increasing students’ basic skills and knowledge. Students use technology as a tool that can be applied to a variety of goals in the learning process rather than serving simply as instructional delivery system. Students use technology as a resource to help them develop higher order thinking, creativity, research skill etc. learning with technology involves students using it to gather, organize, and analyse information and using the information to solve problems.

According to Siddiqui (2008) with technology, students can spend less time doing calculation and more time creating strategies for solving complex problems and developing a deep understanding of the subject matter. Word processors have greatly simplified some aspects of writing, editing and rewriting. Video has long been a way to present unfamiliar material that would be difficult to conceptualize when presented verbally, and today’s interactive video combines the power of visual presentation with the interactive and information processing capabilities of the computer.

Furthermore, students can have access to libraries many times, more extensive than libraries in their school or community and can take advantage of information that is up-to-date not found in their textbook and perhaps unfamiliar to their teacher. Interaction through e-mail have been shown to be motivating factors for students to improve their reading and writing skills. E-mail also allows students to collaborate with people not physically present over long distance.

According to Visuan (2014) one of the most powerful uses of technology in education is to teach instructions to students individual learning needs. It helps the students with special need to communicate via e-mail and use the internet for research and can also help teachers accommodate students varying learning styles.

Some of the examples of technology materials used in teaching and learning are computer, projector, television, radio digital recorder, internet, CD-ROM, digital camera, online learning etc.

 

 

 

CLASSIFICATION/TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

There are many types of instructional materials, as there are many scholars in the field of educational technology. Instructional materials can be classified based on the time it comes into play, e.g. old media and new media. It may be classified on the bases of condition and utilization e.g. mediating media, obligation media, optioned media and criterion media. It can also be classified on the bases of operational techniques e.g. projected resources, non-projected resources and transmitted resources. However this study adopted the classification based on the senses with these materials appeal to e.g. visual resources, audio-visual resources and audio resources.

 

VISUAL RESOURCES

This is based on the eye gate theory we described the eye as the main gate into the human mind. (Onyejekwe, 2006) they are educational media that appeal to the sense of sight. The principle behind the use of visual resources in teaching is that much more is learned through the sense of sight than any other sense. It is also argued that mind tends to remember more of what the eyes saw than what the ear heard. So in economics education, visual resources includes real objects and models pictorial resources and graphic resources. Real objects such as a naira note, coins cowries etc. could help in the teaching of topics like money, also, car toys, horse toy etc. can be used in teaching topic like transportation. These real objects help to make the lesson real. on the other hand, pictorial resources and graphic materials such as drawing, cartoons, photographs, charts, tables, maps, diagrams etc. to a large extent helps to explain topics like the law of diminishing returns, balance of payment, population distribution, demand and supply etc.

However, these visual resources feature most prominently in the teaching of economic as students could also visit economic institutions like banks, insurance companies, stock exchange markets, manufacturing companies etc.

 

AUDIO RESOURCES

These resources are curriculum materials that rely extensively on the sense of hearing for teaching and learning. It is argued that although most people learn by seeing, some persons still learn better through the sense of hearing. Educational media such as radio, compact disc, cassette, recorder, the recorder player, tape recorder among others, could be emphasized on by the teacher for the students to listen to even at home. This emphasis might be based on topical issues discussed in radio station by experts which students could listen to and retain this concept of the message. For instance, bank consolidation era of professor Soludo was highly discussed over the radio and this related topics on how central banks control commercial banks.

AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES

This is a multimedia system which appeals to both sense of sight and hearing simultaneously. The principle behind the adoption and utilization of these media is the fact that learners learn better when more senses are involved. Based on this note ancient Chinese proverb argued that ‘what I hear I forget, what I see, I remember but what I do I know’. To buttress this, Sounder in Okpala (2004) observed and advocated that people remember 10% of what they hear (what I hear I forget) remember 50% of what they see (what I see I remember) and remember 90% what they hear, see, and do (multiple senses utilized)

 However, as many economic issuesare discussed in educational television, the teacher can video tape it for the purpose of teaching-learning encounter. The teacher can also lay emphasis on students need to listen and watch economic programme on television. Another example of audio-visual media are films, video and sound films. The effectiveness depends largely on the skilled application of those materials by the teacher.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS

According to LCISD (2007) instructional material used in teaching and learning should be selected based on technical quality, readability by students, availability, accuracy, clarity, absence of gender stereotyping, ethnicbias, relevance of materials to the topic, appropriateness of  the content and presentation relative to the maturity and comprehension level of the students.

Obiagwu and Ezeugo (2009) stated that relevance availability, cost and utility value of the materials should be considered. Meze (2008) pinioned that objectives of the lesson, suitability, appropriateness, availability and cost benefit analysis should be taken into consideration.

According to Aguokogbuo (2008), the following factors are to be considered when selecting materials used in teaching and learning.

·        Teacher’s capacity: the media to be selected should be such that the teacher has the capacity to use or operate. Problem arises when the teacher does not have the basic skills necessary to make fullest use of the available resources in classroom. In fact the greatest frustration a teacher can face in the class is that of not being able to use or operate instructional materials the teacher bought for a lesson.

·        Learner: The learner’s characteristic such as age learner’s ability, interest, intelligence, learning styles etc. should be considered by the teacher when selecting instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics. Since each learner is distinct in terms of learning style, care should be taken to select media that meet the varying learning style.

·        Instructional objective: The objectives to be achieved at the end of the lesson should determine the type of instructional materials to be selected .If the objectives requires the learners to simply mention, list facts or principle etc. In cognitive domain, textbook or audio tapes may be adequate. Visuals synchronized with sound need to be selected when the objectives are in the area of affective and psychomotor domain.

·        Size of the class: The numbers of students in the class is considered in the selection of instructional materials. Media, charts, maps, etc.can used to teach small groups but not large groups. The adjustable lenses of slides films, strips, and overhead projectors make them usable for small and large group.

·        Durability: Instructional material selected should be durable. The material should stand the wear and tear of environment and the carelessness of the users. Teachers should buy instructional materials that are durable and whose accessories are easy to obtain and also easy to service.

·        Cost: The teacher should consider the financial implication of media to be selected for class use because inadequate funding has always beena serious challenge to educational institution especially the third world countries.

·        Availability: The teacher should also consider the availability of the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics. He or she should know whether the materials can be produced locally and can be easily available or improvised; the compatibility of the material with relevant equipment should be considered.

                            

IMPORTANCE OFINSTRUTIONAL MATERIALS USED INTEACHING AND LEARNING.

Instructional material has been proved to be very useful material in the classroom. It introduced some varieties, to the usual classroom procedure where at all time the students listen to teacher’s voice. George and Robbins (2000) noted that projected, picture, possess certain inherent characteristics that are definitely advantageous in learning situation. Nzewi (1995) observe that, when a student sees what he is learning the tendency is for him to retain it, because he has employed more than one sense, in each time he sees the object, pictures or diagrams he had been  shown previously during the lesson.

Therefore, instructional materials arouse and sustains the interest of the learners, contributing to the efficiency, depth, and reality of learning experience which stimulates self-activity. They facilitate the learning of abstract concept and ideas that help top concretize ideas and postulates the imagination of the students.

Instructional material (technology) has transformed students from passive recipient of the knowledge of the teacher to active participants in the knowledge seeking and knowledge-construction with the teacher often learning new technology programme along with them. (FME 2010) instructional material helps to transform the system to education from pedagogical system of anagogical method of teaching and learning.

 

Problem associated with the use of instructional Material in the teaching and learning Economics

          There are many problems associated with instructional materials used in teaching and learning of Economics in government senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area. They are as follows:

·         Poor Funding: One of the problems associated with the instructional material used in teaching and learning is lack of fund. Some school cannot afford to buy those instructional material used in teaching and learning Economics.

·        Lack of power supply: This is another major problems that hinder the use of instructional materials in school. Most of the instructional materials use power supply to function effectively and most of the school in rural area are not provided with electricity so this makes it difficult for them to use technological instructional materials in their areas. Even the schools in the cities lack power supply which makes the use of instructional materials boring and inefficiency in teaching and learning.

·        Lack of skills: Most of the teachers in secondary schools do not know how to install, operate or use some of the instructional materials in teaching and learning. For example some of them cannot operate computer, how can he or she use computer in teaching some of the concepts of Economics to the students.

·        Lack of network: There is no steady network when trying to use some of the instructional materials like internet. This frustrates the teacher and the students as they will spend much time waiting for network to be available.

·        High cost: Some of the instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics are very costly, Examples are projectors, computers, the public address system etc.

·        Inadequacy of the materials: The instructional materials used in teaching and learning in secondary schools are not enough for the students. School finds it difficult to provide computers for each student in the class, and this hinders the effective use of such instructional material in teaching and learning of Economics.

 

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

          According to Eze (2014), theoretical framework is the relevant theory or theories upon which the study is based and are presented and discussed. There are many theories in which this study is based on. One of the theories is cognitive learning  theory. Cognitive learning theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things.  Cognitive learning theory has been used to explain mental process as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factor which brings learning in individual. The theory is divided into two specific theories: the social cognitive theory which was propounded by Albert Banora in 196o,and cognitive behavioural theory which was propounded by Aaron Beck, Social cognitive theory considers three variables which are interrelated with each other causing learning to occur.  These variables are behavioural factors, environmental factor (extrinsic) and personal factor (intrinsic).The cognitive behaviour theory says that individuals tends to form self-concepts that affect the behaviour they display. This concepts can be positive or negative and can affect a person environment. Relating this theory to this study, the instructional materials used in classroom environment for teaching and learning will be one thatwill make student who exhibit lack of interest in behaviour to be focus, and it will also arouse the interest of the students, because in teaching and learning process one of the components of learner’s environment is the instructional materials According to B.F. Skinner in Mmaduakonam (2001),  he opined that teaching environment is the input factor that matter in teaching and learning, and in order to understand human behaviour, we must take into consideration what the environment does for an organism before and after it responds…. behaviour is shaped and maintained by consequence. This means environment is the major factor that direct, and influence the behaviour or learning pattern of individuals. Undoubtedly in teaching and learning process, one of the component of the learner’s environment is the instructional materials. Also according to Unachukwu (1998), the implication of behaviourist’s learning theories in education is that teachers should present materials in a way that sustain the learners interest  as interest will inspire readiness to continue the learning task.

Also in terms of social cognitive theory, instructional materials used in teaching and learning Economics help the students to retain and memorize what they had learnt in the classroom. Brenda (1998) suggested that mastering learning means that students can master the instructional materials used in the lesson. In teaching and learning endeavour, it is understood that teaching should start from the known to unknown. So if student students were able to master the known which is the instructional materials used inteachingthe lesson, it will enable them to retain what they have learnt.

 

MOTIVATION THEORIES

Motivation refers to the art of stimulating and sustaining interest in the students where there is no such interest. It refers to anything that urges someone into a kind of action. The role of motivation on students’ academic performance cannot be over emphasized. Many psychologist have propounded various theories on how to motivate learners. Abraham Maslow in his theory of self-actualization in   1943 highlighted basic needs of learners which served as motivator to learning. Such needs include physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self- actualization needs.

Iroegbu et al (2003) pointed out that characteristics of motivation includes the following:

1)    It energizes and sterilises organism towards certain stimuli.

2)    It directs the organism’s behaviour towards certain goals.

3)    It reinforces behaviour that is effective in the attainment of desired goals.

So the instructional material used in teaching and learning process motivates the students to improve academically. For example if basic needs of the students are met in schools, like provision of well conducive classrooms with enough seats, desks, electric light, air condition etc. the students will be motivated to learn and improve in academic performance.

 

REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE

In study entitled: The Effectiveness of Instructional Materials in learning of Economic in Onitsha Educational Zone, Okpala(2004) analysed the data collected using chi-square and discovered that there is a significant difference between students taught without instructional materials. According to him, it shows that instructional materials are effective in learning of economics. It can also be stated here that visiting economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies, stock exchange markets etc. could arouse the development of career interest in economics.

Onyejemaxi (1991) conducted a study focusing on identification and evaluation of instructional material for teaching and learning of social studies subject in school in Benue state. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the adequacy of instructional material available for the teaching and learning in social studies subject. The population of the study was three hundred and eighty (380. Social studies teachers in the entire junior school in 5the state. There was no sampling because population was small, four research questions guided the study, revealed a data of instructional materials and staff in the junior secondary school. The federal government  owned school was better equipped than the state owned school. The study is helpful to access the extent the use of teaching aid.

Guam (1997) conducted a study on the perceptive of religious curriculum on the on term for selecting teaching aids in junior secondary school in Nsukka Local Government Area. The main aim of the study was to identify the intention that could be employed in selecting instructional materials for teaching area of curriculum.

          Three research questions and hypothesis using mean, standard deviation and T test. The finding of this study revealed that thirteen (13) criteria presently used for selection of instructional materials by C.R.K teachers are valid. The study created a gap because it focuses on criteria for selecting instructional material.

          Ezeugo (2010), investigated on the title: Teachers use of information and Communication Technology (I.C.T) in primary mathematics instructions. He analysed the data using both mean and Z- test. His study revealed that the usage of I.C.T tools in teaching mathematics for both private and public schools was generally low, although teachers in private schools did significantly better than teachers, in public schools. He further stated that limited usage of I.C.T tools in teaching and learning of mathematics has the following implication: transformation of teaching-learning process from being highly teacher –centred to student cantered cannot be feasible, creation of opportunity for learners to develop their creativity, problem solving abilities, information reasoning skills and other higher order skills cannot be achieved.

           According to Udeorah (2010) who examined topical issues on: “The Roles of constraints and strategies in improvisation of instructional material for teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in Nigeria”, with mean scores as his method of data analysis, reported that the followings affect the extent of improvisation by teaches:

Lack of fund, Lack of interest, lack of skills on the part of teaching due to in exposure of seminar and courses based on selection, production and utilization of material, lack of laboratories for storage of improvised materials, teaches reliance on already made imported materials, poor attitude of students to execute projects in Agricultural Science. This means that for a teacher to get involved in improvisation, all these factors mentioned above should be seriously considered and followed

          Ozorewe (2013) carried out a research study titled “utilization of teaching aids in the teaching of chemistry in secondary School in Osun state”, The target population was 231 secondary school out of which (15) secondary school were selected as the sample by simple randomization fund (5) null hypothesis were stated which were tested using correlation co-efficient test statistics at 0.68 level of significance and all the five (5) null hypothesis were rejected. The result showed that about 60% of the respondents made use which had positive relationship in the teaching of chemistry in secondary school in Osun state.

          Oshadumi (2013) also carried out a research study titled; “ Impact of IM on students Academic Achievement in Chemistry at secondary school of Okewe L.G.A, Fogi State”. The target population was seventeen (17) secondary schools out of which ten (10) secondary school were selected as the samples by random sampling. The instrument used in collecting the data was questionnaire four (4) null hypothesis were stated which were tested using correlation coefficient test statistic at 1.00 level of significance. All the four (4) null hypothesis made use of the in effectively which had positive impact on the students’ academic achievement in chemistry in Okwe L.G.A.

Ikeagemani (2017) carried out a research study titled “teachers perception in instructional material use in teaching and learning physics among students in Idimili North L.G.A of Anambra state. The purpose the study was to establish the important of using IM in the teaching and learning of physics.

The researcher used descriptive summary research method in carrying out the study. The researcher used stratified simple random sampling technical in selecting 40 students froma population of about 20,000 simple percentage and tables were used in analyzing generated with the administration of the questionnaire. The finding of the study indicate that use of instructional materials enhance students ability in physics learning.

 

SUMMARY OF LITERATURAL REVIEW

On the conceptual framework, it was understood that students learn through many senses, the more the senses that instructional material appeal to, the higher the rate of learning. The criteria for selection of educational media that could help in the accomplishment of instructional goals were: materials to the topic, cost and benefit to be derived herein, age and experience of the learner .etc. and poor funding, timing constraint, poor academic background of learners etc. inadequate availability of educational media centers are the problem, confronting the proper application of instructional materials in teaching and learning.

On theoretical framework, cognitive learning theory, motivation theory, and modernization theory were discussed. On thecognitive learningtheory it is observed that both social cognitive theory and cognitive behavioural theories   stated that instructional materials are indispensable in teaching and learning process.

Also the motivationtheory states that provision of basic needs of the students like well conducive classroom will motivate student to improve academically.

      Considering the empirical aspect of literature review, it was observed that different scholars all agreed that instructional materials is something that a teachers and learner cannot do without in teaching and learning. That means that it is indispensable. It revealed that instructional materials could objectively help in the achievement of instructional objectives, if they are appropriate applied by well-trained teachers in such area.

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter is concerned with the procedures which was adopted in this study. It was presented under the following sub-headings:Design of the study, Sample and sampling, Techniques, Instrument from data collection, Validation of the instrument, Reliability of the instrument, Method of data collection, Method of data analysis,

 

Design of the study

Descriptive research design wasadopted in thus study. It is considered appropriately to this study because it is fact finding in nature, and it entails the systematic collection and presentation of data to identify the type of instructional materials used in teaching and learning economics in Enugu East local government area of Enugu state.

 

Area of study

The study was carried out among the senior students offering economics in government secondary school in Enugu East Local Government. Five schools out of ten schools in Enugu East was selected.  I use Enugu East as my study area because it is my Local Government Area.

 

Population of study

The population for the study consists of all economics teachers and senior students offering economics in the study area. The senior secondary school students offering economics in five selected schools in Enugu East are seven hundred ad eighty nine 789.

 

Sample and Sampling Techniques

          The sample consists of 110 respondents which comprises of 100 Economics students and 10 Economics teachers. That is 20students and 2teachers from each of the five selected schools.

Research instruments

The instruments used to collect data from the study was questionnaire.

The questionnaire was divided into two section A and B. Section A was used to collect Bio data of the respondent while the section B contains (16) items that was used to elicit responses from that respondents.

The questionnaire was modified on a four linker’s scale of measurement of

·        Strongly agreed (SA)

·        Agreed (A)

·        Disagreed(D) and Strongly Disagreed(SD)

 

 

Validation of instrument

The researchers drafted samples of the questionnaire and sent to the project supervisor who is an expert and the research consultant and also to a lecturer in measurement and evaluation department who examined each item in terms of relevant clarity and appropriateness of language. Their comment were incorporated in the correction and modification of the instrument.

 

Administration of data

          The copies of the questionnaire were distributed personally by the researcher to respondent which comprised of the selected teachers and students in the sampled schools. The questionnaire was collected as the researcher helps the respondents with the necessary explanation and instruction on how to complete the questionnaire. The responses were structured thus:

 

Strongly Agreed             SA     4

Agreed                           A3     3

Disagree                         D       2

 

 

Method of data analysis

Following the administration of the instrument the researcher collected back the materials and analysed the data collected using mean statistics or statistical means of 2.5 above 2.5 are regarded as accepted, while responses receiving arithmetic mean score less than 2.5 is rejected

 


E

 

 

       =Summation

F       = Frequency

X       = Total number of respondent

 

Mean =

         

Reactions

You may like these posts

Post a comment

0 Comments