CATTLE RANCHING AS A PANACEA TO HERDSMEN AND FARMER CRISES IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY


ABSTRACT
The study is aimed at investigating cattle ranching as a panacea to herdsmen and farmer crises in Nigeria with special reference to Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo state. The  study examined role of cattle ranching in combating the herdsmen/farmers crises. Also the study  determine the  causes of Fulani Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria and the study examine the economic effects of the menace of Fulani – Herdsmen in Nigeria. In view of these, four  research questions were formulated. This study was a descriptive research of survey type. 265 respondents which comprises of 250 farmers and 10 fulani herdsmen were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using mean and simple percentage, whilechi-square t at 0.05 level of significance was use to analyzed the hypothesis generated for the study. The study revealed  that cattle ranching help to restrict the movement of cattle ranching in Ondo State. Also the study revealed that cattle ranches will reduce the crises between the farmers and the Fulani herdsmen in the state  Based on the result, the study recommended that representatives of the host communities and Fulani herdsmen should be conveyed under a public forum and involved in the decision making and permitted to take part actively in the planning procedure of restoring peace to most of the affected communities. Also Participatory planning process that involves all stakeholders (herdsmen and farmers) in the dispute resolution mechanism should be adopted. Ranching method of cattle rearing should be adopted at rearing location across the  country while the herdsmen should be given needed training for effective and efficient management of the ranching.














 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                                                   i
Certification                                                                                                              ii
Dedication                                                                                                                 iii
Acknowledgements                                                                                                 iv
Abstract                                                                                                                     vi
Table of contents                                                                                                     vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                     
1.1             Background to the Study                                                                            1
1.2             Statement of the Problem                                                                            2
1.3             Objective  of the Study                                                                               9
1.4             Research Questions                                                                                                 10
1.5             Research hypotheses                                                                                   11
1.6             Significance of the study                                                                            11
1.7             Scope of the study                                                                                       12
1.8             Limitations to the study                                                                              12
1.9             Operational definition of terms                                                                 13
1.10         Organization of the study                                                                           13



2.0       CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW AND
                                 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK                         
2.1       Conceptual framework                                                                                15
2.2       Concept of ranches                                                                                     15
2.3       Nigerian Herdsmen and Farmer Crises                                                     19
2.4       Causes of Fulani Conflict with other Farmers                                         22
2.5       Approach in Reducing the conflict /Clashes between Herdsmen
and the farmer                                                                                              24
2.6       Effect of  open Grazing on farm Produce                                                             26
2.7       Empirical work on the research work                                                       29
2.8       Theoretical framework                                                                                38
3.0       CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY                                                        
3.1       Introduction                                                                                                  48
3.2       Research Design                                                                                           48
3.3       Sources of data                                                                                             49
3.4       Study Area                                                                                                    49
3.5       Population of the study                                                                               49
3.6       Sampling Techniques and sample size                                                     50
3.7       Research instrument                                                                                    52
3.8       Validation of research instrument                                                                         52
3.9       Methods of data analysis                                                                            52
 4.0      CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1       Analysis of research questions                                                                  53
4.2       Test of hypotheses                                                                                       58
4.3       Discussion of Results                                                                                  60
5.0       CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND 
                                           RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary                                                                                                      62
5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                    63
5.3       Recommendations                                                                                       64
References                                                                                                    65
Appendix                                                                                                       70





CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                                 INTRODUCTION
1.1             Background to the Study
The violent crises between Fulani herdsmen and  farmers in Ondo is not a strange  phenomenon in Nigeria; it is a phenomenon that has been in existence for decades  which have resulted in the extensive loss of lives and property. The constant crises have  threatened the security of the State, reduced its economic productivity, and deepened food crisis in the state. There has been crises between the herdsmen and farmers in  Ondo state and other part of Nigeria which has led to the loss of dozens of lives and properties in the state. The conflict of interest between the herdsmen and the farmers on open grazing can be said to be the architect of this conflict. Many stakeholders in the  state believe that establishment of cattle ranching is the solution to this precarious situation. There has been fierce debate as the Federal Government, which earlier promoted the idea of cattle ranch, opted for ‘cattle colonies’ leaving many people to ask what cattle colony is.  The introduction of cattle colonies came following the recent tension generated by the attack in ilado village in Akure North local Government area of Ondo state. Furthermore, Colonies and ranches are the same thing in many ways except that a colony is bigger that a ranch; a colony is a biological expression for any species of animals whether by nature or by human design that are found in a large community sharing the same terrain, such as bee colonies in certain areas. 
Establishment of ranches and the movement of beef instead of cattle have been identified by stakeholders as ways to end the incessant clashes between Fulani herdsmen and farmers in the country. Over the years there have been uncountable clashes between herdsmen and farmers in Ondo state, and other part of the country which have resulted to loss of lives and properties with several others being displaced from their homes. The clashes are fast becoming unbecoming, and a major scourge confronting the nation which is begging for urgent intervention of the Federal Government.
Over the last decade, reporting of farmer-herder violence has increased exponentially. Violence between Fulani herdsmen and farmers is one of Nigeria’s most persistent security problems and has left thousands of people  dead in recent decades. The largest spike in reporting, occurring between 2013 and 2014, may be as a result of an increased number of incidents, increased awareness on the issue, or both. It may likewise be attributed to the 2014 presidential elections and the increased Boko Haram activity during this period. In any case, the increasing number of articles covering this issue signifies the growing urgency of this crisis (Blench, 2010).
The prevalence of crises in the country has become a major concern for the well meaning Nigerians considering the impact on the peace, security as well as the economy of the nation. Destruction of lives and properties has almost become an everyday affair. These happenings have created a fearful atmosphere that discourages investors both domestic and foreign. By and large the economy of the nation is threatened. In explaining the political situation in the country; three terms need to be clarified. They include: crises, crises and violence. A crisis is the aftermath of crises and violence.
Farmer-herder crises in Nigeria occur as a result of resource scarcity; there exists a growing scarcity of arable land and water sources that are equally essential to sustain crop cultivation and cattle herds. Farmers encroach on grazing routes, and have expropriated land designated to grazing reserves, while herders often destroy crops, pollute water sources and trespass on farms to feed their cattle. This is further exacerbated by the growing population of farmers, herders and their herds, increasing scarcity of arable land due to droughts, impending desertification of the sahel-savannah, land degradation, and cultural differences among ethnic groups that predominantly farm or graze cattle (Fiki & Lee,2005).
Many Nigerians however attribute the violence to ethnic incompatibility. Nigerians have become accustomed to headlines that read, “Fulani herdsmen attack Guma and Logo and120 persons were killed. As Nigerians, we are also familiar with reports of incessant “clashes between the majority Muslim north and Christian south.” Although these narratives are not completely false, as evidenced by the fact that a majority of clashes occur in the most diverse middle belt states, Plateau, Taraba, Ekiti, Kogi and Benue, and most expecially Ondo State which is my case study, they are oversimplified narratives of deeper
 ssues, such as increased insecurity following the emergence of Boko Haram, increased access to arms and automatic weapons, and also the exploitation of farmer-herder violence by Boko Haram terrorists (Blench & Dendo, 2003 and Rashid, 2012).
The Fulani indisputably represent a significant component of the Nigerian economy. They constitute the major breeders of cattle, the main source of meat, the most available and cheap source of animal proteins consumed by Nigerians. The Fulani own over 90% of the nation’s livestock population which accounts for one-third of agricultural GDP and 3.2% of the nation’s GDP (Eniola, 2007). Furthermore, the contribution of the Fulani to the local food chain and national food security cannot be overstressed. The Fulani, with their dominance in the Sahel region, are the best known and most numerous of all the pastoral groups in Nigeria. The traditional and unique Fulani encampment (ruga) consisting of temporary structures made of stalks, closely knit family members and livestock is the natural habitat of the orthodox Fulbe settlement (Eniola, 2007) (Eniola, 2007). As the state cannot regulate the mutual coexistence of its citizens in the harmonious sharing of the competed resources, the parties may have to resolve to struggle among themselves with no retreat, no surrender and for the survival of the fittest. The failure of the state, for example to resolve the ‘settler/ ‘indigene’ identity and the inherent struggles over resources can be adduced to have brought dangerous dimensions of economic and political elements in the Fulani pastoralists and farmers’ conflicts (Fiki and Lee. 2014). Issues bordering on local community security, safety and development are paramount in the enhancement of governance and increase or decrease in agitation for control of resources as well as encroachment of the rights of others. All these have implications for survival and struggles between or amongst communities. Again, local resistance to state policies is central in resource-use through strengthening of community capacity to manage resources and deal with conflicts. Hence, security is a framework for intervention and conflicts. Since insecurity gives ways to conspiracy, conflicts are inevitable. The object of security is to primarily advance the well-being and possessions of the persons involved; while the survival of the state is secondary. In other words, when the character and nature of the state do not seem to protect the security of the citizens, their freedom and choices completely shift away from the state to individuals or groups as the foci of security. The expansion of Fulbe pastoralism into Nigeria is unknown. It is suggested that Fulbe began to settle on the plains of Bauchi Emirate transcending onto the grassland of the Jos Plateau (Blench, 2010). Conflicts between pastoralists and farmers have existed since the beginnings of agriculture and increased or decreased in intensity and frequency depending on economic, environmental and other factors. For example, increases in the herd sizes, due to improved conditions of the cattle, compelled the pastoralists to seek for more pastures beyond their limited range. Climate change has constituted a great threat by putting great pressures on the land and thus provoking conflicts between them. However, improvements in human health and population have enhanced a much greater pressure on land. Since the 1980s therefore, there has been a marked expansion of cultivation of the fadama (reverine and valley-bottom) areas. This means that both the farmers and pastoralists have engaged in fierce struggles for access to such valuable lands which, more often than not, result in increased conflicts and violence. The Tor Tiv, Prof. James Ayatse, said establishment of ranches was the only solution to the recurring clashes between farmers and herdsmen in the country.
Ayatse (2018) is of the opinion that regulating the movement of the herdsmen would be difficult, adding that it was only practicable on paper. Ayatse said that the country stood to benefit from the introduction of ranches as jobs would be created for Nigerians. He said that ranching would not stop free movement of herdsmen especially if they were passing through a particular state. “If you allow free movement without control, you put everybody at risk and this is what we are seeing in Benue, ranching is part of the control,“he said. The Tor Tiv said that creating ranches did not go against the ECOWAS Treaty of free movement of persons in the sub-region as it was being thought. He said that a committee had been constituted in conjunction with the police in his domain, to identify the “bad eggs” and hand them over to the police. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the Ondo House of Assembly had recently passed a Bill prohibiting open grazing and allowing the establishment of ranches in the state. The bill is entitled: “Open Grazing Prohibition and Ranches Establishment Law, 2017’’
According to Okereke (2012) and Bello (2013), the conflicts in most part of Nigeria especially the Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash are largely uncalled for. Farmers can no longer farm peacefully because of Fulani herdsmen. These Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash have pitched Christians and Muslims against each other. Recent studies conducted by Okereke (2012) and Kasarachi (2016) have shown that, serious conflict erupt between Fulani herdsmen and farmers leading to loss of lives, valuable properties and destruction of vast expanse of arable agriculturalfarmlands thereby posing serious threat to food security since farmers for fear of attack could no longer go to farm and harvest their farm produce. The latest attacks by Fulani herdsmen is on the upsurge, with the most latest attacks in February 2018 happening in Ondo State, Benue State, Taraba State, Nassarawa State and few cases of attack in other states.
In recent times, the killings recorded by Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash has rampaged most communities displacing them of their farmlands and loss of their major source of livelihood. This is becoming unbearable with the Fulani herdsmen always having their ways leaving the farmers at their mercy. Herdsmen attribute the roots of the crisis to religious differences resulting in the killing of their cows while the farmers see the herdsmen as a threat to their crops and agricultural produce since the herdsmen allow their cows to feed on the farmer crops.
 Despite the importance of agricultural sector to both Nigerian and  Ondo economy, its sustainability and development remains one of the biggest challenges. The challenges seem to be predicated on the rampant cases of communal conflicts between herdsmen and farmers (Ani, Chikaire, Ogueri and Arusha 2015). It is therefore not unrealistic to suggest that these communal conflicts are the bane of agricultural development. Agricultural development entails increase in agricultural output with corresponding economic benefit enjoyed by farmers from the resulting output. It is however difficult to achieve this as conflicts between grazers and farmers conflicts seem to cut down food production and supply while farmers become vulnerable to loss economically from the sale these crops (FAO, 2002; WFP 2001).
Communal conflicts between Fulani grazers and farmers have become one of the most a serious threat to agricultural development in ondo state, yet it appears to be ignored plans for agricultural development by authorities., there is emphasis on the need to ensure agricultural development by listing factors derailing development of agriculture in the state, such as reliance of traditional methods of farming, poverty and youth neglect of agriculture and reversal of the situation by introducing modern agriculture, reducing poverty and involvement of more youth in agricultural sectors.  
1.2       Statement of the problem
 Herdsmen and farmers crisis in Ondo State have culminated into loss of lives and properties. Such conflict has created more fears in the mind of the farmers which invariably result to insufficient farm produce due to the abandonment of farms by the local farmers in Ondo State. Thus there is need to study factors that are associated with a practical solution to herdsmen and farmer crises.
For the forgoing background to the study, it is evidence that cattle ranching has been found to be an important variable to curb farmer’s and herdsmen crises.  While some scholar had reported the relationship of the variable as panacea to the cries in developed countries, so far no study have to have developed the best solution which explains how the crises can be significantly curbed
Investigations by scholars in Nigeria on the panacea to herdsmen farmer crises have focus on a fostered security and national conference to deepening unity among the concerned group.  The central problem of the study is therefore to develop a comprehensive way through which  cattle ranching can be use to curb herdsmen and farmer crises in Ondo State.  Based on the above problem, the study seek to investigate cattle ranching as a panacea to  herdsmen and farmers crises  in Ondo State.
1.3       Objectives of the Study
    The main objective of this study  is  to   investigate the efficacy of cattle ranching as a panacea to herdsmen and farmers crises in Nigeria; but to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher  will intend to achieve the following specific objective;
i)       to ascertain the role of cattle ranching in combatting the herdsmen/farmers crises in Ondo state
ii)     to determine the  causes of Fulani Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria
iii)  to examine the effect of open crazing on farm produce in Ondo state
iv)   to find out  the economic effects of the menace of Fulani – Herdsmen in Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
i)       Does cattle ranching help in combating the herdsmen/ farmers cries in Ondo State
ii)    what are the causes of Fulani Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria?
iii)  To what extent do ranching advantageous over open grazing in cattle production? 
iv)   Is there any economic effects of Fulani  - farmer crises in Ondo State?





1.5       Research Hypotheses
To aid the effective completion of the study, the following null hypotheses will be formulated by the researcher;
 Ho1:  Cattle ranching do not result in combatting herdsmen /farmers crisis in Ondo State
Ho2:    There is no significant difference between   the  causes of Fulani Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria
Ho3:    There is no significant difference between  open crazing on farm produce in Ondo state
Ho4:    There is no significant difference on the economic effect of herdsmen and farmer crises in Ondo State
1.6       Significance of the Study
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the house committee on agriculture and federal ministry of agriculture as the study seek to enumerate the numerous benefit of cattle ranching over open grazing as this will help in policy formation, the study will also be of importance to the security operative as the findings of the study will help them strategize to curb the menace of herdsmen farmers conflict in Benue state, the study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further studies. Finally, the study will be of great importance to reporters, academia’s, students, teachers and the general public as the study will add to the pool of existing literature and also contribute to bank of knowledge in the subject matter.
1.7       Scope of the Study
        This study is limited to the impact of cattle ranches as a solution to herdsmen and farmers crises in Ondo State. The study focuses on farmers and Fulani herdsmen in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.8 Limitations to the study
            During the course of carrying out this research, the researcher finds it difficult to access the Fulani herdsmen in Akure South for interview. As a result of this problem, the researcher looks for a learned Fulani man who accompanied the researcher to Fulani herdsmen settlement for the interview.  Also the research also visit the farmers who reside in Akure South to administer the questionnaire to them with the help of a learned farmer.
            Also there is problem of bias  as each respondent has to answer the question been asked through their cultural disposition and belief which subsequently render our research unconstructive and partial.  The researcher was able to overcome their bias through psychological corrections of those biases.  
1.9       Operational Definition of Terms
Cattle : Cattles otherwise referred to as cows are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos Taurus
Herdsmen: a man who takes care of a large group of animals of the same type.
Ranch: A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
Crisis: A crisis is any event that is going to lead to an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or whole society
1.10    Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the background of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitations to the study, definition of terms and organization of chapters. Chapter two highlights the review of related literature and  theoretical framework. Chapter three deals with research design and methodology adopted in the study.


Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of findings.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.