RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER QUALITY AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
background to the study
Education and its benefits can never be highlighted as the root of economic, industrial, political, scientific and technological, and even religious development. All aspects of development are focused on education.
Education is one of the vital tools for development in every nation. Each education system at each level depends to a large extent on the teachers for the implementation of their programs. Teachers are extremely important for the successful functioning of the education system and important tools for educational development.
Teachers at all levels of education play a crucial role in guiding the growth and direction of education. Acceptable is the fact that the teacher is the most important tooth in the educational machine and that teachers are crucial to the success of any educational program launched by each government. This is due to the fact that the implementation of these programs, apart from being at the level of implementation of any educational policy, is also dependent on the commitment and commitment of the teacher to their work (Adeniji 1999).
(Kaplan and Owings 2001) show that two broad areas define the quality of teachers.
Darling-Hammond (2000) states that the characteristics of teacher quality are: verbal ability, subject knowledge, teaching and learning ability to use a wide range of teaching strategies tailored to pupils’ needs.
The quality of the teacher is another very important determinant of the classroom environment (Lundberg and Linnakyla, 1993). Teacher skills include training and learning, using a specific instructional approach and teaching experience. This insight is shared by Mullis, Kennedy, Martin, and Sinsbury (2004), which show that teacher quality is an important factor in student performance.
The quality of education depends on the quality of teaching that continues in the classroom, which strengthens the idea that quality teachers compensate for shortcomings in the curriculum and educational resources (Anderson 1991). Teacher quality is widely thought to be the main determinant of academic achievement but has little consensus as to which specific characteristics are a good teacher (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2006). This is an important issue, as the economic impact of higher student achievements can be a function of the extent to which the pupils are taught, the overall variation in teacher quality (measured by pupils’ achievements in standardized tests), and return to the labor market of a standard deviation from higher achievements.
Researchers, policymakers, parents, and even teachers themselves agree that the quality of teachers is important. But identifying, measuring, and identifying teacher quality is a much more controversial task.
General knowledge is another variable that can be thought to be related to the quality of teachers. While there is some support for this assumption, the findings are not as strong and consistent as can be expected. Studies of teachers’ assessments on the subjects of the National Teaching Lecturer (NTE) do not establish a coherent link between this measure of subject knowledge and the results of teachers as measured by learning outcomes or supervisory assessments. Most studies show small, statistically insignificant relationships between teacher quality and academic achievement of students. Secondary education is the foundation around which the development of the national economy develops. It is the engine department that provides resources in the national economy and manufacturing systems for higher education.
National Education Policy (Revised Edition 2011) considers secondary education as follows:
1. Secondary education is the education that children receive after primary education and before the third phase.
2. The general objectives of the secondary education are prepared for the individual
(a) useful life in society; and
b) Higher education
3. At a specific time, secondary education:
(a) grant to all those leaving primary school the opportunity to pursue higher education regardless of gender, social status, religion or ethnic origin;
b) offers a varied curriculum to take care of differences in talents, opportunities and future roles;
(c) provide trained workforce in applied science, technology and start at sub-professional levels;
(d) to develop and promote Nigerian languages and culture in the context and world cultural heritage;
e) to inspire their students with a desire for self-improvement and achievement of excellence;
Develop and promote Nigerian languages and culture in the context and world cultural heritage;
- e) Inspire its students with a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence;
- f) Foster national unity with an emphases on the common ties that unite us in our diversity;
- g) Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the values and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goals and live good citizens;
- h) Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.
- To achieve the stated goals secondary education shall be of six years duration given in two stages; a junior secondary school stage and a senior secondary school stage; each shall be of three years duration.
The development of Nigeria‟s education system since independence has been characterized by a rapid expansion. Due to the development or expansion, the registration concerning universal basic education (UBE) claims that access is to be provided for all children by the year 2015. UBE also aims to improve equal and qualitative learning opportunity for all children. How can the nation get a qualitative education? Who is a qualitative teacher?
Research for education and learning (Marzano R, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Teacher effectiveness research is grounded in classroom and often uses classroom – based assessments. However ,the recent Aspen institute report, beyond NCLB (Commission on No child Left Behind, 2007), written to guide the reauthorization of NCLB, defines “effective” in terms of teacher‟s ability to improve student achievement as measured on standardized tests.
Qualitative teacher is the one who selects right approaches to teaching, knowledgeable, intelligent content mastery, hardworking and efficiency, self discipline, tolerant, friendly, who serves as a role model through good characters and manner commitment, respect for profession, dedicated, loyal and responsible. The current framework for teacher training in Nigeria is based on the NPE (2004) which emphasized on the quality of teachers.
On the other side, students‟ achievement refers to their academic performance. However the research will focus on the qualitative aspect of teachers and its relationship for the performance of students academically.
A good teacher is perhaps the most common and least precise of all terms. Shulman, president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of teaching, describes a good teacher in the following way: in the classroom of a good teacher, students are visible, engaged, attentive and participating. In good teaching, students are responsible for their learning; they are accountable for their understanding. Good teaching is passionate, and it induces an emotional response in students…good teaching starts with inducing habits of mind, but doesn‟t stop there. Good teaching engages practical thinking and problems-solving skills that can be applied in a variety of settings. And good teaching affects students‟ values, commitments, and identities.
As stated above, the definition of teacher quality indicates certain qualities that make a qualitative teacher. There are so many problems that are associated with teacher quality, more especially in our secondary schools. The percentage of the students that pass their final exams that is WAEC & NECO in the last five to six years, the rate of failures in the examination is becoming so alarming. Some elites see the problem as a supply/demand issue: The profession is not attracting the “right” individuals into teaching. Some view the quality problem as a concern about preparation. From this vantage point, teacher who complete university-based programs do not leave with the appropriate knowledge and practices to be effective in contemporary classrooms.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The Federal Ministry of Education (2006) reporting on Nigeria, revealed that the academic performance of students in the senior school Certificate Examinations conducted between 2000 and 2006 was below fifty percent (50%). The falling standard of education in the nation is becoming so high, more especially in our secondary schools. The students are performing very poorly in their academic performance. Their continuous assessment is poor; their terminal examination is equally very disappointing (“F.C.E Staff secondary school 2009 end of third term examination” report). The performance of Nigerian Secondary School students in external examinations showed 98% failure rate in the 2009 November/ December Senior School Certificate Examinations conducted by the National Examination Council (NECO- SSCE); out of the total number of 230, 682 candidates who sat for the examination, only 4,223 obtained credits level passes and above in five subjects including English and Mathematics (Bello – Osagie & Olugbornila, 2009).
In the 2009 May/ June Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by the West African Examination Council (WASSCE), only 25.99% of the total number of candidates obtained credit level passes and above in five subjects including English language and Mathematics, while in 2010 May/ June WASSCE, out of the 1,135,557 candidates that sat for the examination, only 337,071 (24.94%) obtained five credit level passes and above in subjects that included English language and Mathematics. (Owadiac, 2010).
Majority of Secondary School Students often dread and show negative attitude towards mathematics (Awofala, 2000), and the trends of their achievement in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination is also a source of worry to the stakeholders. For instance the percentage credit pass of students in May/ June WAEC mathematics between 2004 and 2007 is a concern as indicated in the table above.
The public unhappiness becomes more prominent following the annual release of the West African senior school certificate examination result. Students‟ outcomes do not match the government and parental investment. All stakeholders are concerned about why the system is bringing out graduates with poor result. To them, it is questionable whether or not teachers in our secondary schools, the most important factor in the effectiveness of schools and in the quality of a child‟s education is competent to teach effectively. The national policy of education states that, “No educational system can rise above the quality of teachers in the system.”(FGN, 2006)
The federal government of Nigeria has made several attempts and enacted laws concerning the development of education. Among such attempts is the law concerning the recruitment of teachers this is done in order to achieve educational aims and objectives. This could be achieved if there are qualified teachers to teach at the appropriate level. There is need for this research, in order to achieve educational aims and objectives. This could only be achieved through having qualitative teachers to teach at the appropriate level. There is need for this research, in order to find out if there is any relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ achievements, more especially in these few years that the nation is witnessing the massive failure of (SSCE).
This study aims at determining, whether there is a relationship between quality of teachers and the academic performance of students of secondary schools in Hausa Language.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is set to achieve the following objectives:
- Determine the effect of teachers‟ qualification on students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Ekiti metropolis.
- . Investigate the effect of teacher‟s years of teaching experience on students‟ academic performance in Hausa in some selected secondary schools in Ekiti metropolis.
iii. Establish the impact of teacher‟s knowledge of subject matter on students‟ performance in Hausa in the some selected secondary schools of Ekiti metropolis.
- Find out whether teachers teaching methods affect student academic performance in Hausa in selected secondary schools in Ekiti Metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
The study sought to provide answers to the following research questions:
- What is the effect of teachers‟ qualification on students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Ekiti Metropolis?
- Does teachers‟ year of teaching experience affect students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in secondary schools in Ekiti metropolis?
iii. What is the impact of teachers‟ knowledge of the subject matter on the performance of students in Hausa language in Secondary Schools in Ekiti Metropolis?
- Do teachers teaching methods affect students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in Secondary Schools in Ekiti Metropolis?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were raised for this research;
HO1: There is no significant relationship among students academic performance in Hausa taught by teachers of different qualifications in Senior Secondary Schools in Ekiti metropolis
HO2: There is no significant relationship among students academic performance in Hausa whose teachers have different years of teaching experience in Senior Secondary Schools in Ekiti metropolis
HO3: There is no significant relationship between students academic performance in Hausa whose teachers possess knowledge of the subject matter and those whose teachers do not possess knowledge of the subject matter in Hausa in Senior Secondary Schools in Ekiti metropolis
HO4: There is no significant relationship between students‟ academic performance in Hausa whose teachers uses different methods of teaching in selected Secondary Schools in Ekiti Metropolis.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The purpose of any educational research is to contribute to the development of knowledge. The research findings would be of great help to the government and other stakeholders by revealing the relationship between the quality of teachers and students‟ academic performance in our schools. This will consequently guide the ministry in adopting a new policy of recruiting teachers i.e. to make sure they recruit qualified teachers who are highly effective i.e. those with knowledge of content, teaching experience, professional certificate and overall academic ability.
The findings will be of benefit to students, most especially those in the post graduate studies, to add more, or to contribute from where the researchers stopped or what is left to be done in the area of study.
The research findings will be of benefit to any individual who is interested in knowing the relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ achievement. The findings will be of great importance and help in conference writing related to the area. It will make teachers plan and present their lesson excellently and also those unqualified teachers to go and further their studies so as to meet the minimum required qualification for teaching.
The research findings will help the society to dictate what is to be included in the curriculum so as to improve the quality of the teachers as well as the students. This study will be of significance to curriculum planners. The information from this study will be of benefit to the curriculum developers of the National policy on education to forestall all the lapses during the course of building.
1.7 Basic Assumptions
In the study it is assumed that:
- There are qualified and unqualified teachers in the schools.
- There are experienced and inexperienced teachers in the schools.
iii. The schools have some of the basic materials for learning but lack most of the materials.
- Some of the teachers will cooperate with the researcher.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is concerned with perception of the relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ academic performance. The researcher was restricted to teachers and students of SSII public senior secondary schools of Ekiti metropolis.
The following are the limitations of the study:
- The study covered only (8) Eight Local Governments in the Metropolitan part of Kano, hence making it very difficult to generalized the whole schools in Ekiti state .
- Only public senior secondary schools were selected for the study, private schools did not have the opportunity of being included.
This might affect the generalization made on the findings as it affects the population of the study.