AN EVALUATION OF AVAILABILITY OF LABORATORY FACILITIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BASIC SCIENCE
This study is an appraisal of availability of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of basic science in Ikere Local Local Government primary school. The sample for the study consist of 80 students randomly selected from three Secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti . First, simple random sampling technique (balloting with replacement) was used to select three secondary schools in the local government. The instruments used in conducting this research work is questionnaire. The data were analysed using tabular representation where by the number of responses were shown and respondents. Also simple percentage method is used to analyzed the research questions. This study reveals that, availability of stated basic science laboratory equipment in secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. That means that selected laboratory equipment are available in many primary schools in Ikere. This will negatively affect the practical activities of basic science in the school. The availability of the Basic Science laboratory equipment will help the students to practice more, handle apparatus, and manipulate the equipment. The more students practice with the equipment, the more they would acquire and improve upon their practical skill. The study therefore recommend that, The State and Federal Government should equip the Basic Science laboratory by supplying the necessary laboratory equipment to schools. Basic Science teachers should be sponsored to workshop, seminars and conferences by heads of their respective institutions. Through such workshop and conference the teachers will be more dedicated to their duties.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Availability of Laboratory Equipment in School
Usefulness of Laboratory Equipment in Teaching and Learning
Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Population of the study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Method of data Collection
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
DISCUSSION OF RESULT CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND SUMMARY
Discussion of Result
Implication of the Study
Limitation of the Study
Suggestion for further study
Background to the Study
We live in a world of science and technology, throughout our lives, human beings encounter issues and problems that have their root in science. Science and technology have become critical factor of economic and social development. Through science resource of nature have been well utilized and transformed into meaningful resources for a better living in the world. The tremendous emerging trends in science education has assured man of a comfortable living within the society (FGN, 2004, p. 5).
Fundamental research among science educators and cognitive scientists focuses on how people learn science and how they apply this knowledge in their daily lives. Science education provides students with knowledge, training, and learning experience while stimulating their physical and mental growth. According to the National Science Board Commission on Pre-college Education, Mathematics, Science and Technology, in its report stressed that, most states are failing to provide its students with adequate tools, resources or facilities needed to excel in the 21st Century. It is necessary to provide students with a strong broad background in the area of science and mathematics education when laboratory facilities are adequate in schools, students should be offered opportunities to enable them grow in their problem solving abilities, think critically and acquire scientific and technological literacy, William and Maureen (2012).
Academic achievement of students in science subjects generally had witnessed a deplorable trend in the past decades. Science education at all levels of education in Nigeria is in a deplorable state from the primary, secondary to the tertiary institutions. There is a dearth in science facilities in the laboratories and this contributes to students’ poor academic performance in science (Basic Science ) at the secondary school level (Ihuarlam, 2008; Ifeakor, 2006; Udo, 2006; Okafor, 2000). Today this scenario is applicable to secondary schools in Calabar, Cross River State. However, despite the numerous secondary schools in Calabar the level of students’ academic performance is alarming especially those overing science courses such as physics, biology and Basic Science . It is on this note this research wish to evaluate the adequacy of laboratory facilities on academic performance of students in secondary schools in Calabar with specific reference to assessing the extent at which laboratory facilities in the secondary schoolsare adequate for the teaching of Basic Science and to what extent does the adequacy of laboratory facilities in secondary schools affect students’ academic performance
According to Adeboyeje (2000) and Emetarom (2004), school facilities are the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning which will increase the production of results. School facilities serve as pillars of support for effective teaching and learning. Oyesola (2000) sees school facilities to include permanent and semi-permanent structures such as machinery, laboratory equipment, the blackboard, teacher’s tools and other equipment as well as consumables.
Good quality and standard of school depend largely on the provision, adequacy, unitization and management of educational facilities. Akinsolu (2004) asserted that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly managed school facilities. From all indication, school facilities are physical resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning. They include blocks of classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries, equipment, consumables, electricity, water, visual and audio-visual aids, tables, desks, chairs, play ground, storage space and toilets.
In Nigeria, public school enrolment has continued to increase without a corresponding increase in facilities for effective teaching and learning. As a result of underfunding of education in Nigeria, the government has been encouraging proper maintenance of available school facilities. School facility maintenance entails ensuring that the facilities are kept near their original state as possible. This involves keeping the school sports and football field clean, periodic renovation of the buildings, servicing the school bus and generator sets, repairs etc. for the purpose of restoring the facilities to optimum working condition.
Statement of the Problem.
The persistent poor performance of secondary school students in basic science in junior schoolsis causing serious concern in education circles. This is because of the vital role of basic science for scientific and technological advancement of this country. The West African Senior School Certificate Examination results for 2010 to 2013 shows a persistent underachievement of student in basic science.
According to WAEC chief examiners report (2013)students under achievement in basic science can be attributed to their lack of familiarity with common laboratory equipment or apparatuses and poor knowledge in the fundamental principles and procedures for practical. This implies that junior secondary school students are not sufficiently exposed to basic science laboratory equipment through practical or laboratory exercises prior to junior school certificate examinations. Hence, students are unfamiliar with laboratory equipment and are unable to use them during practical work. Consequently, they performed poorly in basic science in junior school certificate examinations. This study therefore, investigated the availability of laboratory facilities for teaching and learning of basic science in Ikere Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the project is to determine the availability of laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools in Ikere North Local Government Area.
Specifically the study tends to:-
- Assess the degree of the availability of teachers and laboratory facilities in Junior Secondary Schools ikere Local Government Area.
- Determine the source of supply of Basic Science laboratory facilities in Junior Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government Area.
- Determining the extent of utilization of the available Basic Science equipment for effective teaching and learning.
Significance of the Study
It is the researchers wish repair the materials that will highlight the needs for making available the laboratory equipment for teaching Basic Science .
It is also hoped that the result of this will highlight the extent to which availability of Basic Science laboratory equipment helps teachers to achieve higher performance in the teaching of Basic Science in Junior Secondary School and those who want to be self employed. This study will be of assistance to the educational planners it will help them to make necessary changes in terms of providing funds, staff recruitment, development and the availability of teachers.
The finding of the study will also provide solutions to the problems of unavailability of teachers and laboratory facilities in order to promote the effectiveness of teaching and learning in junior Secondary Schools in ikere Local Government Area.
The following research question will guided the study:
- To what extent are Basic Science teachers available in Junior Secondary School in Ikere Local Government Area
- What are the sources of supply of Basic Science or the availability of Basic Science laboratory facilities in Junior Secondary School in Ikere Local Government Area
- To what extent does availability of teachers and laboratory facilities are effective to the teaching and learning of this subject (Basic Science)
Scope of the Study
This study will be limited to junior secondary schools that are offering Basic Science in Ikere Local Government Area and to serve as sampling techniques to other Junior Secondary Schools offerings Basic Science in Ekiti State Secondary Schools.
This study will also be designed to find out the extent of the availability of teaching and learning and to determine the extent of supply and the utilization of the available Basic Science laboratory facilities.